Chun-Wei Chen

National Taiwan University, T’ai-pei, Taipei, Taiwan

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Publications (101)655.31 Total impact


  • No preview · Article · Feb 2016 · Scientific Reports
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    ABSTRACT: The effect of the surface structure of Bi2Se3 on its interior properties has been well studied recently, but the interfacial structure and electrical properties of the oxidized Bi2Se3 surface is little known. In contrast to self-limited formation of native oxide on Bi2Se3, here we report that the degree of oxidation on Bi2Se3 surface in oxygen plasma is enhanced. Results of transmission electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy show that the surface of the oxidized Bi2Se3 is composed of a layer of amorphous bismuth oxide (BiOx) and the thickness of the BiOx layer can be controlled by the length of plasma process. Electrical measurements of this structure present the Schottky-type transport property at the interface between the oxidized layer and the bulk Bi2Se3 crystal, and the turn-on voltage depends on the thickness of the surface BiOx layer. This study of the structure, formation mechanism, and electrical properties of the surface oxide of Bi2Se3 formed in oxygen plasma provides useful information for future development of bismuth chalcogenide based electronic devices.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · The Journal of Physical Chemistry C
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    ABSTRACT: This work proposes a novel approach to modulate the nucleation and growth of perovskite crystals in planar perovskite (CH3NH3PbI3−xClx) solar cells by intermixing precursor-capped inorganic nanoparticles of PbS. A small amount of dispersed PbS nanoparticles which were covered with perovskite precursor molecules of methylammonium iodide (CH3NH3I, MAI) through the ligand-exchange treatment functioned as effective seed-like nucleation sites to promote the formation of perovskite lattice structures. Through this intermixing-seeded growth technique, substantial morphological improvements, such as increased crystal domains, enhanced coverage, and uniformity, were realized in the perovskite thin films, and the corresponding solar cell devices exhibited a promising power conversion efficiency of 17.4%, showing an enhancement of approximately 25% compared to that of the controlled pristine solar cell device. The substantially enhanced crystal orientation, particularly along the direction perpendicular to the substrate, was evident from the synchrotron-based grazing incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering data. This observation was consistent with the enhanced carrier diffusion lengths and excellent reproducibility of high fill factors of the planar heterojunction perovskite devices fabricated through the proposed technique.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Energy & Environmental Science
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    ABSTRACT: We report distinctive magnetotransport properties of a graphene p-n-p junction prepared by controlled diffusion of metallic contacts. In most cases, materials deposited on a graphene surface introduce substantial carrier scattering, which greatly reduces the high mobility of intrinsic graphene. However, we show that an oxide layer only weakly perturbs the carrier transport, which enables fabrication of a high-quality graphene p-n-p junction through a one-step and resist-free method. The measured conductance-gate voltage $(G-V_G)$ curves can be well described by a metal contact model, which confirms the charge density depinning due to the oxide layer. The graphene p-n-p junction samples exhibit pronounced quantum Hall effect, a well-defined transition point of the zeroth Landau level (LL), and scaling behavior. The scaling exponent obtained from the evolution of the zeroth LL width as a function of temperature exhibits a relatively low value of $\kappa=0.21\pm0.01$. Moreover, we calculate the energy level for the LLs based on the distribution of plateau-plateau transition points, further validating the assignment of the LL index of the QH plateau-plateau transition.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2016
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    ABSTRACT: Ultrastrong and precisely controllable n-type photoinduced doping at a graphene/TiOx heterostructure as a result of trap-state-mediated charge transfer is demonstrated, which is much higher than any other reported photodoping techniques. Based on the strong light-matter interactions at the graphene/TiOx heterostructure, precisely controlled photoinduced bandgap opening of a bilayer graphene device is demonstrated.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · Advanced Materials
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    ABSTRACT: To replace high-temperature sintered scaffold materials in conventional CH3NH3PbI3-based solar cells, this study demonstrates a new device structure of a bulk intermixing (BI)-type CH3NH3PbI3/TiO2 nanorod (NR) hybrid solar cell, where dispersed TiO2 NRs from chemical synthesis are intermixed with the perovskite absorbing layer to form a BI-type perovskite/TiO2 NR hybrid for device fabrication. Through interface engineering between the TiO2 NR surface and the photoactive perovskite material of CH3NH3PbI3 by ligand exchange treatment, a remarkable power conversion efficiency (PCE) of over 12% was achieved based on the simple BI-type CH3NH3PbI3/TiO2 NR hybrid device structure. The proposed hybrids not only provide great flexibility for deposition on various substrates through spin coating at low temperatures but also enable layer-by-layer deposition for the future development of perovskite-based multi-junction solar cells.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · Nanoscale
