B. Bornschein

Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Carlsruhe, Baden-Württemberg, Germany

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Publications (79)124.42 Total impact

  • Florian Priester · Michael Sturm · Beate Bornschein
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    ABSTRACT: The Karlsruhe Tritium Neutrino (KATRIN) experiment will investigate the tritium β-decay close to the energetic endpoint with unprecedented precision, to determine the effective mass of the electron antineutrino. Therefore it has stringent requirements on the stability of the tritium source. The tritium loop system has the task to provide the stabilized flow rate of tritium gas into the KATRIN tritium source with a throughput of 40 g/day and a tritium purity >95%. In this paper the physical setup of the injection system will be described, followed by the description of inactive commissioning measurements. Their analysis shows that the stringent requirements will be perfectly met by the newly designed injection system.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Vacuum
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    ABSTRACT: The precise compositional analysis of tritium-containing gases is of high interest for tritium accountancy, e.g. in future fusion power plants. Raman spectroscopy provides a fast and contact-free gas analysis procedure with high precision, thus being an advantageous tool for the named purpose. In this paper, it is shown that the sensitivity achieved with conventional Raman systems (in 90° or forward/backward configurations) can be enhanced by at least one order of magnitude by using a metal-lined hollow glass fiber as the Raman cell. This leads to the ability to detect low partial pressures of tritium within short measurement intervals (< 0.5 mbar in < 0.5 s).
    No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · Fusion Science and Technology
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    ABSTRACT: Raman spectroscopy is employed successfully for analysis of hydrogen isotopologues at the Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe (TLK). In this paper, we summarize the recent achievements in the further development on this technique, and the various applications for which it is used at the TLK. Further, we show that Raman spectroscopy has evolved as a versatile, highly accurate key method for quantitative analysis complementing the portfolio of analytic techniques at the TLK.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · Fusion Science and Technology
  • Simon Niemes · Michael Sturm · Robert Michling · Beate Bornschein
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    ABSTRACT: The β-ray induced X-ray spectrometry (BIXS) is a promising technique to monitor the tritium concentration in a fuel cycle of a fusion reactor. For in-situ measurements of high level tritiated water by bremsstrahlung counting, the characteristics of a low-noise silicon drift detector (SDD) have been examined at the Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe (TLK). In static measurements with constant sample volume and tritium concentration, the bremsstrahlung spectra of tritiated water samples in a concentration range of 0.02 to 15 MBq/ml have been observed. The volume has been kept constant at 5 cm3. The observed spectra are well above the noise threshold. In addition to X-rays induced by β-rays, the spectra feature X-ray fluorescence peaks of the surrounding materials. No indications of memory effects have been observed. A linear relation between the X-ray intensity and the tritium concentration was obtained and the lower detection limit of the setup has been determined to 1 MBq ml-1, assessed by the Currie criterion. In addition, the spectra obtained experimentally could be reproduced with high agreement by Monte-Carlo simulations using the Geant4-toolkit. It was found that the present detection system is applicable to non-invasive measurements of high-level tritiated water and the SDD is a convenient tool to detect the low energy bremsstrahlung X-rays.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · Fusion Science and Technology
  • R. Größle · A. Beck · B. Bornschein · S. Fischer · A. Kraus · S. Mirz · S. Rupp
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    ABSTRACT: Fusion facilities like ITER and DEMO will circulate huge amounts of deuterium and tritium in their fuel cycle with an estimated throughput of kg per hour. One important capability of these fuel cycles is to separate the hydrogen isotopologues. For this purpose the Isotope Separation System (ISS), using cryogenic distillation, as part of the TRitium Enrichment Test Assembly (TRENTA) is under development at Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe. Fourier transform infrared absorption spectroscopy (FTIR) has been selected to prove its capability for inline monitoring of the tritium concentration in the liquid phase at the bottom of the distillation column of the ISS. The actual R&D work is focusing on the calibration of such a system. Two major issues are the identification of appropriate absorption lines and their dependence on the isotopic concentrations and composition. For this purpose the Tritium Absorption IR spectroscopy experiment has been set up as an extension of TRENTA. For calibration a Raman spectroscopy system is used. First measurements, with equilibrated mixtures of H2, D2 and HD demonstrate that FTIR can be used for quantitative analysis of liquid hydrogen isotopologues and reveal a nonlinear dependence of the integrated absorbance from the D2 concentration in the 2nd vibrational branch of D2 FTIR spectra.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2015 · Fusion Science and Technology
