[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dysregulated expression of translation initiation factors has been associated with carcinogenesis, but underlying mechanisms remains to be fully understood. Here we show that eIF4H (eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4H), an activator of the RNA helicase eIF4A, is overexpressed in lung carcinomas and predictive of response to chemotherapy. In lung cancer cells, depletion of eIF4H enhances sensitization to chemotherapy, decreases cell migration and inhibits tumor growth in vivo, in association with reduced translation of mRNA encoding cell-proliferation (c-Myc, cyclin D1) angiogenic (FGF-2) and anti-apoptotic factors (CIAP-1, BCL-xL). Conversely, each isoform of eIF4H acts as an oncogene in NIH3T3 cells by stimulating transformation, invasion, tumor growth and resistance to drug-induced apoptosis together with increased translation of IRES-containing or structured 5'UTR mRNAs. These results demonstrate that eIF4H plays a crucial role in translational control and can promote cellular transformation by preferentially regulating the translation of potent growth and survival factor mRNAs, indicating that eIF4H is a promising new molecular target for cancer therapy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The regulatory microRNA miR-150 is involved in the development of hemopathies and is downregulated in T-lymphomas, such as anaplastic large-cell lymphoma (ALCL) tumors. ALCL is defined by the presence or absence of translocations that activate the anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK), with nucleophosmin-ALK (NPM-ALK) fusions being the most common. Here, we compared samples of primary NPM-ALK(+) and NPM-ALK(-) ALCL to investigate the role of miR-150 downstream of NPM-ALK. Methylation of the MIR150 gene was substantially elevated in NPM-ALK(+) biopsies and correlated with reduced miR-150 expression. In NPM-ALK(+) cell lines, DNA hypermethylation-mediated miR-150 repression required ALK-dependent pathways, as ALK inhibition restored miR-150 expression. Moreover, epigenetic silencing of miR-150 was due to the activation of STAT3, a major downstream substrate of NPM-ALK, in cooperation with DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1). Accordingly, miR-150 repression was turned off following treatment with the DNMT inhibitor, decitabine. In murine NPM-ALK(+) xenograft models, miR-150 upregulation induced antineoplastic activity. Treatment of crizotinib-resistant NPM-ALK(+) KARPAS-299-CR06 cells with decitabine or ectopic miR-150 expression reduced viability and growth. Altogether, our results suggest that hypomethylating drugs, alone or in combination with other agents, may benefit ALK(+) patients harboring tumors resistant to crizotinib and other anti-ALK tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). Moreover, these results support further work on miR-150 in these and other ALK(+) malignancies.
Preview · Article · Aug 2015 · The Journal of clinical investigation
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Peripheral T-cell Lymphomas (PTCL) are types of rare and heterogeneous Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma (NHL) that, in general, are associated with a poor clinical outcome. Discovery of new prognostic tools is thus a current and major challenge. A cohort of 122 cases of PTCL was collected from a multicentric T-cell lymphoma consortium (TENOMIC). We analyzed the expression of 80 small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) using high-throughput quantitative PCR (Fluidigm). We demonstrate that snoRNA expression analysis may be useful in both the diagnosis of some subtypes of PTCL and the prognostication of both PTCL-Not Otherwise Specified (PTCL-NOS) (n=26) and Angio-Immunoblastic T-cell Lymphoma (AITL) (n=46) patients treated with chemotherapy. Like microRNAs, snoRNAs were globally down-regulated in tumor cells compared to their normal counterparts. The snoRNA signature was robust enough to differentiate Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma (ALCL) (n=32) from other PTCLs. For PTCL-NOS and AITL we obtained two distinct prognostic signatures with a reduced set of 3 genes. Of particular interest was the prognostic value of HBII-239 snoRNA which was significantly over-expressed in cases of AITL and PTCL-NOS that had favourable outcomes. Overall, we demonstrate that snoRNA expression profiles may have a diagnostic and prognostic significance for PTCL, offering new tools for patient care and follow-up.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Apart from microRNAs, little is known about the regulation of expression of non-coding RNAs in cancer. We investigated whether small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) accumulation displayed specific signatures in acute myeloblastic and acute lymphoblastic leukemias. Using microarrays and high-throughput quantitative PCR (qPCR), we demonstrate here that snoRNA expression patterns are negatively altered in leukemic cells compared with controls. Interestingly, a specific signature was found in acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) with ectopic expression of SNORD112-114 snoRNAs located at the DLK1-DIO3 locus. In vitro experiments carried out on APL blasts demonstrate that transcription of these snoRNAs was lost under all-trans retinoic acid-mediated differentiation and induced by enforced expression of the PML-RARalpha fusion protein in negative leukemic cell lines. Further experiments revealed that the SNORD114-1 (14q(II-1)) variant promoted cell growth through cell cycle modulation; its expression was implicated in the G0/G1 to S phase transition mediated by the Rb/p16 pathways. This study thus reports three important observations: (1) snoRNA regulation is different in normal cells compared with cancer cells; (2) a relationship exists between a chromosomal translocation and expression of snoRNA loci; and (3) snoRNA expression can affect Rb/p16 cell cycle regulation. Taken together, these data strongly suggest that snoRNAs have a role in cancer development.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2012 · Leukemia: official journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) is often associated with chromosomal translocations leading to the deregulation of proto-oncogenes. MicroRNAs can also be affected by chromosomal alterations and thus contribute to carcinogenesis. The microRNA, miR-125b-1, is overexpressed in B-ALL cases with the t(11;14)(q24;q32) translocation; therefore, we sought to determine the role of this microRNA in B-cell fate. We used murine pre-BI cells alongside murine and human leukemic B-cell lines to show that miR-125b expression enhances proliferation by targeting B-cell regulator of immunoglobulin heavy-chain transcription (Bright)/ARID3a, an activator of immunoglobulin heavy-chain transcription. Accordingly, this target gene was downregulated in B-ALL patients with the t(11;14)(q24;q32) translocation. Repression of Bright/ARID3a blocked differentiation and conferred a survival advantage to Ba/F3 cells under interleukin-3 starvation. In addition, overexpression of miR-125b protected pre-BI and leukemic B-cell lines from apoptosis by blockade of caspase activation by a mechanism that was independent of p53 and BAK1. In summary, miR-125b can act as an oncogene in B-ALL by targeting ARID3a and mediating its repression, thus leading to a blockage in differentiation, increased proliferation and inhibition of apoptosis.
