- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human deleted in liver cancer 1 (DLC-1) was originally isolated from rat brain and was often found deleted in hepatocellular carcinoma. Subsequent studies demonstrated that DLC-1 was expressed in many normal tissues of human and rat, while in a variety of human cancers, it was often found lost or inactivated, which characterized DLC-1 as a potential tumor suppressor. In this review, we elucidated the biological functions and the mechanisms about how DLC-1 worked in inhibiting tumor growth. The RhoGAP activity played a pivotal role for DLC-1 in its tumor suppression function. Although mechanisms about tumor suppressor functions of DLC-1 still remained to be discovered, emerging studies in varieties of cancers made DLC-1 and its downstream signaling molecules potential therapeutic targets for treatments of DLC-1-related cancers.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: C-Jun activation domain-binding protein-1 (Jab1) not only is full but also a subunit (CSN5) of the constitutive photomorphogenesis 9 signalosome (CSN), which is an evolutionarily conserved and multifunctional protein that involves in controlling cellular proliferation and apoptosis, affecting a series of pathways, as well as regulating genomic instability and DNA damage and repair. The CSN is a highly conservative protein from yeast to human and interacts with the cullin-RING family of ubiquitin ligases so that it could be execute a process of removing NEDD8, a ubiquitin-like polypeptide (deneddylase activity). The role of Jab1/CSN5’s multi-function has been proved as being oncogenic in nature, what is more, Jab1/CSN5 has been confirmed by much evidence that it participates in the carcinogenesis progression and is tightly associated with poor prognosis. However, the biologic implication of Jab1/CSN5 activity during the cancer’s development is unclear. We performed a systematic literature review and assessment from PubMed and Medline databases in this article. Jab1/CSN5 is participate in a lot of biologic responses, including cell proliferation, apoptosis, cell cycle regulation, DNA metabolism, invasion, DNA damage and repair, and recurrence. It also promotes cell transformation and tumorigenesis. In this review, we mainly expound the progress in the function and research advances of Jab1/CSN5 and in untangling the Jab1/CSN5 signaling pathway. Based on these bases, its potential as a therapeutic target for cancer can play a greater role in future cancer treatment.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: As a newly discovered tumor-specific gene, p42.3 is overexpressed in most of human gastric cancers (GC). However, the role of p42.3 in GC progression remains unclear. To assess the role of p42.3 in gastric cancers, immunohistochemistry and western blot were performed to detect the p42.3 expression in human GC tissues and cells. We also investigated the role of p42.3 in GC cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. Our results showed that the p42.3 expression was increased dramatically in human GC tissue and cells. In addition, we found that overexpression of p42.3 promotes GC cell proliferation, migration, and invasion abilities. Furthermore, p42.3 expression suppressed the E-cadherin protein level and promoted the β-catenin and p-ERK protein level. Taken together, overexpressed p42.3 is correlated with gastric cancer cell proliferation, migration, and invasion, suggesting its use as a biological marker in gastric cancer.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cullin1 (Cul1) is a scaffold protein of the ubiquitin E3 ligase Skp1/Cullin1/Rbx1/F-box protein complex, which ubiquitinates a broad range of proteins involved in cell-cycle progression, signal transduction, and transcription. To investigate the role of Cul1 in the development of renal cell carcinoma (RCC), we evaluated the Cul1 expression by immunohistochemistry using a tissue microarray (TMA) containing 307 cases of RCC tissues and 34 normal renal tissues. The Cul1 expression was increased significantly in RCC and was correlated with renal carcinoma histology grade (P = 0.007), tumor size (P = 0.013), and pT status (P = 0.023). Also, we found that silencing of Cul1 leads to increased expression of p21 and p27 that could inhibit the cyclin D1 and cyclin E2 expressions and arrest cell cycle at the G1 phase. Furthermore, knockdown of Cul1 inhibits RCC cell migration and invasion abilities by up-regulating the expression of TIMP-1 which could inhibit the expression of MMP-9. Finally, using bioluminescence imaging, we found that Cul1 knockdown significantly reduced the tumor growth in vivo. Cul1 may constitute a potential therapeutic target in RCC.