[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The interaction of immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies with FcgammaR constitutes a critical mechanism through which IgG antibody effector functions are mediated. In the current work we have examined whether human neutrophil FcgammaR exhibit pH dependence in their association with IgG. Binding assays were performed in culture medium adjusted to different pH values. It was found that the binding of either heat-aggregated human IgG (AIgG), soluble immune complexes (sIC) or IgG-coated erythrocytes (IgG-E) was markedly higher at pH 6.5 than at pH 7.3. This effect was not observed when saturation of FcgammaR was achieved, suggesting that acidic pH increases the avidity of FcgammaR for IC without modifying the total binding capacity. Similar results were observed for the binding of AIgG to either monocytes, natural killer (NK) or K562 cells, suggesting that acidic pH increases the avidity of both, FcgammaRII and FcgammaRIII. Additional experiments were performed to analyse whether the binding of IgG to FcgammaRI also showed pH dependence. To this aim, we employed interferon-gamma-treated human neutrophils and mouse inflammatory macrophages, previously incubated with blocking antibodies directed to FcgammaRII and FcgammaRIII. Acidic pH did not enhance the binding of AIgG nor monomeric IgG under these experimental conditions. Further studies are required to determine whether the enhancement of FcgammaR avidity for IC could be attributed to titration of histidine(s) residues on the Fc fragment of IgG.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the current work, we evaluated the effect of extracellular acidification on neutrophil physiology. Neutrophils suspended in bicarbonate-buffered RPMI 1640 medium adjusted to acidic pH values (pH 6.5-7.0) underwent: 1) a rapid transient increase in intracellular free calcium concentration levels; 2) an increase in the forward light scattering properties; and 3) the up-regulation of surface expression of CD18. By contrast, extracellular acidosis was unable to induce neither the production of H2O2 nor the release of myeloperoxidase. Acidic extracellular pH also modulated the functional profile of neutrophils in response to conventional agonists such as FMLP, precipiting immune complexes, and opsonized zymosan. It was found that not only calcium mobilization, shape change response, and up-regulation of CD18 expression but also production of H2O2 and release of myeloperoxidase were markedly enhanced in neutrophils stimulated in acidic pH medium. Moreover, extracellular acidosis significantly delayed neutrophil apoptosis and concomitantly extended neutrophil functional lifespan. Extracellular acidification induced an immediate and abrupt fall in the intracellular pH, which persisted over the 240-s analyzed. A similar abrupt drop in the intracellular pH was detected in cells suspended in bicarbonate-supplemented PBS but not in those suspended in bicarbonate-free PBS. A role for intracellular acidification in neutrophil activation is suggested by the fact that only neutrophils suspended in bicarbonate-buffered media (i.e., RPMI 1640 and bicarbonate-supplemented PBS) underwent significant shape changes in response to extracellular acidification. Together, our results support the notion that extracellular acidosis may intensify acute inflammatory responses by inducing neutrophil activation as well as by delaying spontaneous apoptosis and extending neutrophil functional lifespan.
Full-text · Article · May 1999 · The Journal of Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We analyzed the effect of nitric oxide (NO) on oxygen-dependent cytotoxic responses mediated by neutrophils against unopsonized erythrocytes using three NO donors: S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO), S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP), and sodium nitroprusside (SNP). Neutrophils were treated with these compounds for 1-2 min at 37 degrees C and cytotoxicity was then triggered in the presence of NO donors by precipitating immune complexes, aggregated IgG, the chemotactic peptide FMLP, or opsonized zymosan. GSNO induced, in all cases, a marked increase in cytotoxic responses, while SNAP moderately increased cytotoxicity triggered by immune complexes, aggregated IgG, or Z, opsonized zymosen, without modifying those responses induced by FMLP. By contrast, SNP dramatically suppressed cytotoxicity triggered by all of the stimuli assessed. The enhancing effects mediated by GSNO and SNAP did not depend on the stimulation of guanylyl cyclase and were prevented by the NO scavengers hemoglobin and PTIO (2-phenyl-4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-imidazoline-1-oxyl 3-oxide). The inhibitory activity of SNP, on the other hand, was not prevented by NO scavengers, suggesting that it cannot be ascribed to the release of NO. In another set of experiments, neutrophils were pretreated with GSNO or SNAP for different times. Then cells were washed to remove NO donors from the culture medium, and cytotoxicity was triggered by different stimuli. It was found that neutrophils must be pretreated with NO donors for at least 4 h to increase cytotoxic responses, and pretreatment for longer periods (i.e., 8 or 18 h) further increased cytotoxicity. Not only cytotoxic responses, but also the production of O2- and H2O2, and the release of myeloperoxidase were increased under these conditions.