No preview · Article · Apr 2012 · Leukemia: official journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Acute basophilic leukemia (ABL) is a rare subtype of acute leukemia with clinical features and symptoms related to hyperhistaminemia because of excessive growth of basophils. No known recurrent cytogenetic abnormality is associated with this leukemia. Rare cases of t(X;6)(p11;q23) translocation have been described but these were sporadic. We report here 4 cases of ABL with a t(X;6)(p11;q23) translocation occurring in male infants. Because of its location on chromosome 6q23, MYB was a good candidate gene. Our molecular investigations, based on fluorescence in situ hybridization and rapid amplification of cDNA ends, revealed that the translocation generated a MYB-GATA1 fusion gene. Expression of MYB-GATA1 in mouse lineage-negative cells committed them to the granulocyte lineage and blocked at an early stage of differentiation. Taken together, these results establish, for the first time, a link between a recurrent chromosomal translocation and the development of this particular subtype of infant leukemia.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PAX5 is the main target of somatic mutations in acute B lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL). We analyzed 153 adult and child B-ALL harboring karyotypic abnormalities at chromosome 9p, to determine the frequency and the nature of PAX5 alterations. We found PAX5 internal rearrangements in 21% of the cases. To isolate fusion partners, we used classic and innovative techniques (rolling circle amplification-rapid amplification of cDNA ends) and single nucleotide polymorphism-comparative genomic hybridization arrays. Recurrent and novel fusion partners were identified, including NCoR1, DACH2, GOLGA6, and TAOK1 genes showing the high variability of the partners. We noted that half the fusion genes can give rise to truncated PAX5 proteins. Furthermore, malignant cells carrying PAX5 fusion genes displayed a simple karyotype. These data strongly suggest that PAX5 fusion genes are early players in leukemogenesis. In addition, PAX5 deletion was observed in 60% of B-ALL with 9p alterations. Contrary to cases with PAX5 fusions, deletions were associated with complex karyotypes and common recurrent translocations. This supports the hypothesis of the secondary nature of the deletion. Our data shed more light on the high variability of PAX5 alterations in B-ALL. Therefore, it is probable that gene fusions occur early, whereas deletions should be regarded as a late/secondary event.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adult and child B-cell progenitor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BCP-ALL) differ in terms of incidence and prognosis. These disparities are mainly due to the molecular abnormalities associated with these two clinical entities. A genome-wide analysis using oligo SNP arrays recently demonstrated that PAX5 (paired-box domain 5) is the main target of somatic mutations in childhood BCP-ALL being altered in 38.9% of the cases. We report here the most extensive analysis of alterations of PAX5 coding sequence in 117 adult BCP-ALL patients in the unique clinical protocol GRAALL-2003/GRAAPH-2003. Our study demonstrates that PAX5 is mutated in 34% of adult BCP-ALL, mutations being partial or complete deletion, partial or complete amplification, point mutation or fusion gene. PAX5 alterations are heterogeneous consisting in complete loss in 17%, focal deletions in 10%, point mutations in 7% and translocations in 1% of the cases. PAX5 complete loss and PAX5 point mutations differ. PAX5 complete loss seems to be a secondary event and is significantly associated with BCR-ABL1 or TCF3-PBX1 fusion genes and a lower white blood cell count.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2009 · Leukemia: official journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Most chromosomal translocations in myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) involve oncogenes that are either up-regulated or form part of new chimeric genes. The t(2;11)(p21;q23) translocation has been cloned in 19 cases of MDS and AML. In addition to this, we have shown that this translocation is associated with a strong up-regulation of miR-125b (from 6- to 90-fold). In vitro experiments revealed that miR-125b was able to interfere with primary human CD34(+) cell differentiation, and also inhibited terminal (monocytic and granulocytic) differentiation in HL60 and NB4 leukemic cell lines. Therefore, miR-125b up-regulation may represent a new mechanism of myeloid cell transformation, and myeloid neoplasms carrying the t(2;11) translocation define a new clinicopathological entity.