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adenylate cyclase-associated protein 1 (CAP1), a protein related to the regulation of actin filaments and the Ras/cAMP pathway, is associated with tumor progression. Nevertheless, the expression level and effects of CAP1 in regards to glioma have not been reported. In the present study, we examined the expression of CAP1 in glioma and tumor adjacent normal brain tissues by tissue microarray and immunohistochemistry. Our results showed that CAP1 was overexpressed in glioma tissues in comparison with that noted in the tumor adjacent normal brain tissues and increased staining of CAP1 was found to be correlated with WHO stage. In addition, we discovered that knockdown of CAP1 by specific RNA interference markedly inhibited cell growth and caused downregulation of the proliferation markers, PCNA and cyclin A. We further demonstrated that knockdown of CAP1 inhibited cell metastatic abilities by downregulating N-cadherin and vimentin and upregulating E-cadherin. These findings revealed that CAP1 expression is markedly increased in human glioma and that downregulation of CAP1 in tumors may serve as a treatment for glioma patients.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Special AT-rich sequence binding protein 1 (SATB1) plays important role in the regulation of chromatin structure and gene expression. Recent studies have indicated oncogenic role of SATB1. However, the function of SATB1 in prostate cancer progression and metastasis remains unclear. In this study SATB1 expression vector or siRNA was employed to modulate the expression level of SATB1 in prostate cancer cells and xenograft tumor in nude mouse model. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed on clinical prostate cancer samples. Silencing SATB1 inhibited the growth of DU-145 cells subcutaneous tumor in nude mice, while SATB1 overexpression promoted the growth of LNCaP cells subcutaneous tumor in nude mice. Immunohistochemical and Western blot analysis of the xenografts showed that silencing SATB1 led to decreased expression of vimentin and MMP2 and increased expression of E-cadherin, while SATB1 overexpression led to increased expression of vimentin and MMP2 and decreased expression of E-cadherin. Furthermore, SATB1, vimentin and MMP2 expression was increased significantly while E-cadherin expression was reduced significantly in clinical samples of prostate carcinoma with metastasis compared to prostate carcinoma without metastasis and benign prostate hyperplasia. Taken together, these findings suggest that the modulation of epithelial–mesenchymal transition by SATB1 may contribute to prostate cancer metastasis.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cullin-RING E3 ubiquitin ligases (CRL) control a myriad of biological processes by directing numerous protein substrates for proteasomal degradation. Key to CRL activity is the recruitment of the E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme Cdc34 through electrostatic interactions between E3's cullin conserved basic canyon and the acidic C terminus of the E2 enzyme. This report demonstrates that a small-molecule compound, suramin, can inhibit CRL activity by disrupting its ability to recruit Cdc34. Suramin, an antitrypansomal drug that also possesses antitumor activity, was identified here through a fluorescence-based high-throughput screen as an inhibitor of ubiquitination. Suramin was shown to target cullin 1's conserved basic canyon and to block its binding to Cdc34. Suramin inhibits the activity of a variety of CRL complexes containing cullin 2, 3, and 4A. When introduced into cells, suramin induced accumulation of CRL substrates. These observations help develop a strategy of regulating ubiquitination by targeting an E2-E3 interface through small-molecule modulators.