Preview · Article · Apr 1999 · The Journal of Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the present study we examined whether immune complexes (IC) are able to modulate human neutrophil apoptosis. We observed different effects depending on the type of IC employed. Precipitating IC (pIC) and Ab-coated erythrocytes (E-IgG) triggered a marked stimulation of apoptosis, while heat-aggregated IgG and soluble IC, significantly delayed spontaneous apoptosis. Blocking Abs directed to Fcgamma receptor type II (FcgammaRII), but not to FcgammaRIII, markedly diminished the acceleration of apoptosis triggered by either pIC or E-IgG, supporting a critical role for FcgammaRII in apoptosis stimulation. This phenomenon, on the other hand, does not appear to involve IC phagocytosis or the participation of CR3. Acceleration of neutrophil apoptosis triggered by either pIC or E-IgG seems to require the activation of the respiratory burst, as suggested by 1) the ability of catalase to prevent apoptosis stimulation; 2) the effect of azide, an heme enzyme inhibitor, which dramatically enhanced apoptosis induced by pIC or E-IgG; and 3) the inability of pIC or E-IgG to accelerate apoptosis of neutrophils isolated from CGD patients. It is well established that IC affect the course of inflammation by inducing the release of inflammatory cytokines, proteolytic enzymes, oxidative agents, and other toxic molecules. Our results suggest that IC may also affect the course of inflammation by virtue of their ability to modulate neutrophil apoptosis.
Preview · Article · Nov 1998 · The Journal of Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Losartan, a selective antagonist of AT1 receptors for angiotensin II, is widely used clinically to manage hypertension. We report here that losartan markedly inhibits neutrophil shape change, adherence and chemiluminescence responses triggered by N-formylmethionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP), without affecting responses induced by immune complexes, zymosan or concanavalin A. Neither saralasin, another antagonist of angiotensin II receptors, nor captopril, an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, reproduced the effects of losartan. It was also observed that neutrophil responses triggered by fMLP were not affected by exogenously added angiotensin II. The effect of losartan on the binding of fMLP was measured using [3H]fMLP. It was found that losartan inhibits the binding of [3H]fMLP to neutrophil receptors. As observed for neutrophils, studies performed with monocytes showed that losartan inhibits chemiluminescence emission triggered by fMLP, without affecting chemiluminescence responses triggered by immune complexes, zymosan or concanavalin A.
No preview · Article · Jun 1997 · Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the absence of appropriate stimuli, polymorphonuclear neutrophils rapidly undergo characteristic changes indicative of programmed cell death or apoptosis. We report here that neutrophils cultured in the presence of platelets (neutrophil:platelet ratios of 1:50, 1:25, and 1:10) show a dramatic inhibition of apoptosis compared with neutrophils cultured alone. Similar degrees of apoptosis delay were induced by viable unstimulated platelets, fixed unstimulated platelets, or fixed activated (1 U/ml thrombin) platelets. Inhibition of apoptosis was associated with prolongation of the functional lifespan of the neutrophil, as indicated by the higher capacity of platelet-treated neutrophils to display chemiluminescence responses triggered by FMLP, immune complexes, and zymosan. The mechanism responsible for the inhibition of neutrophil apoptosis by platelets has not yet been defined. However, it seems that classical recognition systems such as those mediated by the interaction between platelet P-selectin (CD62) or glycoprotein IIb/IIIa complex and their counter-receptors expressed by neutrophils are not involved.
