Raymond C K Chan

Chinese Academy of Sciences, Peping, Beijing, China

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Publications (268)914.2 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Delay discounting is the decrease in subjective value of a reward as the interval of receiving it is increased. Previous studies have found inconsistent results on the relationship between age and delay discounting, and few studies have been conducted using Chinese participants. The current study aimed to clarify this relationship using a relatively large sample of Chinese adults with a wide age range (viz., 18 to 86. years old). A total of 1288 individuals completed the Monetary Choice Questionnaire. Results showed that the rate of delay discounting increased with age across adulthood, with younger participants (18-30. years) discounting less than both middle-aged participants (31-60. years) and older participants (over 60. years); and middle-aged participants discounting less than older participants. Furthermore, when the reward magnitude was large, participants were more likely to wait for delayed rewards. The increase in delay discounting rate from middle-aged adults to older adults might be explained by the life-cycle theory. The increase in delay discounting rate from young adults to middle-aged adults may reflect that young adults expect much time and a variety of future positive life events in the rest of their lives.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2016 · Personality and Individual Differences
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    Barbara Franke · Jason L Stein · Stephan Ripke · Verneri Anttila · Derrek P Hibar · Kimm J E van Hulzen · Alejandro Arias-Vasquez · Jordan W Smoller · Thomas E Nichols · Michael C Neale · [...] · Paul Nyquist · Louis N Vinke · Cornelia M van Duijn · Xue Luting · Bernard Mazoyer · Joshua C Bis · Vilmundur Gudnason · Sudha Seshadri · M Arfan Ikram · Gunter Schumann ·

    Full-text · Article · Feb 2016 · Nature Neuroscience
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    ABSTRACT: Research on the relationship between insight and social cognition, in particular Theory of Mind (ToM), in schizophrenia has yielded mixed findings to date. Very few studies, however, have assessed both clinical insight and cognitive insight when examining their relationships with ToM in schizophrenia. The current study thus investigated the relationship between clinical insight, cognitive insight, and ToM in a sample of 56 patients with schizophrenia and 30 healthy controls. Twenty-seven patients were classified as low in clinical insight according to their scores on the ‘insight’ item (G12) of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Moreover, cognitive insight and ToM were assessed with the Beck Cognitive Insight Scale (BCIS) and the Yoni task, respectively. The results indicated that patients with poor clinical insight performed worse on tasks of second-order cognitive and affective ToM, while the ToM performance of patients with high clinical insight was equivalent to that of healthy controls. Furthermore, while clinical insight was correlated with ToM and clinical symptoms, cognitive insight did not correlate with clinical insight, ToM, or clinical symptoms. Clinical insight thus appears to be an important factor related to ToM in schizophrenia.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2016
  • Lingling Fang · Jia Huang · Qian Zhang · Raymond C K Chan · Rong Wang · Weiqing Wan
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE Dysexecutive syndrome is common in patients with moyamoya disease (MMD), a chronic cerebrovascular disease that is characterized by stenosis of the bilateral internal carotid arteries and progressive collateral revascularization, and MMD can be classified as ischemic or hemorrhagic according to the disease presentation and history. In this study, the authors aimed to determine which aspects of executive function are impaired in patients with MMD, in addition to the specific dysexecutive functions present among its clinical subtypes and the mechanisms underlying dysexecutive function in these patients. METHODS The authors administered 5 typical executive function tests (the Stroop test, the Hayling Sentence Completion Test [HSCT], the verbal fluency [VF] test, the N-back test, and the Sustained Attention to Response Task [SART]) to 49 patients with MMD and 47 IQ-, age-, education-, and social status-matched healthy controls. The dysexecutive questionnaire (DEX) was also used to assess participants' subjective feelings about their executive function. A total of 39 of the patients were evaluated by CT perfusion (CTP) before the assessments were performed, and the correlations among the performances of the patients on the above tests with the parameters of cerebral blood volume, cerebral blood flow (CBF), mean transit time (MTT), and time-to-peak (TTP) in the frontal lobes of these patients were also analyzed. RESULTS Many aspects of executive function in the patients with MMD were significantly poorer than those in the healthy controls, and the patients performed