[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Background
We performed endoscopic ultrasound real-time tissue elastography to more accurately diagnose lymph node metastasis of esophageal cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of EUS elastography to distinguish benign from malignant lymph nodes in esophageal cancer patients.
The present study had two steps. As the first step (study 1), we developed diagnostic criteria for metastatic lymph nodes using elastography and verified the validity of the criteria. Three hundred and twenty-two lymph nodes from 35 patients treated by surgical resection were included in the study. As the second step (study 2), we preoperatively examined the lymph nodes of esophageal cancer patients with EUS elastography and compared its diagnostic performance with that of the conventional B-mode EUS images. A total of 115 lymph nodes from 31 patients were included.
In study 1, lymph nodes were considered malignant if 50 % or more of the node appeared blue, or if the peripheral part of the lesion was blue and the central part was red/yellow/green. The sensitivity and specificity of the elastography were 79.7 and 97.6 % with an accuracy of 93.8 %, which was significantly higher than the values for conventional B-mode imaging. In study 2, the sensitivity and specificity of the EUS elastography were 91.2 and 94.5 % with an accuracy of 93.9 %, which was also significantly higher than the values for conventional B-mode EUS imaging.
The present study demonstrated that EUS elastography is useful for diagnosing lymph node metastasis of esophageal cancer.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: A 6 5-year-old woman with a gastrointestinal stromal tumor(GIST)underwent a total gastrectomy in 1999. In 2004, she was diagnosed with an intra-abdominal recurrence and was treated with 300mg/day of imatinib. Because of the side effects of imatinib, we interrupted the treatment and were forced to reduce the dose from 300mg/day to 100mg/day. However, at present, the tumor remains controlled. In conclusion, this case suggested that, even if given irregularly or at a low-dose, continuous treatment with imatinib might contribute to long-term survival in patients with GIST.
No preview · Article · Mar 2014 · Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Diagnosis of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) may improve with early diagnosis. Currently it is difficult to diagnose SCC in the early stage because there is a limited number of tumor markers available.
Fifty-two esophageal SCC SEREX antigens were identified by SEREX (serological identification of antigens by recombinant cDNA expression cloning) using a cDNA phage library and sera of patients with esophageal SCC. Sequence analysis revealed that three of these antigens were similar in amino acid sequences, and they were designated as ECSA (esophageal carcinoma SEREX antigen)-1, -2 and -3. The ECSA family was also similar to an EST clone, hepatocellular carcinoma-associated antigen 25a (HCA25a). Serum antibody levels to ECSA-1, -2 and -3 were significantly higher in patients with esophageal SCC than in healthy donors. Based on the conserved amino acid sequences, three peptides were synthesized and used for enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). The serum antibody levels against one of these peptides were significantly higher in patients with esophageal SCC. This peptide sequence was also conserved in FAM119A, GOSR1 and BBS5, suggesting that these are also ECSA family members. Reverse transcription followed by quantitative PCR analysis showed that the mRNA expression levels of ECSA-1, -2 and -3 and FAM119A but not of HCA25a, GOSR1 and BBS5 were frequently elevated in esophageal SCC tissues.
We have identified a new gene family designated ECSA. Serum antibodies against the conserved domain of the ECSA family may be a promising tumor marker for esophageal SCC.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Purification of recombinant ECSA-2 protein using glutathione-Sepharose. cDNA of ECSA-2 was recombined into pGEX-4T, which produced the GST-ECSA-2 fusion protein after treatment with IPTG. The fusion protein was affinity-purified by glutathione-Sepharose. 1, total extract; 2, supernatant fraction after lysis with Triton X-100 followed by centrifugation; 3: precipitate fraction after lysis with Triton X-100 followed by centrifugation; 4: flow-through/unbound fraction, 5: glutathione-eluted fraction. Coomassie-stained SDS-polyacrylamide gel is shown.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Expression of ECSA-3 mRNA in normal and esophageal SCC tissues. The expressions of ECSA-3 and β-actin (lower panel) mRNA were examined by RT-PCR in specimens of normal (N) and carcinoma (T) tissues resected from patients 1 to 7 (P1 - P7). N* and T* represent the products from RNA of normal esophageal keratinocytes obtained from Cybrdi and the T.Tn esophageal SCC cell line, respectively.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Although endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) for patients with gastric tumors under the conditions of unconsciousness is considered to be minimally invasive, no objective assessment of the perioperative stress of ESD has yet been conducted. Today, stress levels can be easily and objectively assessed by monitoring salivary amylase activity (sAMY). We evaluated the perioperative changes in the sAMY in patients undergoing ESD and identified the causes of such changes.