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    ABSTRACT: Presently, at Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe (TLK), four calorimeters are in operation, one of isothermal type and three of inertial guidance control type (IGC). The volume of the calorimeters varies between 0.5 and 20.6 liters. About two years ago we have started an extensive work to improve our calorimeters with regard to reliability and precision. We were forced to upgrade 3 of our 4 calorimeters due to the outdated interfaces and software. This work involved creating new Lab View programs driving the devices, re-tuning control loops and replacing obsolete hardware components. In this paper we give a review on the current performance of our calorimeters, comparing it to recently available devices from the market and in the literature. We also show some ideas for a next generation calorimeter based on experiences with our IGC calorimeters and other devices reported in the literature.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2015 · Fusion Science and Technology
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    ABSTRACT: One of the most important questions in fundamental physics and cosmology are the origin and the masses of fundamental particles, in particular the neutrino masses. KATRIN will allow a model-independent measurement of the neutrino mass scale with an expected sensitivity of 0.2 eV/c(2) (90% CL). KATRIN will use a source of ultrapure molecular tritium and is currently being built up at the site of KIT, thereby making use of the unique expertise of the Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe. This paper presents the status of the KATRIN experiment, with the focus on its Calibration and Monitoring System, which is the last component being subject to R&D.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2015 · Fusion Science and Technology
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    ABSTRACT: Anti-reflection coated windows are part of Raman spectroscopy systems for tritium analytics in the KATRIN experiment and fusion-related applications. Damages of such windows were observed after three months of exposure to highly purified tritium gas in the LOOPINO facility. In this work, the origin of the damages was investigated, identified and eliminated Coating samples manufactured by various physical vapor deposition methods have been tested for durability by exposure to pure tritium gas and subsequent visual inspection. Electron beam deposited coatings showed indications for damage after 17 days of tritium exposure in contrast to samples manufactured by ion assisted deposition or sputtering. An improved coating layout of the sample cell is presented for reliable long-term monitoring of tritium gas using Raman spectroscopy.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2015 · Fusion Science and Technology
  • A. Bükki-Deme · C. G. Alecu · B. Kloppe · B. Bornschein
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    ABSTRACT: At Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe (ILK) calorimetry has been used for almost 20 years as the main accountancy method for tritium inventory. An extensive work has been carried out in order to improve the existing calorimeters. This paper covers the efforts made for the upgrade of the IGC-V0.5 calorimeter. We replaced the hardware interface - including the obsolete PC - and developed a new control and data acquisition software. The new software applies a smart automatic process control during measurements, significantly reducing measurement time and possible user errors. The three PID control loops have been re-tuned using the standard closed loop Ziegler-Nichols procedure to find the optimal PID parameters. Five calibration runs have been performed between 0.5 mu W and 1 W. and their results are being presented and discussed.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2013 · Fusion Engineering and Design
  • B. Bornschein · C. Day · D. Demange · T. Pinna