particularly poorer on the VF test, HSCT, N-back test, and SART. The patients with hemorrhagic MMD exhibited worse executive inhibition, executive processing, and semantic inhibition compared with those with ischemic MMD, but the latter group presented a worse working memory and poorer sustained attention. There were no significant differences in the DEX scores between the patients with MMD and healthy controls. The other findings were as follows: CBF was significantly positively correlated with the number correct on part B of the HSCT (r = 0.481, p = 0.01) and accuracy on the 0-back task of the N-back (r = 0.346, p = 0.031); MTT was significantly positively correlated with accuracy on the 2-back task of the N-back (r = 0.349, p = 0.034) and factor 5 of the DEX (r = 0.359, p = 0.032); and TTP was significantly positively correlated with the number correct on part B of the HSCT (r = 0.402, p = 0.034) and the 1-back reaction time of the N-back (r = 0.356, p = 0.026). CONCLUSIONS The patients with MMD exhibited impairments in semantic inhibition, executive processing, working memory, and sustained attention, but they were not aware of these deficits. Moreover, differences in dysexecutive function existed between the different subtypes of MMD. Hypoperfusion of the frontal lobe may be related to working memory and semantic inhibition impairments in patients with MMD.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Journal of Neurosurgery
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    ABSTRACT: Neurological soft signs (NSSs) bear the promise for early detection of schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Nonetheless, the sensitivity and specificity of NSSs in the psychosis continuum remains a topic of controversy. It is also unknown how NSSs reveal neurodevelopmental abnormality in schizophrenia. We investigated the effect sizes of NSSs in differentiating individuals with schizophrenia spectrum disorders from individuals with other psychiatric conditions and from covariate-matched healthy subjects. We also investigated the partitioned age-related variations of NSSs in both schizophrenia and healthy individuals. NSSs were assessed by the abridged version of the Cambridge Neurological Inventory (CNI) in 3105 participants, consisting of healthy individuals (n =1577), unaffected first-degree relatives of schizophrenia patients (n = 155), individuals with schizotypal personality disorder (n = 256), schizophrenia patients (n = 738), and other psychiatric patients (n = 379). Exact matching and propensity score matching procedures were performed to control for covariates. Multiple regression was used to partition age-related variations. Individuals along the schizophrenia continuum showed elevated levels of NSSs, with moderate effect sizes, in contrast to other psychiatric patients who had minimal NSSs, as well as matched healthy controls. Furthermore, the age-and-NSS relationship in schizophrenia patients was represented by a flat but overall elevated pattern, in contrast to a U-shaped pattern in healthy individuals. In sum, NSSs capture a moderate portion of psychosis proneness with reasonable specificity. Lifespan profiling reveals an abnormal developmental trajectory of NSSs in schizophrenia patients, which supports the endophenotype hypothesis of NSSs by associating it with the neurodevelopmental model of schizophrenia.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2016 · Schizophrenia Bulletin

  • No preview · Chapter · Dec 2015
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    Tian-xiao Yang · Richard J. Allen · Qi-jing Yu · Raymond C. K. Chan
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    ABSTRACT: Following instructions is an important component of learning and has been shown to rely on working memory. This study examined the ability to follow instructions within working memory under varying input and output modalities. In Experiment 1, participants heard, read, or viewed demonstration of short sequences of instructions, and recalled either by oral repetition or physical enactment. There was a significant main effect of encoding, showing superior recall performance when instructions were demonstrated relative to spoken or written presentation. Experiment 2 examined whether recall is further improved when instructions are presented both in spoken and demonstrated form, relative to single modality presentation. The advantage for demonstration over spoken instructions was replicated, and dual input was superior to spoken instructions. However, dual input did not bring extra benefit compared to demonstration of instructions. We also observed a significant enacted-retrieval recall advantage. These findings suggest effects of both input and output modalities on the ability to remember and follow instructions in working memory. Outcomes substantially inform the underexplored but important new area of action-based working memory and its links to embodied cognition, with implications for pedagogic practice.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2015 · Scientific Reports