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction: The salt-inducible kinases originally cloned in adrenal glands of high salt diet-fed rats, generally named as SIKs, are highly evolutionarily conserved serine/threonine protein kinases belonging to a family of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Overexpression of SIK2 and SIK3 is discovered in many tumors. Whereas, SIK1 expression was significantly lower in tumors than in normal tissues. Areas covered: The main aim of our review is to introduce the signaling pathways as well as its mechanisms underlying their activity regulation, and especially the roles they play in cancer, which may shed light on the prospects of the cancer prevention and therapeutic targeting of SIKs in the future. Expert opinion: It is conceivable that SIKs, mainly stimulated by ACTH, LKB1, TGF-β, and autophosphorylation, play crucial roles in regulating multiple signal pathways in cancer cells and controlling a series of cellular processes including cell proliferation and cell apoptosis. More recent studies about SIKs are emerging, and their overexpression is found in a few specific types of cancers. However, correlations between SIKs and carcinogenesis remain to be fully elucidated.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PinX1, a conserved nuclear protein, could maintain telomere integrity and plays an important role in regulating telomerase activity. It has been reported that the expression of PinX1 is down-regulated in some cancer and associated with cancer prognosis. However, the value of PinX1 in gliomas has not been studied. In this study, two independent retrospective gliomas cohorts with the corresponding gliomas tissue microarrays (TMAs) were established to detect the expression level of PinX1 and the correlation of PinX1 expression with the clinicopathological features and the patients' survival. Compared with non-cancerous brain tissues, PinX1 protein levels were remarkably up-regulated in gliomas (P = 0.001), and further increased from benign gliomas tissues to malignant gliomas tissues (P = 0.090). Moreover, high PinX1 expression was significantly positively associated with gliomas WHO grade in the training set (P = 0.019) and the validation set (P = 0.037). High PinX1 expression significantly correlated with a worse 5-year overall (P = 0.016) and disease-specific survival (P = 0.026). Simultaneously, the multivariate COX regression analysis showed that PinX1 was an independent unfavorable prognostic factor for 5-year overall survival (hazard ratio (HR) = 2.078, P = 0.015) and disease-specific survival (HR = 2.429, P = 0.012) after adjusting with age, sex and WHO grade in gliomas. In conclusion, PinX1 expression may serve as a prognostic and predictive biomarker for gliomas.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The transcription factor p53 plays a critical role in maintaining homeostasis as it relates to cellular growth, proliferation, and metabolism. In an effort to identify novel p53 target genes, a microarray approach was utilized to identify Rap2B as a robust candidate gene. Rap2B belongs to the Rap family and its increased expression can be found in a variety of human tumors. Here, we demonstrate that Rap2B can regulate the motility of tumor cells as well as mouse normal cells. Noteworthy, p53 modulated cell motility in the low glucose levels. The effect of p53 on cell migration was mediated through its target gene, Rap2B. As a target gene of p53, the investigations of Rap2B potential function will provide novel insight into an unexpected role for p53 in cell migration with implications in embryogenesis or inflammatory response. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Article: PLCε signaling in cancer[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: As one of the members of the PLC family, the phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase Cε (PLCε) has been shown to play pivotal roles in multiple signal pathways and control a variety of cellular functions. A number of studies have shown that aberrant regulation of PLCε was involved in various types of animal and human cancer. However, the role of PLCε in cancer remains elusive. In this review, we provide an overview of the PLCε, especially its roles in multiple signal pathways, and summarize the recent findings that highlight the roles of PLCε in carcinogenesis and cancer progression, making an avenue to provide a novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment of cancer. A literature search mainly paying attention to the network of PLCε involved in tumorigenesis and development was performed in electronic databases. PLCε plays a key role in medicating the development and progression of human cancers with highest potency to be a target of cancer prevention and treatment.