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    ABSTRACT: Safe, reliable and efficient tritium management in the breeder blanket faces unique technological challenges. Beside the tritium recovery efficiency in the tritium extraction and coolant purification systems, the tritium tracking accuracy between the inner and outer fuel cycle shall also be demonstrated. Furthermore, it is self-evident that safe handling and confinement of tritium need to be stringently assured to evolve fusion as a reliable technique. The present paper gives an overview of tritium management in breeder blankets. After a short introduction into the tritium fuel cycle and blanket basics, open tritium issues are discussed, thereby focusing on tritium extraction from blanket, coolant detritiation and tritium analytics and accountancy, necessary for accurate and reliable processing as well as for book-keeping.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2013 · Fusion Engineering and Design
  • J Dams · B Bornschein · U Siebert · J Volkmann · G Deuschl · WH Oertel · JP Reese · R Dodel

    No preview · Article · Sep 2013 · Das Gesundheitswesen
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    ABSTRACT: An integrated concept for post-acquisition spectrum analysis was developed for in-line (real-time) and off-line applications that preserves absolute spectral quantification; after the initializing parameter setup, only minimal user intervention is required. This spectral evaluation suite is composed of a sequence of tasks specifically addressing cosmic ray removal, background subtraction, and peak analysis and fitting, together with the treatment of two-dimensional charge-coupled device array data. One may use any of the individual steps on their own, or may exclude steps from the chain if so desired. For the background treatment, the canonical rolling-circle filter (RCF) algorithm was adopted, but it was coupled with a Savitzky-Golay filtering step on the locus-array generated from a single RCF pass. This novel only-two-parameter procedure vastly improves on the RCF's deficiency to overestimate the baseline level in spectra with broad peak features. The peak analysis routine developed here is an only-two-parameter (amplitude and position) fitting algorithm that relies on numerical line shape profiles rather than on analytical functions. The overall analysis chain was programmed in National Instrument's LabVIEW; this software allows for easy incorporation of this spectrum analysis suite into any LabVIEW-managed instrument control, data-acquisition environment, or both. The strength of the individual tasks and the integrated program sequence are demonstrated for the analysis of a wide range of (although not necessarily limited to) Raman spectra of varying complexity and exhibiting nonanalytical line profiles. In comparison to other analysis algorithms and functions, our new approach for background subtraction, peak analysis, and fitting returned vastly improved quantitative results, even for "hidden" details in the spectra, in particular, for nonanalytical line profiles. All software is available for download.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2013 · Applied Spectroscopy
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    ABSTRACT: The Raman depolarization ratios for individual Q1(J”) branch lines of all diatomic hydrogen isotopologues – H2, HD, D2, HT, DT, and T2 – were measured, for all rotational levels with population larger than 1/100 relative to the Boltzmann maximum at room temperature. For these measurements, the experimental setup normally used for the monitoring of the tritiated hydrogen molecules at KArlsruhe TRItium Neutrino experiment was adapted to optimally control the excitation laser power and polarization, and to precisely define the Raman light collection geometry. The measured Raman depolarization values were compared to theoretical values, which are linked to polarizability tensor quantities. For this, the ‘raw data’ were corrected taking into account distinct aspects affecting Raman depolarization data, including (1) excitation polarization impurities; (2) extended Raman excitation volumes; and (3) Raman light collection over finite solid angles. Our corrected depolarization ratios of the hydrogen isotopologues agree with the theoretical values (based on ab initio quantum calculations by R.J. LeRoy, University of Waterloo, Canada) to better than 5% for nearly all of the measured Q1(J”) lines, with 1σ confidence level. The results demonstrate that reliable, accurate Raman depolarization ratios can be extracted from experimental measurements, which may be substantially distorted by excitation polarization impurities and by geometrical effects. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2013 · Journal of Raman Spectroscopy
