Glyn W Humphreys

University of Birmingham, Birmingham, England, United Kingdom

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Publications (754)2324.94 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Complex figure copying is a commonly used neuropsychological test. Here we explored the neural basis of the factors underlying complex figure copying (CFC), using data from the Birmingham Cognitive Screen (BCoS) in a large group of sub-acute, ischemic stroke patients (239). We computed two analyses: in the first we assessed the contribution of co-morbid deficits (i.e. in gesture processing, object use, visual neglect, pictures naming and sustained attention) to the lesions associated with CFC. In a second analysis a Principle Component Analysis (PCA) was used to isolate different underlying task components and to link to clinical neuroimaging scans. A voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis showed that poor CFC performance was associated with lesions to bi-lateral thalamus, lingual, right fusiform and right inferior parietal cortices (rIPC). The latter association with the posterior parietal cortex was diminished after controlling for neglect. Follow up analysis showed the neglect partially mediated the correlation of CFC and rIPC. The PCA revealed three main underlying components: (1) a component associated with high-level motor control common to different measures of apraxia and linked to the left postcentral gyrus, the right thalamus and middle frontal gyrus; (2) a visuo-motor transformation component unique to the CFC and associated with lesions to the posterior occipital and sensory cortices; (3) a component associated with multistep object use tasks which was correlated with lesions to the left inferior frontal orbital gyrus, the right fusiform and cerebellum. Using clinical symptoms, cognitive profiles and lesion mapping we showed that beyond visual perception, CFC performance is supported by three functional networks: one for high-level motor control, a visuo-motor transformation component, and multistep object use network.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2016 · Clinical neuroimaging
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There is ample evidence showing that decision times are shorter when detecting two targets for which the same response is required, compared to when only one of the targets is present—resulting in a redundancy gain. Though effects of perceptual manipulations on redundancy gains are established, effects of social associations are still unclear. Here, we examined for the first time whether associating arbitrary stimuli with in-group as opposed to out-group targets modulates redundancy gains. Participants made associations between a shape, a colour and either in- or out-group labels. They then had to discriminate whether in- or out-group stimuli appeared (single or redundant features). Responses to in-group but not to out-group stimuli violated predictions of models in which the associated features are processed independently, and were consistent with in-group stimuli being processed with super-capacity. Our results, replicated across two experiments, providing the first evidence that there is enhanced perceptual integration for information associated with an in-group.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2016 · Visual Cognition
  • Jie Sui · Erik Ohrling · Glyn W Humphreys
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There are established effects of self- and reward-biases even on simple perceptual matching tasks (Sui et al., Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 2012); however we know little about whether these biases can be modulated by particular interventions, and whether the biases then change in the same way. Here we assessed how the biases alter under conditions designed to induce negative mood. We had participants read a list of self-related negative or neutral mood statements (Velten, Behavior Research and Therapy, 1968) and also listen for 10 min to a passage of negative or neutral music, prior to carrying out perceptual matching with shapes associated to personal labels (self or stranger) or reward (£12 or £1). Responses to the self- and high-reward associated shapes were selectively slower and less sensitive (d prime) following the negative mood induction procedures, and the decrease in mood correlated with decreases in the reaction time bias across 'high saliency' (self and high-reward) stimuli. We suggest that negative mood may decrease self- and reward-biases through reducing attention to salient external stimuli.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2016 · Quarterly journal of experimental psychology (2006)
  • Jie Sui · Glyn Humphreys
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Cognitive neuroscience
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previous studies have shown that the perceptual organization of the visual scene constrains the deployment of attention. Here we investigated how the organization of multiple elements into larger configurations alters their attentional weight, depending on the "pertinence" or behavioral importance of the elements' features. We assessed object-based effects on distinct aspects of the attentional priority map: top-down control, reflecting the tendency to encode targets rather than distracters, and the spatial distribution of attention weights across the visual scene, reflecting the tendency to report elements belonging to the same rather than different objects. In 2 experiments participants had to report the letters in briefly presented displays containing 8 letters and digits, in which pairs of characters could be connected with a line. Quantitative estimates of top-down control were obtained using Bundesen's Theory of Visual Attention (1990). The spatial distribution of attention weights was assessed using the "paired response index" (PRI), indicating responses for within-object pairs of letters. In Experiment 1, grouping along the task-relevant dimension (targets with targets and distracters with distracters) increased top-down control and enhanced the PRI; in contrast, task-irrelevant grouping (targets with distracters) did not affect performance. In Experiment 2, we disentangled the effect of target-target and distracter-distracter grouping: Pairwise grouping of distracters enhanced top-down control whereas pairwise grouping of targets changed the PRI. We conclude that object-based perceptual representations interact with pertinence values (of the elements' features and location) in the computation of attention weights, thereby creating a widespread pattern of attentional facilitation across the visual scene. (PsycINFO Database Record