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    ABSTRACT: The gap between the demand and delivery of mental health services in mainland China can be reduced by validating freely available and psychometrically sound psychological instruments. The present research examined the Chinese version of the 21-item Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21). Study 1 administered the DASS-21 to 1,815 Chinese college students and found internal consistency indices (Cronbach's alpha) of .83, .80, and .82 for the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress subscales, respectively, and .92 for the total DASS total. Test-retest reliability over a 6-month interval was .39 to .46 for each of the 3 subscales and .46 for the total DASS. Moderate convergent validity of the Depression and Anxiety subscales was demonstrated via significant correlations with the Chinese Beck Depression Inventory (r = .51 at Time 1 and r = .64 at Time 2) and the Chinese State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (r = .41), respectively. Confirmatory factor analyses supported the original 3-factor model with 1 minor change (nonnormed fit index [NNFI] = .964, comparative fit index [CFI] = .968, and root mean square error of approximation [RMSEA] = .079). Study 2 examined the clinical utility of the Chinese DASS-21 in 166 patients with schizophrenia and 90 matched healthy controls. Patients had higher Depression and Anxiety but not Stress subscale scores than healthy controls. A discriminant function composed of the linear combination of 3 subscale scores correctly discriminated 69.92% of participants, which again supported the potential clinical utility of the DASS in mainland China. Taken together, findings in these studies support the cross-cultural validity of the DASS-21 in China. (PsycINFO Database Record
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · Psychological Assessment
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    Dataset: wang2015

    Full-text · Dataset · Nov 2015
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    Full-text · Dataset · Nov 2015
  • Ziwen Peng · Gang Li · Feng Shi · Changzheng Shi · Qiong Yang · Raymond C.K. Chan · Dinggang Shen
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    ABSTRACT: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is considered to be associated with atypical brain asymmetry. However, no study has examined the asymmetry in OCD from the perspective of cortical morphometry. This study is aimed to describe the characteristics of cortical asymmetry in OCD patients, and to investigate whether these features exist in their unaffected siblings - a vital step in identifying putative endophenotypes for OCD. A total of 48 subjects (16 OCD patients, 16 unaffected siblings, and 16 matched controls) were recruited who had complete magnetic resonance imaging scans. Left-right hemispheric asymmetries of cortical thickness were measured using a surface-based threshold-free cluster enhancement method. OCD patients and siblings both showed leftward asymmetries of cortical thickness in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), which showed a significant positive correlation with compulsive subscale scores. In addition, siblings and healthy controls showed significantly decreased leftward asymmetries in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), and the decreased leftward bias in the OFC was accompanied by lower scales on the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale. To sum up, leftward asymmetries of cortical thickness in the ACC may represent an endophenotype of increased hereditary risk for OCD, while decreased leftward asymmetries of cortical thickness in the OFC may represent a protective factor.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Anhedonia is a cardinal feature of major depression and is hypothesized to be driven by low motivation, in particular blunted reward sensitivity. It has been suggested to be a marker that represents a genetic predisposition to this disorder. However, little is known about the mechanisms underlying this heightened risk in unaffected first-degree relatives of patients with major depression. We previously demonstrated abnormal reward biases in acutely depressed patients. The present study aimed to examine the development of reward bias in first-degree relatives of patients with major depression. Methods: Forty-seven first-degree relatives of patients with major depression (26 females, age 18-52) and 60 healthy controls with no family history of depression (34 females, age 21-48) were recruited. A probabilistically rewarded difficult visual discrimination task, in which participants were instructed about the contingencies, was used to assess blunted reward sensitivity. A response bias towards the more frequently rewarded stimulus (termed "reward bias") was the primary outcome variable in this study. Participants also completed self-reported measures of anhedonia and depressive symptoms. Results: Compared with the control group, relatives of patients with major depression with sub-clinical depressive symptoms displayed a blunted reward bias. Relatives without symptoms displayed largely intact motivational processing on both self-report and experimental measures. The degree of anhedonia was associated with attenuated reward bias in first-degree relatives of patients with major depression, especially in those with sub-clinical symptoms. Limitations: The study did not include a depressed patient group, which restricted our ability to interpret the observed group differences. Conclusions: Blunted reward sensitivity may be largely manifested in a subgroup of relatives with high levels of depressive symptoms.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Journal of Affective Disorders