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    ABSTRACT: In this article, we address the notoriously difficult problem to quantitatively link measured Raman depolarization values to theoretical polarizability tensor quantities, since quantum calculations do not incorporate experimental parameters. For this, we introduce a numerical model to calculate, for realistic experimental configurations, effective Raman line strength functions, Φ, which find their way into depolarization ratios, ρ. The model is based on interlinked integrations over the angles in the light collection path and a finite Raman source volume along the excitation laser beam. The model deals also with the conditional aperture parameters, associated with more than one optical component in the light collection path. Finally, we also can take into account polarization aberrations introduced by the sample cell windows. The procedure was fully tested for Raman depolarization spectra of selected hydrogen isotopologues. Distinct aspects affecting Raman depolarization data were validated, namely: (1) excitation polarization impurities; (2) extended Raman excitation volumes; (3) Raman light collection over finite solid angles; and (4) polarization aberrations introduced by optics in the light collection path. The correction of the experimental measurement data for the aforementioned effects resulted in depolarization ratios for the Q1(J " ) Raman lines of H2 and T2, which mostly differed by less than 5% from those obtained by quantum-calculations.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2013 · Journal of Raman Spectroscopy
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    ABSTRACT: Highly accurate, in-line and real-time composition measurements of gases are mandatory in many processing applications. The quantitative analysis of mixtures of hydrogen isotopologues ($\rm{H_2}$, $\rm{D_2}$, $\rm{T_2}$, $\rm{HD}$, $\rm{HT}$ and $\rm{DT}$) is of high importance in such fields as DT fusion, neutrino mass measurements using tritium $\beta$-decay or photonuclear experiments where HD targets are used. Raman spectroscopy is a favorable method for these tasks. In this publication we present a method for the in-line calibration of Raman systems for the non-radioactive hydrogen isotopologues. It is based on precise volumetric gas mixing of the homo-nuclear species $\rm{H_2}$/$\rm{D_2}$ and a controlled catalytic production of the hetero-nuclear species $\rm{HD}$. Systematic effects like spurious exchange reactions with wall materials and others are considered with care during the procedure. A detailed discussion of statistical and systematic uncertainties is presented which finally yields a calibration accuracy of better than $0.4\%$.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2013 · Analytical Chemistry
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    ABSTRACT: The Karlsruhe Tritium Neutrino (KATRIN) experiment aims to measure the neutrino mass via high-precision electron spectroscopy of the tritium β-decay with a sensitivity of mν = 200 meV/c2 (90% C.L.). This can only be achieved if systematic uncertainties are minimized. An important parameter is the isotopic composition of the tritium gas used as the gaseous β-electron source, which is measured inline by Raman spectroscopy. The KATRIN experiment requires a measurement trueness of better than 10% of said composition; to achieve this, accurate calibration of the Raman system for all hydrogen isotopologues (H2, HD, D2, HT, DT, T2) is required. Here we present two independent calibration methods, namely (i) a gas sampling technique, which promises high accuracy, but which is difficult to apply to tritiated species; and (ii) an approach via theoretical Raman signals (theoretical intensities plus spectral sensitivity), which in principle includes all six isotopologues. For the latter method we incorporated ab-initio off-diagonal matrix elements of the polarizability from the literature; these have been verified by depolarization measurements. The system’s spectral sensitivity was determined by a NIST-traceable SRM2242 luminescence standard. Both methods exhibited their individual merits and difficulties, but in cross calibration proved to be successful: a comparison for the non-radioactive isotopologues (H2, HD, D2) yielded agreement to better than 2% for the relative Raman response function. This is within the estimated (dominant) uncertainty of the theoretical Raman signal approach of about 3%. Therefore, one can be confident that, when using this approach, the trueness requirement of 10% for the KATRIN-relevant species (T2, DT, D2 and HT) will in all likelihood be exceeded.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2012 · Journal of Molecular Structure
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    ABSTRACT: The KArlsruhe TRItium Neutrino (KATRIN) experiment will measure the absolute mass scale of neutrinos with a sensitivity of m ν = 200 meV/ c 2 by high-precision spectroscopy close to the tritium β -decay endpoint at 18.6 keV. Its Windowless Gaseous Tritium Source (WGTS) is a β -decay source of high intensity (10 11 s −1 ) and stability, where high-purity molecular tritium at 30 K is circulated in a closed loop with a yearly throughput of 10 kg. To limit systematic effects the column density of the source has to be stabilized at the 10 −3 level. This requires extensive sensor instrumentation and dedicated control and monitoring systems for parameters such as the beam tube temperature, injection pressure, gas composition and so on. In this paper, we give an overview of these systems including a dedicated laser-Raman system as well as several β -decay activity monitors. We also report on the results of the WGTS demonstrator and other large-scale test experiments giving proof-of-principle that all parameters relevant to the systematics can be controlled and monitored on the 10 −3 level or better. As a result of these works, the WGTS systematics can be controlled within stringent margins, enabling the KATRIN experiment to explore the neutrino mass scale with the design sensitivity