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent studies suggest that SATB1 is a promising therapeutic target for prostate cancer. To develop novel SATB1-based therapeutic agents for prostate cancer, in this study, we aimed to construct ZD55-SATB1, an oncolytic adenovirus ZD55 carrying shRNA targeting SATB1, and investigate its effects on the inhibition of prostate cancer growth and metastasis. ZD55-SATB1 was constructed and used to infect human prostate cancer cell lines DU145 and LNCaP. The inhibitory effect of ZD55-SATB1 on SATB1 expression was evaluated by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot analysis. The cytotoxicity of ZD55-SATB1 was detected by MTT assay. Cell invasion was detected by Matrigel invasion assay. The in vivo antitumor activities of ZD55-SATB1 were evaluated in xenograft mouse model. We found that ZD55-SATB1 selectively replicated and significantly reduced SATB1 expression in DU145 and LNCaP cells. ZD55-SATB1 effectively inhibited the viability and invasion of DU145 and LNCaP cells in vitro and inhibited prostate cancer growth and metastasis in xenograft nude mice. In conclusion, replicative oncolytic adenovirus armed with SATB1 shRNA exhibits effective antitumor effect in human prostate cancer. Our study provides the basis for the development of ZD55-SATB1 for the treatment of prostate cancer.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: As one of the COP9 signalosome complex, CSN5 (also known as Jab1) has been confirmed overexpression in many human cancers and affected multiple pathways associating with cell proliferation and apoptosis. Correlation of CSN5 overexpression with poor prognosis for cancer provides evidence that it is involved in the tumorigenesis. However, little is known about the functional role and the underlying mechanism of CSN5 in gastric cancer progression. In the current study, the effect of CSN5 siRNA (small-interfering RNA) on the proliferation and apoptosis of human gastric cancer cells (AGS and MKN45) were examined. Our results showed that knockdown of CSN5 could inhibit proliferation and promote apoptosis of gastric cancer cells. Additionally, suppression of CSN5 expression contributed to the increased expression levels of p53 and Bax. In conclusion, CSN5 overexpression is significantly correlated with gastric cancer progression, and CSN5 could be a novel target in gastric cancer therapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: CHIP (c-terminal Hsp70-interacting protein) is an E3 ligase which may play different roles in different cancers. The elucidation of the VHL-HIF-1α(hypoxia inducible factor-1α)-VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) pathway has led to the development of targeted therapy in renal cell carcinoma (RCC). However, little is known about the role of CHIP and the relationship between CHIP and VEGF-VEGFR2 (VEGF receptor 2) pathway in RCC. In this study, we found that the expression of CHIP was downregulated and significantly correlated with pT status (P = 0.022) and TNM stage (P = 0.022) in 304 RCC and 35 normal renal tissues using tissue microarray. Moreover, low expression of CHIP is a strong and independent negative prognostic value for RCC. In vitro, CHIP negatively regulated RCC cell migration, invasion and angiogenesis. In addition, ELISA tests showed that restoration of CHIP inhibited, while knockdown promoted, the secreted level of VEGF. Furthermore, western blot indicated that the VEGFR2 protein level was reduced after CHIP overexpression. Our findings demonstrate for the first time that CHIP may be involved in RCC angiogenesis through regulating VEGF secretion and expression of VEGFR2. CHIP may serve as promising prognostic biomarker of angiogenesis and may constitute a potential therapeutic target in RCC.