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2016 · Journal of Experimental Psychology Human Perception & Performance
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study reports the validation of the Hong Kong version of Oxford Cognitive Screen (HK-OCS). Seventy Cantonese-speaking healthy individuals participated to establish normative data and 46 chronic stroke survivors were assessed using the HK-OCS, Albert's Test of Visual Neglect, short test of gestural production, and Hong Kong version of the following assessments: Western Aphasia Battery, MMSE, MoCA, Modified Barthel Index, and Lawton Instrumental Activities of Daily Living scale. The validity of the HK-OCS was appraised by the difference between the two participant groups. Neurologically unimpaired individuals performed significantly better than stroke survivors on the HK-OCS. Positive and significant correlations found between cognitive subtests in the HK-OCS and related assessments indicated good concurrent validity. Excellent intra-rater and inter-rater reliabilities, fair test-retest reliability, and acceptable internal consistency suggested that the HK-OCS had good reliability. Specific HK-OCS subtests including semantics, episodic memory, number writing, and orientation were the best predictors of functional outcomes.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Aging Neuropsychology and Cognition
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There is good evidence that early visual processing involves the coding of different features in independent brain regions. A major question, then, is how we see the world in an integrated manner, in which the different features are "bound" together? A standard account of this has been that feature binding depends on attention to the stimulus, which enables only the relevant features to be linked together [Treisman, A., & Gelade, G. A feature-integration theory of attention. Cognitive Psychology, 12, 97-136, 1980]. Here we test this influential idea by examining whether, in patients showing visual extinction, the processing of otherwise unconscious (extinguished) stimuli is modulated by presenting objects in their correct (familiar) color. Correctly colored objects showed reduced extinction when they had a learned color, and this color matched across the ipsi- and contralesional items (red strawberry + red tomato). In contrast, there was no reduction in extinction under the same conditions when the stimuli were colored incorrectly (blue strawberry + blue tomato; Experiment 1). The result was not due to the speeded identification of a correctly colored ipsilesional item, as there was no benefit from having correctly colored objects in different colors (red strawberry + yellow lemon; Experiment 2). There was also no benefit to extinction from presenting the correct colors in the background of each item (Experiment 3). The data suggest that learned color-form binding can reduce extinction even when color is irrelevant for the task. The result is consistent with preattentive binding of color and shape for familiar stimuli.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
  • N. Demeyere · C. Gillebert · L. Loftus · G. Humphreys
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · International Journal of Stroke
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cognitive assessments after stroke are typically short form tests developed for dementia that generates pass/fail classifications (e.g. the MoCA). The Oxford Cognitive Screen (OCS) provides a domain-specific cognitive profile designed for stroke survivors. This study compared the use of the MoCA and the OCS in acute stroke with respect to symptom specificity and aspects of clinical utility. A cross-sectional study with a consecutive sample of 200 stroke patients within 3 weeks of stroke completing MoCA and OCS. Demographic data, lesion side and Barthel scores were recorded. Inclusivity was assessed in terms of completion rates and reasons for non-completion were evaluated. The incidence of cognitive impairments on both the MoCA and OCS sub-domains was calculated and differences in stroke specificity, cognitive profiles and independence of the measures were addressed. The incidence of acute cognitive impairment was high: 76 % of patients were impaired on MoCA, and 86 % demonstrated at least one impairment on the cognitive domains assessed in the OCS. OCS was more sensitive than MoCA overall (87 vs 78 % sensitivity) and OCS alone provided domain-specific information on prevalent post-stroke cognitive impairments (neglect, apraxia and reading/writing ability). Unlike the MOCA, the OCS was not dominated by left hemisphere impairments but gave differentiated profiles across the contrasting domains. The OCS detects important cognitive deficits after stroke not assessed in the MoCA, it is inclusive for patients with aphasia and neglect and it is less confounded by co-occurring difficulties in these domains.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · Journal of Neurology