A total of 40 patients with gastric cancers/adenomas removed by ESD under general anesthesia (GA; n = 20) and under deep sedation (DS; n = 20) were enrolled. sAMY was measured using the enzyme analysis equipment, sAMY Monitor (NIPRO, Osaka, Japan) during the perioperative period of the ESD. Also, all patients were interviewed to determine their subjective stress level, using a questionnaire asking "How did you feel during ESD?", with the choice of responses ranging from "did not wake up at all" to "I was awake and ESD was extremely stressful".
The sAMY of the DS group increased soon after the start of ESD. Meanwhile, that of the GA group decreased just after the ESD started and was maintained at a stable level throughout the ESD. In response to the stress level questionnaire, all of the patients in the GA group and a majority of the patients in the DS group responded, "did not wake up at all".
Sympathetic agitation, expressed as an increase of sAMY, was absent in the GA group. Meanwhile, in the DS group, some patients showed high levels of sAMY which went down following the administration of an analgesic agent, thus suggesting that pain caused an elevation in the level of the stress and thereby induced an increase in sAMY. The measurement of sAMY is therefore considered to be useful for the assessment of analgesic status under DS.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Serological identification of antigens by recombinant cDNA expression cloning (SEREX) is an established method for detecting new tumor-specific antigens. Antibodies to SEREX antigens may be useful for the detection of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC).
A phage cDNA library of a human esophageal SCC cell line was screened using sera of patients with esophageal SCC. The presence and levels of serum antibodies to SEREX antigens were established by Western blotting and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using purified recombinant antigen proteins, respectively.
The newly identified esophageal SCC antigen is encoded by a novel gene located on chromosome 1, here designated CUEC-23. Serum CUEC-23-antibodies (s-CUEC-23-Abs) were detected in 14 of 54 patients with esophageal SCC (26%) by Western blot analysis. Esophageal SCCs were positive for s-CUEC-23-Abs together with CEA, SCC-Ag or CYFRA21-1 in 44, 41 and 52% of cases, respectively. There was no detectable association between the presence of s-CUEC-23-Abs and clinicopathological variables. ELISA showed that the levels of s-CUEC-23-Abs were significantly higher in patients with esophageal SCC than in healthy volunteers (17% in the former using the mean+3 SD of s-CUEC-23-Abs in healthy controls as the cutoff).
A new tumor antigen, CUEC-23, was identified by SEREX screening. s-CUEC-23-Abs might be a useful serum marker to detect esophageal SCC.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2009 · Journal of Gastroenterology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: We performed SEREX (serological identification of antigens by recombinant cDNA expression cloning) using the sera of patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), and examined whether some of the SEREX antigens can affect chemosensitivity against anticancer drugs. We isolated a novel gene which was designated as AISEC (antigen identified by SEREX for esophageal carcinoma). RT-PCR analysis showed that the mRNA expression levels of AISEC were higher in esophageal SCC tissues than in their normal counterparts. By transfection into activated Ha-ras-transformed NIH3T3 (ras-NIH) mouse fibroblasts, we isolated a clone, FAISEC-3, which stably expressed AISEC. FAISEC-3 cells were more resistant to anticancer drugs, such as mitomycin C, ifosfamide, vincristine, camptothecin and etoposide, than parental ras-NIH cells. Luciferase reporter assay after a transient transfection with AISEC cDNA or the control vector revealed that the transactivity of p53 was suppressed by AISEC in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggested that esophageal SCC tissues produce AISEC in increased amounts, which can reduce the chemosensitivity against anticancer drugs possibly by suppressing the p53 transactivation ability.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2009 · International Journal of Oncology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) represents one of the most malignant tumors. To improve the poor prognosis, it is necessary to diagnose esophageal SCC at early stages using new tumor markers. SEREX (serological identification of antigens by recombinant cDNA expression cloning) is suitable for large-scale screening of tumor antigens and has been applied for various types of human tumors.
Tumor markers of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) were screened by SEREX method. The presence of serum anti-makorin 1 (MKRN1) antibodies (s-MKRN1-Abs) was examined by Western blotting using bacterially expressed MKRN1 protein. The expression levels of MKRN1 mRNA in tissues were examined by RT-PCR. The biological activity of MKRN1 was examined by transfection of ras-NIH3T3 mouse fibroblasts with MKRN1 cDNA. Major ubiquitinated proteins in MKRN1-transfected cells were identified by immunoprecipitation with anti-ubiquitin antibody followed by mass spectrometry.