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    ABSTRACT: Interfacial science has received much attention recently based on the development of state-of-the-art analytical tools that can create and manipulate the charge, spin, orbital, and lattice degrees of freedom at interfaces. Motivated by the importance of nanoscale interfacial science that governs device operation, we present a technique to probe the electronic characteristics of heterointerfaces with atomic resolution. In this work, the interfacial characteristics of heteroepitaxial structures are investigated and the fundamental mechanisms that pertain in these systems are elucidated through cross-sectional scanning tunneling microscopy (XSTM). The XSTM technique is employed here to directly observe epitaxial interfacial structures and probe local electronic properties with atomic-level capability. Scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy experiments with atomic precision provide insight into the origin and spatial distribution of electronic properties across heterointerfaces. The first part of this report provides a brief description of the cleavage technique and spectroscopy analysis in XSTM measurements. The second part addresses interfacial electronic structures of several model heterostructures in current condensed matter research using XSTM. Topics to be discussed include high-κ's/III-V's semiconductors, polymer heterojunctions, and complex oxide heterostructures, which are all material systems whose investigation using this technique is expected to benefit the research community. Finally, practical aspects and perspectives of using XSTM in interface science are presented.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · Journal of Physics Condensed Matter
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    Full-text · Dataset · Jun 2015
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    ABSTRACT: We report semiconducting behavior of monolayer graphene enabled through plasma activation of substrate surfaces. The graphene devices are fabricated by mechanical exfoliation onto pre-processed SiO2/Si substrates. Contrary to pristine graphene, these graphene samples exhibit a transport gap as well as nonlinear transfer characteristics, a large on/off ratio of 600 at cryogenic temperatures, and an insulating-like temperature dependence. Raman spectroscopic characterization shows evidence of sp3 hybridization of C atoms in the samples of graphene on activated SiO2/Si substrates. We analyze the hopping transport at low temperatures, and weak localization observed from magnetotransport measurements, suggesting a correlation between carrier localization and the sp3-type defects in the functionalized graphene. The present study demonstrates the functionalization of graphene using a novel substrate surface-activation method for future graphene-based applications.
    Full-text · Article · May 2015 · Carbon
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    ABSTRACT: Recent discoveries of the photoresponse of molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) have shown the considerable potential of these two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides for optoelectronic applications. Among the various types of photoresponses of MoS2, persistent photoconductivity (PPC) at different levels has been reported. However, a detailed study of the PPC effect and its mechanism in MoS2 is still not available, despite the importance of this effect on the photoresponse of the material. Here, we present a systematic study of the PPC effect in monolayer MoS2 and conclude that the effect can be attributed to random localized potential fluctuations in the devices. Notably, the potential fluctuations originate from extrinsic sources based on the substrate effect of the PPC. Moreover, we point out a correlation between the PPC effect in MoS2 and the percolation transport behavior of MoS2. We demonstrate a unique and efficient means of controlling the PPC effect in monolayer MoS2, which may offer novel functionalities for MoS2-based optoelectronic applications in the future.
    Full-text · Article · May 2015 · Scientific Reports
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    ABSTRACT: Compared to widely-reported graphene-based anode, the task to obtain a stable graphene-based cathode is generally more difficult to achieve because n-type graphene devices have very limited thermal and chemical stabilities, and are usually sensitive to the influence of ambient environment. This work developed a novel “sunlight-activated” graphene-heterostructure transparent electrode in which photogenerated charges from a light-absorbing material are transferred to graphene, resulting in the modulation of electrical properties of the graphene transparent electrode caused by a strong light–matter interaction at graphene-heterostructure interfaces. A photoactive graphene/TiOx-heterostructure transparent cathode was used to fabricate an n-graphene/p-Si Schottky junction solar cell, achieving a record-high power conversion efficiency (>10%). The photoactive graphene-heterostructure transparent electrode, which exhibits excellent tunable electrical properties under sunlight illumination, has great potential for use in the future development of graphene-based photovoltaics and optoelectronics.