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) applied over the right posterior parietal cortex (PPC) in healthy participants has been shown to trigger a significant rightward shift in the spatial allocation of visual attention, temporarily mimicking spatial deficits observed in neglect. In contrast, rTMS applied over the left PPC triggers a weaker or null attentional shift. However, large interindividual differences in responses to rTMS have been reported. Studies measuring changes in brain activation suggest that the effects of rTMS may depend on both interhemispheric and intrahemispheric interactions between cortical loci controlling visual attention. Here, we investigated whether variability in the structural organization of human white matter pathways subserving visual attention, as assessed by diffusion magnetic resonance imaging and tractography, could explain interindividual differences in the effects of rTMS. Most participants showed a rightward shift in the allocation of spatial attention after rTMS over the right intraparietal sulcus (IPS), but the size of this effect varied largely across participants. Conversely,rTMSover the left IPS resulted in strikingly opposed individual responses, with some participants responding with rightward and some with leftward attentional shifts.Wedemonstrate that microstructural and macrostructural variability within the corpus callosum, consistent with differential effects on cross-hemispheric interactions, predicts both the extent and the direction of the response to rTMS. Together, our findings suggest that the corpus callosum may have a dual inhibitory and excitatory function in maintaining the interhemispheric dynamics that underlie the allocation of spatial attention.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · The Journal of Neuroscience : The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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    Melanie Wulff · Glyn W Humphreys
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previous studies have shown that visual extinction can be reduced if two objects are positioned to " afford " an action. Here we tested if this affordance effect was disrupted by " breaking " the affordance, i.e., if one of the objects actively used in the action had a broken handle. We assessed the effects of broken affordance on recovery from extinction in eight patients with right hemisphere lesions and left-sided extinction. Patients viewed object pairs that were or were not commonly used together and that were positioned for left-or right-hand actions. In the unrelated pair conditions, either two tools or two objects were presented. In line with previous research (e.g., Riddoch et al., 2006), extinction was reduced when action-related object pairs and when unrelated tool pairs were presented compared to unrelated object pairs. There was no significant difference in recovery rate between action-related (object-tool) and unrelated tool pairs. In addition, performance with action-related objects decreased when the tool appeared on the ipsilesional side compared to when it was on the contralesional side, but only when the tool handle was intact. There were minimal effects of breaking the handle of an object rather than a tool, and there was no effect of breaking the handle on either tools or objects on single item trials. The data suggest that breaking the handle of a tool lessens the degree to which it captures attention, with this attentional capture being strongest when the tool appears on the ipsilesional side. The capture of attention by the ipsilesional item then reduces the chance of detecting the contralesional stimulus. This attentional capture effect is mediated by the affordance to the intact tool.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
  • Jie Sui · Glyn W Humphreys
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We propose a new account of how self-reference affects information processing. We report evidence that self-reference affects the binding of memory to source, the integration of parts into perceptual wholes, and the ability to switch from a prior association to new associations. Self-reference also influences the integration of different stages of processing, linking attention to decision making, and affects the coupling between brain regions mediating self-representation and attention to the environment. Taken together, the data suggest that self-reference acts as a form of 'integrative glue' which can either enhance or disrupt performance, depending on the task context. We discuss the implications for understanding the self, and future directions for research.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Trends in Cognitive Sciences
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    Moritz Stolte · Glyn Humphreys · Alla Yankouskaya · Jie Sui
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We examined whether self-biases in perceptual matching reflect the positive valence of self-related stimuli. Participants associated geometric shapes with either personal labels (e.g., you, friend, stranger) or faces with different emotional expressions (e.g., happy, neutral, sad). They then judged whether shape-label or shape-face pairs were as originally shown or re-paired. Match times were faster to self-associated stimuli and to stimuli associated with the most positive valence. In addition, both the self-bias and the positive emotion-bias were reliable across individuals in different test sessions. In contrast there was no sign of a correlation between the self-bias and the emotion-bias effects. We argue that self-bias and the bias to stimuli linked to positive emotion are separate and may reflect different underlying processes.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · Quarterly journal of experimental psychology (2006)
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    Dataset: Figure S1
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Example “visual snapshot” of the cognitive profile of a patient given by the BCoS. Notes: Each colored area represents a different cognitive domain. In the reporting system, a black rim indicates intact performance (within normal limits). The rim is colored white when a deficit occurs relative to the norm. The rim is omitted if the test has not been administered. After a little experience, clinical teams learned to “read” the profile efficiently, identifying the strengths (preserved cognitive abilities) and weaknesses (impairements relative to the controls) of particular patients. Abbreviation: BCoS, Birmingham Cognitive Screen.