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    ABSTRACT: Background: The clinical presentation of common symptoms during depressive episodes in bipolar disorder (BD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) poses challenges for accurate diagnosis. Disorder-specific neuroanatomical features may aid the development of reliable discrimination between these two clinical conditions. Methods: For our sample of 16 BD patients, 19 MDD patients and 29 healthy volunteers, we adopted vertex-wise cortical based brain imaging techniques to examine cortical thickness and surface area, two components of cortical volume with distinct genetic determinants. Based on specific characteristics of neuroanatomical features, we then used support vector machine (SVM) algorithm to discriminate between patients with BD and MDD. Results: Compared to MDD patients, BD patients showed significantly larger cortical surface area in the left bankssts, precuneus, precentral, inferior parietal, superior parietal and the right middle temporal gyri. In addition, larger volumes of subcortical regions were found in BD patients. In SVM discriminative analyses, the overall accuracy was 74.3 %, with a sensitivity of 62.5 % and a specificity of 84.2 % (p = 0.028). Compared to controls, larger surface area in the temporo-parietal regions were observed in BD patients, and thinner cortices in fronto-temporal regions were observed in MDD patients, especially in the medial orbito-frontal area. Conclusions: These findings have demonstrated distinct spatially distributed variations in cortical thickness and surface area in patients with BD and MDD, suggesting potentially varying etiological and neuropathological processes in these two conditions. The employment of multimodal classification on disorder-specific biological features has shed light to the development of potential classification tools that could aid diagnostic decisions.
    Preview · Article · Nov 2015 · BMC Psychiatry
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    ABSTRACT: Previous studies have established a linkage between olfactory deficits and negative symptoms in schizophrenia. However, it is not known whether olfactory function is associated with hedonic traits in individuals with schizotypy. Seventeen individuals with schizotypy and 18 age- and sex-matched controls participated in this study. Hedonic traits were assessed with the Chapman Scales for Physical and Social Anhedonia (CSAS and CPAS). Olfactory function was assessed with the Sniffin' Stick Test (olfactory threshold, odour discrimination and odour identification). All participants undertook a structural imaging scan for grey matter volume measurements. Individuals with schizotypy had significantly higher CSAS and CPAS scores than healthy controls. They had normal olfactory function. Their odour identification ability was inversely correlated with physical and social anhedonia. The volume of the right parahippocampal gyrus was positively associated with odour identification ability, and negatively associated with physical and social anhedonia. Furthermore, mediation analysis suggested that odour identification ability influences anhedonia through its effect on the right parahippocampal gyrus. No such relationship was found in controls. These findings suggest that there is a relationship between odour identification and anhedonia in individuals with schizotypy, and the association may be mediated by parahippocampal gyrus volume.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Prospective memory (PM) deficits have been consistently found in people with schizophrenia. Although there is evidence to suggest that PM deficits may be putative markers for schizophrenia, no longitudinal study has investigated the persistence of PM deficits. Aims: We examined whether PM deficits persist after the onset of schizophrenia, and compared the trajectories of time- and event-based PM performance 12months after illness onset. We also examined whether the association between PM and clinical symptoms changes over time 12months after illness onset. Method: We recruited 58 individuals with first-episode schizophrenia for a 12-month follow-up study. Comparison participants were 37 healthy individuals who were matched in terms of demographics and intelligence with the patient group. PM functions and clinical symptoms were measured at baseline, the sixth month, and the twelfth month, using a computerized PM task and the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. Results: People with schizophrenia showed a gradual improvement in both time- and event-based PM 12months after illness onset. However, compared to event-based PM, deficit in time-based PM persisted and was relatively stable. At baseline, PM functions were not associated with clinical symptoms. However, an association between time-based PM and PANSS positive and general symptoms emerged 12months after the onset of schizophrenia. Conclusion: People with first-episode schizophrenia exhibit persistent time-based PM deficit. Our findings support that PM deficit, in particular, time-based deficit, may be a putative neuropsychological marker of schizophrenia.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · Schizophrenia Research