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2008 · Journal of Experimental Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Follicular lymphoma (FL) is a neoplasm originating from germinal centre cells, corresponding to 25-40% of non-Hodgkin's lymphomas. Transformation into diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) occurs in about one-third of cases. CD5 is expressed in B-chronic lymphoid leukaemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma and mantle cell lymphoma, but can rarely be expressed in conjunction with CD10 in well-documented cases of FL. In this report one case of grade 1 FL is described, which transformed into a DLBCL 6 months after initial diagnosis, with both tumours expressing CD5. In both specimens, neoplastic cells were strongly positive for CD20, CD79a, bcl-2, bcl-6 and CD5 in virtually all cells. CD10 was strongly positive in initial specimens and weakly positive in the DLBCL. Investigation using the PCR confirmed the derivation of the DLBCL from the FL as they presented the same immunoglobulin heavy chain gene rearrangement and the same BCL2-J(H) break point.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2007 · Journal of Clinical Pathology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report a novel t(7;9)(q11;p13) translocation in 2 patients with B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL). By fluorescent in situ hybridization and 3' rapid amplification of cDNA ends, we showed that the paired box domain of PAX5 was fused with the elastin (ELN) gene. After cloning the full-length cDNA of the chimeric gene, confocal microscopy of transfected NIH3T3 cells and Burkitt lymphoma cells (DG75) demonstrated that PAX5-ELN was localized in the nucleus. Chromatin immunoprecipitation clearly indicated that PAX5-ELN retained the capability to bind CD19 and BLK promoter sequences. To analyze the functions of the chimeric protein, HeLa cells were cotransfected with a luc-CD19 construct, pcDNA3-PAX5, and with increasing amounts of pcDNA3-PAX5-ELN. Thus, in vitro, PAX5-ELN was able to block CD19 transcription. Furthermore, real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RQ-PCR) experiments showed that PAX5-ELN was able to affect the transcription of endogenous PAX5 target genes. Since PAX5 is essential for B-cell differentiation, this translocation may account for the blockage of leukemic cells at the pre-B-cell stage. The mechanism involved in this process appears to be, at least in part, through a dominant-negative effect of PAX5-ELN on the wild-type PAX5 in a setting ofPAX5 haploinsufficiency.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A retrospective investigation of the JAK2 V617F mutation was carried out in DNA samples from 131 bone marrow (BM) core biopsy specimens corresponding to patients with polycythemia vera (PV) (n = 31), essential thrombocythemia (ET) (n = 31), chronic idiopathic myelofibrosis (CIM) (n = 18), as well as patients with normal BM and secondary reactive hyperplasia. We used the TaqMan polymerase chain reaction single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping assay to detect the specific JAK2 mutation. This technique allowed us to detect the JAK2 V617F mutation in a population containing at least 5% of homozygous mutants. Overall, the incidence of the JAK2 V617F mutation was 87% in PV, 67% in ET, and 66% in CIM. This approach proved to be reliable and more sensitive in detecting the mutation compared with that of initial studies on different materials but similar to that of recent work with various polymerase chain reaction-based techniques. Two essential findings arose from our study. First, this technique could be carried out with DNA samples, even partially degraded, from routinely processed BM core biopsy specimens. Second, after correlation with morphological features, it turned out that the characteristics of the megakaryocytes were more specific than the mutational status of JAK2 in characterizing ET and CIM. Concerning PV, as expected, the incidence of the JAK2 mutation was higher, but the morphological criteria were misleading in some cases, strongly suggesting that the combination of both histologic and molecular data would enable the characterization of virtually all cases.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Several tyrosine kinase genes are involved in chromosomal translocations in chronic myeloproliferative disorders, but there are still uncharacterized translocations in some cases. We report two such cases corresponding to atypical chronic myeloid leukaemia with a t(8;9)(p22;p24) translocation. By fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) on the corresponding metaphases with a bacterial artificial chromosome probe encompassing the janus kinase 2 (JAK2) gene at 9p24, we observed a split for both patients, suggesting that this gene was rearranged. The locus at 8p22 contains different candidate genes including the pericentriolar material 1 gene (PCM1), already implicated in reciprocal translocations. The rearrangement of the PCM1 gene was demonstrated by FISH, for both patients. By RT-PCR, we confirmed the fusion of 3' part of JAK2 with the 5' part of PCM1. Sequence analysis of the chimeric PCM1-JAK2 mRNA suggests that the putative protein displays the coiled-coil domains of PCM1 and the tyrosine kinase domain of JAK2. This new translocation identifies JAK2 as a possible therapeutic target for compounds with anti-tyrosine kinase activity.