    Preview · Dataset · Sep 2015
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: There are no currently effective cognitive assessment tools for patients who have suffered stroke in the People's Republic of China. The Birmingham Cognitive Screen (BCoS) has been shown to be a promising tool for revealing patients' poststroke cognitive deficits in specific domains, which facilitates more individually designed rehabilitation in the long run. Hence we examined the reliability and validity of a Cantonese version BCoS in patients with acute ischemic stroke, in Guangzhou. Method: A total of 98 patients with acute ischemic stroke were assessed with the Cantonese version of the BCoS, and an additional 133 healthy individuals were recruited as controls. Apart from the BCoS, the patients also completed a number of external cognitive tests, including the Montreal Cognitive Assessment Test (MoCA), Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), Albert's cancellation test, the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test, and six gesture matching tasks. Cutoff scores for failing each subtest, ie, deficits, were computed based on the performance of the controls. The validity and reliability of the Cantonese BCoS were examined, as well as interrater and test-retest reliability. We also compared the proportions of cases being classified as deficits in controlled attention, memory, character writing, and praxis, between patients with and without spoken language impairment. Results: Analyses showed high test-retest reliability and agreement across independent raters on the qualitative aspects of measurement. Significant correlations were observed between the subtests of the Cantonese BCoS and the other external cognitive tests, providing evidence for convergent validity of the Cantonese BCoS. The screen was also able to generate measures of cognitive functions that were relatively uncontaminated by the presence of aphasia. Conclusion: This study suggests good reliability and validity of the Cantonese version of the BCoS. The Cantonese BCoS is a very promising tool for the detection of cognitive problems in Cantonese speakers.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
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    Haixu Wang · Glyn Humphreys · Jie Sui
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report 2 experiments to assess the strength of forming and breaking associations to the self, familiar others, and unfamiliar others in a simple shape-label matching task. In each experiment, participants first formed shape-person associations (e.g., triangle-self). Subsequently, they had to relearn the associations with the shapes and labels rearranged (self→stranger in Experiment 1; self→friend in Experiment 2) and they carried out a matching task in which they judged whether shape-label stimuli were as newly instructed or re-paired. There were faster responses and fewer errors on match trials for newly formed self-associated stimuli. In contrast, after switching, reaction times were slower and accuracy was reduced on mismatch trials involving shapes previously associated with the self. The strength of the self-advantage in forming the new association on match trials correlated with the difficulty in switching from the old self-associated shape on mismatch trials. The results indicate that self-reference enhances the binding of associations in memory; this facilitates associations to new stimuli, but there is a cost of interference from old associations. (PsycINFO Database Record
    Preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Journal of Experimental Psychology Human Perception & Performance
  • D. Sampanis · C. Mevorach · L. Shalev · Mohammed S · G. W. Humphreys
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background and Purpose: Cognitive deficits following stroke are common and are associated with poor rehabilitation outcome. Computerized Progressive Attentional Training (CPAT) has been tested and found effective in children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and there is evidence also for similar training effects on healthy older adults (Anguera et al., 2013). This pilot trial explored the potential effectiveness of CPAT for improving cognition in stroke survivors with cognitive deficits within 2 months of their stroke. Methods: Eight sub acute stroke participants underwent the CPAT protocol for 10 sessions during a period of two weeks and where compared with controls (who did not receive training) on both attention tasks (eight healthy controls) and general cognitive assessments (eight other sub acute patients). Attention was assessed before and after training using four lab-based attention tasks while cognitive impairment was assessed using the Birmingham Cognitive Screen (BCoS). Results: The CPAT intervention resulted in improvements on both attention functions (specifically sustained attention) and non-attention functions (e.g., language, memory, number skills and praxis). These improvements could not be simply attributed to the passage of time or repetition of the test (as evident from healthy and the neuropsychological control group performance). Conclusion: While the small sample size and the pilot nature of the study should be taken into account, the results indicate that CPAT is potentially an effective and valuable instrument that can be applied to help ameliorate attentional deficits following stroke. Keywords: Attention; Stroke; Rehabilitation; Neuropsychology