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Anhedonia, the loss of interest or pleasure in reward processing, is a hallmark feature of major depressive disorder (MDD), but its underlying neurobiological mechanism is largely unknown. The present study aimed to examine the underlying neural mechanism of reward-related decision-making in patients with MDD. Method: We examined behavioral and neural responses to rewards in patients with first-episode MDD (N=25) and healthy controls (N=25) using the Effort-Expenditure for Rewards Task (EEfRT). The task involved choices about possible rewards of varying magnitude and probability. We tested the hypothesis that individuals with MDD would exhibit a reduced neural response in reward-related brain structures involved in cost-benefit decision-making. Results: Compared with healthy controls, patients with MDD showed significantly weaker responses in the left caudate nucleus when contrasting the 'high reward'-'low reward' condition, and blunted responses in the left superior temporal gyrus and the right caudate nucleus when contrasting high and low probabilities. In addition, hard tasks chosen during high probability trials were negatively correlated with superior temporal gyrus activity in MDD patients, while the same choices were negatively correlated with caudate nucleus activity in healthy controls. Conclusions: These results indicate that reduced caudate nucleus and superior temporal gyrus activation may underpin abnormal cost-benefit decision-making in MDD.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry
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    T Xu · Y Wang · Z Li · J Huang · S S Y Lui · S-P Tan · X Yu · E F C Cheung · M-G He · J Ott · R E Gur · R C Gur · R C K Chan
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Neurological soft signs (NSS) have long been considered potential endophenotypes for schizophrenia. However, few studies have investigated the heritability and familiality of NSS. The present study examined the heritability and familiality of NSS in healthy twins and patient-relative pairs. Method: The abridged version of the Cambridge Neurological Inventory was administered to 267 pairs of monozygotic twins, 124 pairs of dizygotic twins, and 75 pairs of patients with schizophrenia and their non-psychotic first-degree relatives. Results: NSS were found to have moderate but significant heritability in the healthy twin sample. Moreover, patients with schizophrenia correlated closely with their first-degree relatives on NSS. Conclusions: Taken together, the findings provide evidence on the heritability and familiality of NSS in the Han Chinese population.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · Psychological Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: Background. Patients with schizophrenia have intact ability to experience emotion, but empirical evidence suggests that they fail to translate emotional salience into effortful behaviour. Previous research in patients with chronic schizophrenia suggests that working memory is important in integrating emotion and behaviour. This study aimed to examine avolition and anhedonia in patients with first-episode schizophrenia and clarify the role of working memory in emotion–behaviour coupling. Method. We recruited 72 participants with first-episode schizophrenia and 61 healthy controls, and used a validated emotion-inducing behavioural paradigm to measure participants’ affective experiences and how experienced emotion coupled with behaviour. Participants were given the opportunity to expend effort to increase or decrease their exposure to emotion-inducing photographs. Participants with schizophrenia having poor working memory were compared with those with intact working memory in their liking and emotion-behaviour coupling. Results. Patients with first-episode schizophrenia experienced intact ‘in-the-moment’ emotion, but their emotion was less predictive of the effort expended, compared with controls. The emotion–behaviour coupling was significantly weaker in patients with schizophrenia with poor working memory than in those with intact working memory. However, compared with controls, patients with intact working also showed substantial emotion–behaviour decoupling. Conclusions. Our findings provide strong evidence for emotion–behaviour decoupling in first-episode schizophrenia. Although working memory deficits contribute to defective translation of liking into effortful behaviour, schizophrenia alone affects emotion–behaviour coupling.