No preview · Article · May 1997 · The Journal of Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The role of nitric oxide in the regulation of adrenal steroidogenesis was examined in BALB/c mice by employing the nitric oxide synthase inhibitors NG-nitro L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) and NG-nitro L-arginine (L-NNA). The administration of a single dose of nitric oxide inhibitors (50 mg kg-1 body wt. i.p.) induced a fourfold increase in plasma corticosterone. Treatment with L-arginine (750 mg kg-1 body wt. s.c.), but not D-arginine, completely prevented corticosterone increases induced by L-NAME. To analyse whether the activation of adrenal steroidogenesis induced by nitric oxide synthase inhibitors involved the stimulation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis. ACTH levels were assessed. It was found that L-NAME significantly enhanced plasma ACTH concentrations. Genetic variations in this regulatory pathway are suggested by the fact that L-NAME increased corticosterone levels in BALB/c. C3H/He and DBA-2 mice, but not in C57BI/c mice, a strain characterized by a low steroid response to stress.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The authors have recently shown that the ability of immune complexes (IC) to trigger Fc gamma R-dependent cell responses can be dramatically enhanced when the isoelectric point (pI) of normal IgG antibodies is increased from 5.8-8.5 to 8.5-9.8 by treatment with 1-ethyl-3-2(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide HCl and ethylene diamine. In the current work the authors analyse whether differences in the charge of normal IgG antibodies may also affect IC activity. Soluble IC (sIC) were prepared with (a) rabbit IgG antibodies to human IgG and anionic or cationic fractions of human IgG; and (b) bovine serum albumin (BSA) and anionic or cationic fractions of rabbit IgG anti-BSA antibodies. Similar abilities to bind to neutrophil surface were observed for sIC prepared with both anionic (anIC) and cationic fractions of IgG (catIC). Moreover, no differences were found when neutrophil shape change, chemiluminescence (CL) emission and elastase release were induced by either anIC or catIC. As in the case of sIC, particulate IC prepared with erythrocytes (E) and anionic or cationic fractions of specific IgG antibodies (IgG-E) showed no differences in their abilities to trigger either CL emission or ADCC. Taken together, these results suggest that the pI of normal IgG antibodies do not affect the ability of IC to trigger neutrophil responses mediated by receptors for the Fc portion of IgG antibodies (Fc gamma R).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study, we show that three proteolytic enzymes of different specificity-pronase, chymotrypsin, and trypsin-induced a dramatic stimulation of neutrophil apoptosis as shown by morphologic characteristics, analysis of cell DNA content, and presence of a characteristic "ladder" pattern of DNA fragmentation. The action of either chymotrypsin or trypsin was completely prevented by the serine protease inhibitor aprotinin, indicating that the proteolytic activity of the enzymes accounts for apoptosis induction. Stimulation of neutrophil apoptosis by proteases was observed in culture medium supplemented with either inactivated fetal calf serum (0.1-50%), autologous serum (0.1-50%), bovine serum albumin (0.1%), or in protein-free medium. Other cell types such as human peripheral blood monocytes and lymphocytes, human leukemic cells from THP-1, HL-60 and K562 lines, murine L929 fibroblasts, and unstimulated murine macrophages harvested from the peritoneal cavity were not induced to undergo apoptosis after the treatment with proteases. In an attempt to determine whether neutrophil serine proteases could induce apoptosis as chymotrypsin and trypsin do, the effect of elastase was assessed. A significant increase in the percentage of apoptotic cells was observed in elastase-treated neutrophils. We propose that the selective stimulation of neutrophil apoptosis by proteolytic enzymes may play an important role in the normal resolution of inflammation by limiting the autotoxic potential of the neutrophil.
No preview · Article · Apr 1996 · Laboratory Investigation
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study characterizes the effect of two nitric oxide (NO) donors, S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP), on the ability of neutrophils to perform different responses triggered by immune complexes (IC). Pretreatment of neutrophils with either GSNO or SNP exerted a biphasic action on antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) performed against erythrocytes (E) coated with IgG antibodies (IgG-E), depending on the amount of IgG employed. While with high amounts of antibodies ADCC was markedly inhibited, at low amounts of antibodies it was significantly increased. Both effects were prevented by haemoglobin, a NO scavenger. Moreover, these effects were reproduced by the cell-permeable analogue of cGMP, dibutyryl cGMP (Bt2cGMP). Other neutrophil functions triggered by IgG-E were also examined. It was found that NO donors did not affect either the phagocytosis of IgG-E or the emission of chemiluminescence (CL). Finally, neutrophil functions triggered by soluble IC (sIC) and precipitating IC (pIC) were analysed. It was observed that NO donors did not modify either cytotoxicity performed towards non-sensitized target cells or CL emission. The significance of these results is discussed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previous studies have demonstrated that the treatment of neutrophils with proteolytic enzymes markedly reduces the expression of receptor III for the Fc portion of IgG (Fc gamma RIII), but it does not affect the number of Fc gamma RII on the cell surface. In the present study, we analysed the effect of proteolytic enzymes on functional responses of neutrophils induced by immune complexes (IC). Our results showed that treatment with pronase or chymotrypsin markedly increased the binding of IgG-coated erythrocytes (IgG-E) to neutrophils, as well as their capability to display IgG-mediated functions such as antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) and chemiluminescence (CL) induced by IgG-E, responses that have been shown to be completely dependent on Fc gamma RII. A similar enhancing effect was observed, in all cases, after neutrophil treatment with neuroaminidase. We also studied the effect of proteolysis on neutrophil activation induced by other types of IC. It was found that pronase and chymotrypsin significantly enhanced CL responses induced by soluble IC (sIC) but did not modify the responses induced by either precipitating IC (pIC) or soluble IC prepared with cationized antibodies (catIC). On the other hand, neuroaminidase significantly enhanced CL induced by either sIC, pIC or catIC. Taken together, our data suggest that the activity of Fc gamma RII can be up-regulated by proteolysis. However, this effect appears to be strongly dependent on the characteristics of the IC employed as stimulus.