Dataset: Supplementary Material
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PIN2/TRF1-interacting telomerase inhibitor 1 (PinX1) is a novel cloned gene which has been identified as a major haploinsufficient tumor suppressor essential for maintaining telomerase activity, the length of telomerase and chromosome stability. This study explored the clinical significance and biological function of PinX1 in human clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). The clinical relevance of PinX1 in ccRCC was evaluated using tissue microarray and immunohistochemical staining in two independent human ccRCC cohorts. Our data demonstrated that PinX1 expression was dramatically decreased in ccRCC tissues compared with normal renal tissues and paired adjacent non-tumor tissues. Low PinX1 expression was significantly correlated with depth of invasion, lymph node metastasis and advanced TNM stage in patients, as well as with worse overall and disease-specific survival. Cox regression analysis revealed that PinX1 expression was an independent prognostic factor for ccRCC patients. Moreover, PinX1 inhibited the migration and invasion of ccRCC by suppressing MMP-2 expression and activity via NF-κB-dependent transcription in vitro. In vivo studies confirmed that PinX1 negatively regulated ccRCC metastasis and the expression of MMP-2 and NF-κB-p65. These findings indicate that PinX1 suppresses ccRCC metastasis and may serve as a ccRCC candidate clinical prognostic marker and a potential therapeutic target.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is a strong predictor of mortality in patients with colorectal, lung, gastric cancer, pancreatic and metastatic renal cell carcinoma. We here evaluated whether preoperative NLR is an independent prognostic factor for non-metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Data from 327 patients who underwent curative or palliative nephrectomy were evaluated retrospectively. In preoperative blood routine examination, neutrophils and lymphocytes were obtained. The predictive value of NLR for non-metastatic RCC was analyzed. The NLR of 327 patients was 2.72±2.25. NLR <1.7 and NLR ≥1.7 were classified as low and high NLR groups, respectively. Chi-square test showed that the preoperative NLR was significantly correlated with the tumor size (P=0.025), but not with the histological subtype (P=0.095)and the pT stage (P=0.283). Overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) were assessed using the Kaplan-Meier method. Effects of NLR on OS (P=0.007) and DFS (P=0.011) were significant. To evaluate the independent prognostic significance of NLR, multivariate COX regression models were applied and identified increased NLR as an independent prognostic factor for OS (P=0.015), and DFS (P=0.019). Regarding patient survival, an increased NLR represented an independent risk factor, which might reflect a higher risk for severe cardiovascular and other comorbidities. An elevated blood NLR may be a biomarker of poor OS and DFS in patients with non-metastatic RCC.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical significance of annexin a1 (ANXA1) and provide molecular evidence to support that decreased ANXA1 expression could enhance cancer migration and invasion in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Immunohistochemistry of a tissue microarray with 162 surgically resected PDAC specimens was performed to examine the expression of ANXA1. We also investigated the relationship between ANXA1 expression and clinicopathological factors and prognosis of PDAC patients. We further studied the role of ANXA1 in PDAC cell proliferation, migration and invasion by cell proliferation assay, migration assay and matrigel invasion assay with reduced ANXA1 expression by RNAi. Western blotting was used to detect matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) expression. We also detected MMP-9 enzyme activity by gelatin zymography. Decreased expression of ANXA1 was significantly associated with poor differentiation, lymph node metastasis and advanced TNM stage of PDAC patients (p<0.05). Moreover, decreased expression of ANXA1 was correlated with poor survival (p<0.05). Furthermore, we found that ANXA1 knockdown inhibited cell proliferation, induced G1 phase cell cycle arrest, increased PDAC cell migration and invasion capacity compared with controls. In addition, Western blotting showed that ANXA1 knockdown increased the MMP-9 protein level and decreased TIMP-1 expression. Gelatin zymography showed that MMP-9 enzyme activity was also elevated. Negative ANXA1 expression is a most unfavorable prognostic factor for PDAC patients. ANXA1 knockdown inhibits cell proliferation by inducing G1 phase cell cycle arrest and increases migration and invasion of PDAC cells through up-regulating MMP-9 expression and activity, implying that ANXA1 may serve as a promising prognostic biomarker and therapeutic target for PDAC.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PinX1 induces apoptosis and suppresses cell proliferation in some cancer cells, and the expression of PinX1 is frequently decreased in some cancer and negatively associated with metastasis and prognosis. However, the precise roles of PinX1 in gliomas have not been studied. In this study, we found that PinX1 obviously reduced the gliomas cell proliferation through regulating the expressions of cell cycle-relative molecules to arrest cell at G1 phase and down-regulating the expression of component telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT in human), which is the hardcore of telomerase. Moreover, PinX1 could suppress the abilities of gliomas cell wound healing, migration and invasion via suppressing MMP-2 expression and increasing TIMP-2 expression. In conclusion, our results suggested that PinX1 may be a potential suppressive gene in the progression of gliomas.
Nevada cancer instituteLas Vegas, Nevada, United States
Xuzhou Medical College
Suchow, Jiangsu Sheng, China
- Laboratory of Biological Cancer Therapy