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · Psychological Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: Neurological soft signs have been considered one of the promising neurological endophenotypes for schizophrenia. However, most previous studies have employed clinical rating data only. The present study aimed to examine the neurobiological basis of one of the typical motor coordination signs, the Fist-Edge-Palm task (FEP), in patients with first-episode schizophrenia and their non-psychotic first degree relatives. Thirteen patients with first-episode schizophrenia, 14 non-psychotic first-degree relatives and 14 healthy controls were recruited. All of them were instructed to perform the FEP task in a 3T GE Machine. Psychophysiological interaction (PPI) analysis was used to evaluate the functional connectivity between the sensorimotor cortex and frontal regions when participants performed the FEP task compared to simple motor tasks. In the contrast of palm-tapping (PT) vs. rest, activation of the left frontal-parietal region was lowest in the schizophrenia group, intermediate in the relative group and highest in the healthy control group. In the contrast of FEP vs. PT, patients with schizophrenia did not show areas of significant activation, while relatives and healthy controls showed significant activation of the left middle frontal gyrus. Moreover, with increase in task complexity, significant functional connectivity was observed between the sensorimotor cortex and the right frontal gyrus in healthy controls but not in patients with first episode schizophrenia. These findings suggest that activity of the left frontal-parietal and frontal regions may be neurofunctional correlates of neurological soft signs, which in turn may be a potential endophenotype of schizophrenia. Moreover, the right frontal gyrus may play a specific role in the execution of the FEP task in schizophrenia spectrum disorders.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · Clinical neuroimaging
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    ABSTRACT: Cerebral morphological abnormalities in major depressive disorder (MDD) may be modulated by antidepressant treatment and course of illness in chronic medicated patients. The present study examined cortical thickness in patients with untreated first-episode MDD to elucidate the early pathophysiology of this illness. Here, we examined cortical thickness in patients with first-episode MDD (N=27) and healthy controls (N=27) using an automated surface-based method (in FreeSurfer). By assessing the correlation between caudate volume and cortical thickness at each vertex on the cortical surface, a caudate-cortical network was obtained for each group. Subsequent analysis was performed to assess the effect of anhedonia by the Temporal Experience of Pleasure Scale. We observed increased cortical thickness at the right orbital frontal cortex and the left inferior parietal gyrus in MDD patients compared with healthy controls. Furthermore, morphometric correlational analysis using cortical thickness measurement revealed increased caudate-cortical connectivity in the bilateral superior parietal gyrus in MDD patients. All changes were not related to anhedonia. These preliminary findings may reflect disorder manifestation close to illness onset and may provide insight into the early neurobiology of MDD.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging

Publication Stats

5k Citations
914.20 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2007-2016
    • Chinese Academy of Sciences
      • Institute of Psychology
      Peping, Beijing, China
  • 2014
    • Cedars-Sinai Medical Center
      • Cedars Sinai Medical Center
      Los Angeles, California, United States
  • 2013
    • China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences
      Peping, Beijing, China
  • 2011
    • Griffith University
      • School of Applied Psychology
      Brisbane, Queensland, Australia
  • 2010-2011
    • University of Liverpool
      • • Institute of Ageing & Chronic Disease
      • • Magnetic Resonance And Image Analysis Research Centre (MARIARC)
      Liverpool, England, United Kingdom
    • Université de Montréal
      Montréal, Quebec, Canada
    • Peking University
      • Department of Psychology
      Peping, Beijing, China
    • Harvard University
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2004-2011
    • Sun Yat-Sen University
      • • The First Affiliated Hospital
      • • School of Life Sciences
      Shengcheng, Guangdong, China
    • City University of Hong Kong
      Chiu-lung, Kowloon City, Hong Kong
  • 2009
    • Lands Department of The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region
      Hong Kong, Hong Kong
  • 2000-2009
    • The University of Hong Kong
      • • Department of Psychiatry
      • • Department of Psychology
      Hong Kong, Hong Kong
  • 2002-2003
    • Queen Mary Hospital
      Hong Kong, Hong Kong