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2012 · New Journal of Physics
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the Karlsruhe Tritium Neutrino experiment - KATRIN - is the direct (model-independent) measurement of the mass of the electron anti-neutrino [T. Thümmler, Introduction to direct neutrino mass measurements and KATRIN, Neutrino 2010 (Athens, Greece).]. For that purpose a windowless gaseous tritium source WGTS is used, with a tritium throughput of 40 g/day. In order to reach the design sensitivity of 0.2 eV/c2 (90% C.L.) the key parameters of the tritium source, i.e. the gas inlet rate and the gas composition, have to be stabilized and monitored at the 0.1 % level (1σ). Any small change of the tritium gas composition will manifest itself in non-negligible effects on the KATRIN measurements; therefore, precise methods to specifically monitor the gas composition have to be implemented. Laser Raman Spectroscopy is the method of choice for the monitoring of the gas composition because it is a non-invasive and fast in-line measurement technique. An overview of the current Raman activities at Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe (TLK) is given.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2012 · Nuclear Physics B - Proceedings Supplements
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    ABSTRACT: Safe, reliable, and efficient tritium management in the breeder blanket will have to face unprecedented technological challenges. Beside the efficiency for tritium recovery from the breeder blanket (Tritium Extraction (TES) and Coolant Purification Systems (CPS)), the accuracy for tritium tracking between the inner and the outer fuel cycle must also be demonstrated. This paper focuses on the recent R&D carried out at the Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe to tackle these issues. For ITER, the recently consolidated TES and CPS designs comprise adsorption columns and getter beds operated in semi-continuous mode. Different approaches for the tritium accountancy stage (TAS) have been evaluated. Balancing static (batch-wise gas collection at the TBM outlets and the tritium plant) or dynamic (in/on-line) approaches with respect to the expected analytical performances and integration issues, the first conceptual design of the TAS for EU TBMs is presented. For DEMO, the overall strategy for tritium recovery and tracking has been revisited. The necessity for on-line real-time tritium accountancy and improved process efficiency suggest the use of continuous processes such as permeator and catalytic membrane reactor. The main benefits combining the PERMCAT process with advanced membranes is discussed with respect to process improvements and facilitated accountancy using spectroscopic methods.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2012 · Fusion Engineering and Design
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    ABSTRACT: For monitoring and control of gaseous tritium sources in fuel circulation systems of fusion reactors beta induced X-ray spectrometry (BIXS) seems to be an applicable method. The characteristics of a BIXS monitoring setup built at TLK were examined. A low-noise silicon drift detector (SDD) was used together with two thin beryllium windows evaporated with gold films of 100 nm for efficient X-ray production. The measured X-ray intensity was proportional to the tritium partial pressure and the average detection efficiency was evaluated as 32.6 x 10(-8) cps/Bq. A tritium memory effect was revealed. From the results it was concluded that such a monitoring system would be a useful complement for tritium analytics devices if well designed in terms of memory effect suppression.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2012 · Fusion Engineering and Design

Publication Stats

999 Citations
124.42 Total Impact Points


  • 2009-2015
    • Karlsruhe Institute of Technology
      • Institute of Technical Physics
      Carlsruhe, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
  • 2007-2011
    • Private Universität für Gesundheitswissenschaften, Medizinische Informatik und Technik
      Solbad Hall in Tirol, Tyrol, Austria
  • 2004-2011
    • Philipps University of Marburg
      • Klinik für Neurologie (Marburg)
      Marburg, Hesse, Germany
    • University of Bonn
      • Department of Neurobiology
      Bonn, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
  • 2006
    • Technische Universität München
      München, Bavaria, Germany
  • 2000-2005
    • Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz
      • Institute of Physics
      Mayence, Rheinland-Pfalz, Germany
  • 2003-2004
    • Harvard University
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States