[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Eosinophilia may be associated with various primary and reactive conditions. The incidence and the causes of eosinophilia might have been changed according to the changes in the incidence of diseases such as cancer, chronic degenerative diseases, etc. We have conducted a retrospective study to investigate the incidence and causes of eosinophilia.
Eosinophilia and hypereosinophilia were defined when absolute eosinophil count was greater than 500/microL and 1,500/microL, respectively. Patient's clinical records were reviewed to find out the underlying clinical conditions responsible for causes of hypereosinophilia. Conventional chromosomal analysis, reverse transcriptase PCR and FISH for gene rearrangement were performed to check the presence of clonal eosinophilia.
Out of 41,137 patients who had a hematology profile performed, 5,019 (12.2%) and 373 patients (0.9%) were found to have eosinophilia and hypereosinophilia, respectively. Among patients with hypereosinophilia, 227 patients (60.9%) had identifiable and/or possible causes. The major causes of hypereosinophilia were malignancy (35.2%), allergy and skin diseases (18.1%), infectious diseases (15.4%), hepatobiliary diseases (7.5%), bone marrow clonal diseases (6.6%) and parasite infections (6.6%). We also found a rare case of FIP1L1-PDGFRalpha positive chronic eosinophilic leukemia combined with light chain multiple myeloma.
We found a difference in the distribution of causes of hypereosinophilia in comparison with previous Korean studies, and the most common cause of hypereosinophilia in the current study was malignancy. A rare case of clonal eosinophilia (chronic eosinophilic leukemia) associated with multiple myeloma was confirmed using molecular studies.
Preview · Article · Jul 2009 · The Korean Journal of Laboratory Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fluorescent dye Rhodamine 6G (R6G) is a substrate of multidrug resistance pumps and its accumulation is reduced in some azole-resistant Candida isolates with the upregulation of multidrug efflux transporter genes. Despite reports on species-specific differences in azole susceptibility in various Candida species, only a few studies have been reported on the R6G accumulation among clinical isolates of Candida species. In this study, we compared R6G accumulation between six different Candida species.
The intracellular accumulation of R6G and minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of three triazole agents were investigated in 48 strains of six Candida species (14 C. albicans, 9 C. tropicalis, 8 C. glabrata, 8 C. krusei, 7 C. parapsilosis, and 2 C. haemulonii). R6G accumulation was measured by using flow cytometry and the geometric mean of the fluorescence intensity (GMF) was used to compare the accumulation between the Candida isolates.
The GMF values for the C. tropicalis, C. albicans, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis, and C. glabrata isolates were 167.3+/-18.5, 126.9+/-6.6, 88.5+/-18.5, 50.8+/-7.0, and 38.1+/-3.9, respectively. C. glabrata had a significantly lower mean GMF than all the other Candida species (P<0.05). While some Candida strains with trailing growth phenomenon and increased fluconazole MIC did not have a reduced GMF, three Candida strains with increased MICs to all three triazole agents had a reduced GMF.
This study found species-specific differences in R6G accumulation in Candida. In addition, the intracellular R6G accumulation can be used to investigate the drug efflux mechanism in azole-resistant Candida strains.
Preview · Article · May 2009 · The Korean Journal of Laboratory Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The incidence of bone marrow (BM) metastasis might be related with the occurrence of malignant tumors in ethnic groups. So, we investigated the type and the frequency of metastatic tumors of BM and analyzed the clinicopathologic variables of BM metastasis.
This study included 932 cases of primary malignant tumor which were requested for BM study from January 1995 to June 2006 in Chonnam National University Hospital and Chonnam National University Hwasun Hospital. Peripheral blood smears (PBS); aspirates, touch prints, and trephine biopsies of BM; and medical records including other laboratory test results were reviewed.
Overall frequency of BM metastasis was 11.9% (111/932). Primary tumors with BM involvement in children comprised neuroblastoma (74.1%), rhabdomyosarcoma (7.4%), and malignant lymphoma (7.4%). For adult patients, they consisted of malignant lymphoma (56.0%), gastrointestinal cancer (20.2%), and lung cancer (6.0%). In the case of malignant lymphoma, diffuse large cell lymphoma was the most frequent one. Laboratory findings of patients with BM metastasis commonly showed anemia and thrombocytopenia; in addition, serum LD, ALP, AST and ALT were elevated in 81.5% (75/92), 63.4% (59/93), 63.5% (61/96) and 33.3% (32/96), respectively. Leukoerythroblastosis was observed only in 19.8% (22/111) on PBS examination.
The most common non-hematopoietic metastatic tumor was neuroblastoma in children and gastrointestinal tumors in adults. Leukoerythroblastosis, anemia, and the elevation of serum LD, ALP, and AST were useful markers for the prediction of BM metastasis.
Full-text · Article · May 2007 · The Korean Journal of Laboratory Medicine