MKRN1 was identified as a novel SEREX antigen of esophageal SCC. Although a total of 18 (25%) of 73 patients with esophageal SCC had s-MKRN1-Abs, none of the 43 healthy donors had a detectable level of s-MKRN1-Abs. There was no correlation between the presence of s-MKRN1-Abs and clinicopathological variables other than histological grading. Well-differentiated tumors were associated significantly with the presence of s-MKRN1-Abs in the patients. The mRNA levels of MKRN1 were frequently higher in esophageal SCC tissues than in the peripheral normal esophageal mucosa. Stable transfection of ras-NIH3T3 cells with MKRN1 cDNA induced prominent morphological changes such as enlargement of the cell body and spreading. Ubiquitination of 80- and 82-kDa proteins were clearly observed in MKRN1-transfected cells but not in the parental cells, which were identified as L-FILIP (filamin A interacting protein 1).
MKRN1 is a novel SEREX antigen of esophageal SCC, and s-NKRN1-Abs can be a candidate of diagnostic markers of esophageal SCC with high specificity. It is plausible that MKRN1 is involved in carcinogenesis of the well-differentiated type of tumors possibly via ubiquitination of L-FILIP.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: We previously performed SEREX (serological identification of antigens by recombinant expression cloning) using the sera of patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), and isolated a variant clone (AK093616) of ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E21 (UBE2I). This clone was tentatively designated as UBE2I-v5 and analyzed for biological function by transient transfection of the cDNA into activated Ha-ras-transformed NIH3T3 (ras-NIH) mouse fibroblasts. Chemosensitivity to 92 cytotoxic drugs was compared between UBE2I-v5-transfected cells and the parental ras-NIH cells. The UBE2I-v5-transfected cells were more sensitive than the parental cells to anticancer drugs such as vincristine (VCR), mitoxantrone (MIT) and etoposide (VP16). The regression analysis of the total chemosensitivity pattern of UBE2I-vS-transfected cells revealed that the function of UBE2I-v5 was positively related to RPA2 (replication protein A2), Rho-GDI (Rho guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitor a), FUS (putative tumor suppressor) and TKT (transketolase) but negatively related to Per-1 (period-I), Ran (nuclear Ras-related protein), PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog), C/EBPalpha (CCAAT/enhancer binding protein a) and the tumor suppressor p53. Thus, it is possible that UBE21-v5 plays a role in carcinogenesis by suppressing the function of CIEBPa and/or p53 via RPA2-like activity.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2007 · Anticancer research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: We report herein a case with stage IV gastric cancer previously treated with TS-1 completely responding to second-line chemotherapy with weekly paclitaxel therapy. A 65-year-old female was diagnosed as having type 3 gastric cancer with para-aortic lymph node metastases. She underwent total gastrectomy with extended lymph node dissection on March 2003. Histopathological examination revealed that the tumor was poorly-differentiated adenocarcinoma with para-aortic lymph nodes metastases and completely resected. After the operation,she was treated by adjuvant chemotherapy with TS-1. In March of 2004, she suffered from hematuria, and a CT scan revealed para-aortic lymph nodes metastases and left kidney metastasis. Then, she was treated by a weekly infusion of paclitaxel as second-line chemotherapy. After 3 courses, the tumor disappeared and efficacy was judged as CR. Moreover, CR was maintained after 7 courses. At this writing in January of 2005, she is well and has been treated with paclitaxel without any severe adverse events. Therefore, weekly paclitaxel therapy was considered to be one of the promising second-line chemotherapies for advanced or recurrent gastric cancer previously treated by TS-1.
No preview · Article · Jan 2006 · Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: We report a case of G-CSF-producing gastric cancer with multiple liver metastases. A 55-year-old male who complained of general fatigue and of tarry stools was admitted to our hospital. Endoscopy and X-ray examination revealed a type-3 gastric cancer. The pre-operative laboratory data indicated leukocytosis (18,610/ mm3) and a high level of G-CSF (76 pg/ml). Since we detected multiple liver metastases, so chemotherapy was performed. Because of bleeding from the gastric cancer, however, the patient underwent a total gastrectomy on November 11, 2002. The surgical stage was T3N3POH3, stage IV. The pathological diagnosis was; tub2, se. pm-, dm-, ly3. v3, n3, stage IV. After the operation, the hepatic metastasis progressed and the serum G-CSF level increased up to 250 pg/ml. The patient died of hepatic failure on February 5, 2003. G-CSF-producing gastric cancer is rare and we summarize previous reports.
No preview · Article · Jan 2003 · Nippon Shokaki Geka Gakkai zasshi