    Full-text · Article · May 2015 · Energy & Environmental Science
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    ABSTRACT: The photoluminescence (PL) quenching of water-soluble graphene oxide (GO) solution was systematically investigated in the presence of transition metal ions. Their PL spectra were analyzed by the Stern-Volmer equation, and the trend of the quenching efficiency was Fe2+ > Co2+ > Ni2+ > Cd2+ > Hg2+. The results of the steady-state and time-resolved PL spectra of the GO solution suggested that the PL quenching was related to the new non-radiative optical transitions from the bridging states due to the hybridization of the sp(3) orbitals of GO and the 3d orbitals of metal ions, proven by density functional theory calculations. The overall results indicated that the bridging states from the hybridization of GO sp(3) and unfilled 3d orbitals (Fe2+) in comparison with filled 3d orbitals (Hg2+) were highly localized, and their energy levels were more suitable for being non-radiative transition states.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2015 · Carbon
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    ABSTRACT: Hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) from water through electrocatalysis using cost-effective materials to replace precious Pt catalysts holds great promise for clean energy technologies. In this work we developed a highly active and stable catalyst containing Co doped earth abundant iron pyrite FeS2 nanosheets hybridized with carbon nanotubes (Fe1-xCoxS2/CNT hybrid catalysts) for HER in acidic solutions. The pyrite phase of Fe1-xCoxS2/CNT was characterized by powder X-ray diffraction and absorption spectroscopy. Electrochemical measurements showed a low overpotential of ~0.12 V at 20 mA/cm2, small Tafel slope of ~ 46 mV/decade and long-term durability over 40 h of HER operation using bulk quantities of Fe0.9Co0.1S2/CNT hybrid catalysts at high loadings (~ 7 mg/cm2). Density functional theory calculation revealed that the origin of high catalytic activity was stemmed from a large reduction of the kinetic energy barrier of H atom adsorption on FeS2 surface upon Co doping in the iron pyrite structure. It is also found that the high HER catalytic activity of Fe0.9Co0.1S2 hinge on the hybridization with CNTs to impart strong heteroatomic interactions between CNT and Fe0.9Co0.1S2. This work produces the most active HER catalyst based on iron pyrite, suggesting a scalable, low cost and highly efficient catalyst for hydrogen generation.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2015 · Journal of the American Chemical Society
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    ABSTRACT: A novel organic/graphene/inorganic -heterostructure, consisting of a graphene layer encapsulated by n- and p-type photoactive materials with complementary absorptions, enables the control of dual n- and p-typed transport behaviors of a graphene transistor under selective UV or visible light illumination. A graphene-based p-n junction created by spatially patterned wavelength-selective illumination using the organic/graphene/inorganic heterostructure is also demonstrated. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2015 · Advanced Materials
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    ABSTRACT: In this paper, we demonstrate an inspection technique-based on only one ellipsometric parameter, Ψ, of spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) - for the rapid, simultaneous identification of both the structural quality and thicknesses of large-area graphene films. The measured Ψ spectra are strongly affected by changes in the out-of-plane absorption coefficients (αTM); they are also correlated to the ratio of the intensities of the D and G bands in Raman spectra of graphene films. In additional, the electronic transition state of graphene within the UV regime assists the characterization of the structural quality. We also demonstrated that the intensities and shifts of the signals in Ψ spectra allow clear identification of the structural qualities and thicknesses, respectively, of graphene films. Moreover, this Ψ-based method can be further applied to graphene films coated on various substrates. To the best of our knowledge, this paper is the first to describe the direct application of Ψ spectra obtained through conventional SE to determine the structural qualities of graphene films on different substrates (Cu, fused silica, Si). In addition, mapping of the values of Ψ is a very convenient and useful means of rapidly characterizing both the structural quality and thickness of 2D materials at local areas. Therefore, this Ψ-based characterization method has great potential for application in the mass production of devices based on large-area graphene.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2014 · Analytical Chemistry