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015
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    Nir Shalev · Glyn Humphreys · Nele Demeyere
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Traditionally, response selection is considered to reflect a separate stage of processing to visual perception. An alternative view proposes action and perception to be closely linked; however the processing stage where any cross-modal interaction would then occur remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the influence of response-mapping on a simple classification task. We presented an array of eight frames arranged in a square around a fixation point, followed by a brief presentation of an arrow in one of them (varying SOAs of 10,30,50,80 and 100ms masked). The arrow could appear in a congruent, incongruent or a neutral location with respect to its direction. Participants indicated the direction of the arrow using a response-box organized in a corresponding configuration: eight response-buttons, arranged in a square; an arrow appeared on each button. In Exp 1, the directions of the buttons matched their locations (e.g., arrow pointing right appearing on the right side); In Exp 2, the arrows and the locations were mismatched (arrow appearing on the left side, pointing right). Subsequently we manipulated the response-mapping between the locations and directions of the arrows. We changed the task to respond to locations instead of direction, in a single (Exp 3) and a dual task (Exp 5); and replicated our original experiment with different exposure times (Exp 4). In our first experiment, we observed a robust congruency effect on accuracy for arrows appearing in their matching locations. Crucially, in our following experiments, we managed to invert and manipulate this effect by changing the motor-response mapping. Using mathematical modelling according to the Theory of Visual Attention, we demonstrate that motor-mapping modulates two low-level processes independently: perceptual threshold and stimulus processing speed. We discuss the implications of multi-modal integration within a general framework of attention as a proactive cognitive function, which predicts and formulates visual percepts. Meeting abstract presented at VSS 2015.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · Journal of Vision
  • Jie Sui · Yang Sun · Glyn Humphreys
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: People tend to respond faster to self-relevant stimuli relative to stimuli associated with other people. There is well-established evidence on the self-bias effect on high level memory and attentional processes, but little evidence for effects on perception. In this study, we test whether the self-bias effect can modulate perception, by focusing on the effect of self-bias on the earliest cortical component C1 which links to activity in the primary visual cortex (V1). Using high-density event-related potential measures, we recorded participants' brain activity when they performed a matching task to personally relevant stimuli. Participants were randomly assigned three sets of geometric shapes (triangle, circle, and square) to three personal labels (self, mother, and stranger). After the associative instruction, they carried out a shape-label matching task. The size of the stimuli was manipulated (large vs. small). The results showed that there were faster responses to the shape associated with the self compared to others, showing the self-bias effect. The effect was modulated by the size of stimuli - participants made faster responses to the large than to the small stimuli in the self association, whereas there were no differences between the large and small stimuli for other associations (mother and stranger associations). The size effect in self-bias was linked to the activity in the C1 component. The amplitude of C1 increased for the large relative to small shapes associated with the self, but the size of stimuli did not affect the amplitude between the large and small stimuli in other associations. The results indicated that self-bias can affect perception by modulating the earliest C1 component generated in the primary visual cortex. The data suggest that the self-bias may automatically facilitate the perceptual encoding of visual stimuli early on just following stimuli onset. Meeting abstract presented at VSS 2015.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Journal of Vision