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, we systematically investigated the stoichiometric dependence of titanium oxide (TiOx, x=1.56–1.93) as a cathode modifier on the device performance of polymer solar cells. Electronic structures of the synthesized TiOx modifier layers were controlled by tuning the compositions of various O/Ti ratios. The effective cathode work-functions and the corresponding device performances of polymer solar cells are systematically changed as a result of inserting the TiOx modification layers. Interfacial modification of the Al cathode with a low O/Ti ratio of TiOx layer yields the best performing photovoltaic device as a result of a largest built-in potential. The correlation of power conversion efficiencies and carrier dynamics of these devices by inserting various TiOx modification layer is further examined by using the Mott-Schottky analysis and the impedance spectroscopy technique. The consistent result shows an enhanced carrier collection efficiency and a reduced charge recombination rate of the device via adequate band alignment between the photoactive layer and the cathode using the TiOx modification layer with an optimized O/Ti ratio.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2014 · Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells
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    ABSTRACT: Two-dimensional (2D) atomic crystals and their hybrid structures have recently attracted much attention due to their potential applications. The fabrication of metallic contacts or nanostructures on 2D materials is very common and generally achieved by performing electron-beam (e-beam) lithography. However, e-beam lithography is not applicable in certain situations, e.g., cases in which the e-beam resist does not adhere to the substrates or the intrinsic properties of the 2D materials are greatly altered and degraded. Here, we present a residue-free approach for fabricating high-performance graphene devices by patterning a thin film of e-beam resist as a stencil mask. This technique can be generally applied to substrates with varying surface conditions, while causing negligible residues on graphene. The technique also preserves the design flexibility offered by e-beam lithography and therefore allows us to fabricate multi-probe metallic contacts. The graphene field-effect transistors fabricated by this method exhibit smooth surfaces, high mobility, and distinct magnetotransport properties, confirming the advantages and versatility of the presented residue-free technique for the fabrication of devices composed of 2D materials.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2014 · AIP Advances
  • Pai-Chia Kuo · Chun-Wei Chen · Ku-Pin Lee · Jessie Shiue
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    ABSTRACT: We report the discovery of superconductivity with an onset temperature of ∼0.6 K in a platinum-silicon interface. The interface was formed by using a unique focused ion beam sputtering micro-deposition method in which the energies of most sputtered Pt atoms are ∼2.5 eV. Structural and elemental analysis by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy reveal a ∼ 7 nm interface layer with abundant Pt, which is the layer likely responsible for the superconducting transport behavior. Similar transport behavior was also observed in a gold-silicon interface prepared by the same technique, indicating the possible generality of this phenomenon.
    No preview · Article · May 2014 · Applied Physics Letters
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    ABSTRACT: This work demonstrated a simple platform for rapid and effective surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SALDI-TOF MS) measurements based on the layer structure of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and gold nanoparticles. A multi-layer thin film was fabricated by alternate layer-by-layer depositions of rGO and gold nanoparticles (LBL rGO/AuNP). The flat and clean two-dimensional film was served as the sample plate and also functioned as the matrix in SALDI-TOF MS. By simply one-step deposition of analytes onto the LBL rGO/AuNP sample plate, the MS measurements of various homogeneous samples were ready to execute. The optimization of MS signal was reached by the variation of the layer numbers of rGO and gold nanoparticles. Also, the small molecules including amino acids, carbohydrates and peptides were successfully analyzed in SALDI-TOF MS using the LBL rGO/AuNP sample plate. The results showed that the signal intensity, SN(-1) ratio and reproducibility of SALDI-TOF spectra have been significantly improved in comparison to the uses of gold nanoparticles or α-cyano-4-hydroxy-cinnamic acid (CHCA) as the assisted matrixes. Taking the advantages of the unique properties of rGO and gold nanoparticles, the ready-to-use MS sample plate, which could absorb and dissipate laser energy to analytes quite efficiently and homogeneously, has shown great commercial potentials for MS applications.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2014 · Analytica chimica acta
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    ABSTRACT: A unique "clean-lifting transfer" (CLT) technique that applies a controllable electrostatic force to transfer large-area and high-quality CVD-grown graphene onto various rigid or flexible substrates is reported. The CLT technique without using any organic support or adhesives can produce residual-free graphene films with large-area processability, and has great potential for future industrial production of graphene-based electronics or optoelectronics.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2013 · Advanced Materials