  • Nele Demeyere · Celine Gillebert · Liam Loftus · Glyn Humphreys
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Left neglect is traditionally reported to be much more common and more severe than right neglect. Often this is taken as support for a right hemispheric specialisation of visuo-spatial attention. Here, we explore the incidence and severity of ego-and allocentric neglect in a consecutive acute stroke sample (N=298) and compare left versus right neglect recovery 6 months post stroke (N=121). Patients completed the hearts cancellation task from the Oxford Cognitive Screen on average after 6 days and again 6 months post-stroke. The results demonstrated that egocentric and allocentric neglect are separable subtypes with egocentric and allocentric neglect occurring in isolation in 46 and 27% of the acute neglect patients, respectively. In addition, we found that in participants with only allocentric neglect there was no egocentric spatial laterality to the false positive errors made. Though left egocentric neglect was more prevalent (67%) in right hemisphere patients, the severity was not significantly different from that in left hemisphere cases (in terms of the absolute asymmetry scores). In addition, there was an equal incidence of left and right allocentric neglect (51% vs 49%). However, in terms of recovery, at 6 months post stroke, right neglect was much more likely to recover (only 2 patients still demonstrated right neglect at follow up). There were no differences in recovery rates for ego- vs allocentric neglect. The lack of an effect of egocentric spatial bias to allocentric errors provides strong evidence that these disorders are independent. In addition, the greater likelihood of left neglect continuing at 6 months, despite it having the same severity for left and right hemisphere patients, is consistent with right hemisphere patients (and patients with chronic neglect) having disorders additional to a bias in spatial orienting. Meeting abstract presented at VSS 2015.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Journal of Vision

Publication Stats

23k Citations
2,324.94 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1992-2015
    • University of Birmingham
      • School of Psychology
      Birmingham, England, United Kingdom
    • University of Kent
      Cantorbery, England, United Kingdom
    • French National Centre for Scientific Research
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
    • Imperial College London
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 2012
    • Tsinghua University
      Peping, Beijing, China
  • 2001-2012
    • University of Oxford
      • Department of Experimental Psychology
      Oxford, ENG, United Kingdom
  • 2010
    • Harvard Medical School
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2009
    • University of Hull
      • Department of Psychology
      Kingston upon Hull, England, United Kingdom
    • Università degli Studi di Torino
      • Center for Cognitive Science
      Torino, Piedmont, Italy
  • 2008
    • University of Alabama at Birmingham
      • Department of Psychology
      Birmingham, Alabama, United States
    • University of Murcia
      • Department of Basic Psychology and Methodology
      Murcia, Murcia, Spain
  • 2006
    • Utrecht University
      Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands
    • University of Burgundy
      Dijon, Bourgogne, France
    • Duke University Medical Center
      Durham, North Carolina, United States
  • 2004
    • Goldsmiths, University of London
      • Department of Psychology
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 2002
    • National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology
      Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan
    • University of California, Davis
      Davis, California, United States
    • The University of Warwick
      • Department of Psychology
      Warwick, ENG, United Kingdom
  • 1998-2002
    • Aston University
      • School of Life and Health Sciences
      Birmingham, England, United Kingdom
    • Scuola Internazionale Superiore di Studi Avanzati di Trieste
      Trst, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Italy
    • University of Liverpool
      • School of Psychology
      Liverpool, England, United Kingdom
  • 1988-2002
    • University of Waterloo
      • Department of Psychology
      Ватерлоо, Ontario, Canada
  • 1999
    • Universidad de Almería
      Unci, Andalusia, Spain
  • 1996
    • Queen Elizabeth Hospital Birmingham
      Birmingham, England, United Kingdom
  • 1994
    • Université René Descartes - Paris 5
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 1981-1994
    • Birkbeck, University of London
      • Department of Psychological Sciences
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 1984-1987
    • University of London
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom