[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of low-dose dexmedetomidine on hemodynamics and anesthetic requirements during propofol and remifentanil anesthesia for laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Thirty adult patients were randomly allocated to receive dexmedetomidine infusion of 0.3 μg/kg/h (dexmedetomidine group, n = 15) or comparable volumes of saline infusion (control group, n = 15). Target controlled infusion of propofol and remifentanil was used for anesthetic induction and maintenance, and adjusted in order to maintain a bispectral index of 40-55 and hemodynamic stability. We measured hemodynamics and recorded total and mean infused dosages of propofol and remifentanil. For anesthesia induction and maintenance, mean infused doses of propofol (121 ± 27 vs. 144 ± 29 μg/kg/min, P = 0.04) and remifentanil (118 ± 27 vs. 150 ± 36 ng/kg/min, P = 0.01) were lower in the dexmedetomidine group than in the control group, respectively. The dexmedetomidine group required 16 % less propofol and 23 % less remifentanil. During anesthetic induction and maintenance, the dexmedetomidine group required fewer total doses of propofol (9.6 ± 2.3 vs. 12.4 ± 3.3 mg/kg, P = 0.01) and remifentanil (9.6 ± 3.4 vs. 12.7 ± 2.6 μg/kg, P = 0.01). The change in mean arterial pressure over time differed between the groups (P < 0.05). Significantly lower mean arterial pressure was observed in the dexmedetomidine group than in the control group at immediately and 5 min after pneumoperitoneum. The time to extubation after completion of drug administration did not differ between the groups (P = 0.25). This study demonstrated that a low-dose dexmedetomidine infusion of 0.3 μg/kg/h reduced propofol and remifentanil requirements as well as hemodynamic change by pneumoperitoneum without delayed recovery during propofol-remifentanil anesthesia for laparoscopic cholecystectomy.
No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · International Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to assess the anatomy of the radial artery using ultrasound in anesthetized patients, and to correlate its anatomical data with patients' characteristics. The success rate of radial artery cannulation using ultrasound was also evaluated to analyze the relationship between the anatomical data and the success rate. Study 1 One hundred ninety-five patients scheduled for general anesthesia were enrolled. Ultrasound measurements were obtained when the vital signs were stable after anesthesia induction. The wrist joint of patients were extended to 30°. The diameter and depth of the radial artery, and the angle between the radial artery and skin surface were measured using ultrasound. Anatomical data were correlated with patients' characteristics. Study 2 Arterial cannulation was performed in 125 patients using long-axis in-plane technique to evaluate the success rate using ultrasound. Study 1 The diameter of the radial artery was mean value of 2.2 ± 0.4 mm and larger than 0.9 mm in all patients. It had significant correlation with body surface area (BSA) (Pearson correlation 0.292, P < 0.001). The incidence of abnormal angle between the radial artery and skin surface was significantly higher in elderly patients (≥65 years) than young patients (P = 0.017). Study 2 The first attempt success rate of arterial catheterization using ultrasound was 92.5 % using long-axis in-plane technique, regardless of patient's characteristics. For small sized adult patients, a 22G angio-catheter should be used during radial artery cannulation, because the radial artery diameter significantly correlated with BSA in healthy anesthetized patients. In addition, ultrasound-guided catheterization is recommended in elderly patients because the incidence of abnormal angle between the radial artery and skin surface was high.
No preview · Article · May 2015 · International Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The elderly are vulnerable to hypothermia and have a higher risk of cardiovascular events induced by marked increases in oxygen consumption due to shivering. Five-hydroxytryptamine-3 (5-HT3) receptor antagonists have been previously reported to reduce post-anesthesia shivering.
In the present study, the authors investigated the effects of palonosetron, a new-generation 5-HT3 antagonist, on core hypothermia and the incidence of shivering after laparoscopic cholecystectomy in elderly patients.
Forty-eight patients (65-80 years) were randomly assigned to one of two groups and administered palonosetron 0.075 mg (palonosetron group, n = 24) or the same volume of normal saline (control group, n = 24) before anesthesia induction. Core body temperatures and hemodynamic variables were monitored during and after operation. Post-anesthetic shivering (PAS) and pain scores were obtained in a post-anesthetic care unit.
Intraoperative esophageal temperature changed significantly over time (P = 0.010), but significant intergroup difference in change was not observed (P = 0.706). Furthermore, shivering frequencies were similar in the two groups (P = 0.610). However, postoperative pain scores at 30 min after entering the post-anesthesia care unit were significantly lower in the palonosetron group (P = 0.002).
Regardless of the previously reported anti-shivering effect of 5-HT3 receptor antagonists, pre-operative palonosetron 0.075 mg did not influence perioperative hypothermia or PAS in this study. This discrepancy might be due to the dose responsiveness of palonosetron to PAS and relatively low incidence of PAS in the elderly.
Pre-operative administration of palonosetron 0.075 mg did not influence perioperative hypothermia or post-anesthesia shivering in elderly patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. However, palonosetron might be beneficial for reducing early postoperative pain in elderly patients with opioid-based patient-controlled analgesia.
No preview · Article · May 2015 · Aging - Clinical and Experimental Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The sitting position has potential for serious complications such as cerebral ischemia and venous air embolism. This study investigated the effects of intermittent sequential compression device (SCD) on the changes in regional cerebral oxygen saturation (rSO2) during the sitting position.
Sixty-six healthy patients undergoing shoulder arthroscopy in sitting position were randomly assigned to either control (N = 33) or SCD (N = 33) groups. Hemodynamic variables and the rSO2 were measured 5 minutes after the induction of anesthesia (Tsupine, baseline values), and 1, 3, and 5 minutes after raising the patient to a 70-degree sitting position (T1, T3, and T5). The incidence of hypotension was recorded.
The incidence of hypotension was significantly higher in the control group (8/33) than that in the SCD group (1/33) (P = 0.027, odds ratio 0.170, 95% CI 0.042-0.684). The rSO2 was significantly higher in the SCD group compared with those in the control group at T3 and T5. Within the group, rSO2 decreased significantly only in the control group compared with baseline value at T1, T3, and T5. The % change in rSO2 from T0 to T1, T3, and T5 were significantly lower in the SCD group compared to those in the control group.
The application of SCD to the lower extremities during sitting position under sevoflurane anesthesia was a simple and effective method to attenuate the decrease in cerebral oxygen saturation.
No preview · Article · Jan 2011 · Journal of neurosurgical anesthesiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to determine the clinical effective dose of rocuronium for tracheal intubation using a lightwand after induction with propofol, alfentanil, and a low concentration of sevoflurane.
Twenty-eight adults scheduled to undergo elective surgery lasting less than one hour were enrolled in this study. All patients received alfentanil (10 microg/kg) and propofol (1.5 mg/kg) for the induction of anesthesia. Tracheal intubation using a lightwand was attempted 3 minutes after administering rocuronium and mask ventilation with 2 vol% of sevoflurane. The initial rocuronium dose was 0.5 mg/kg. The rocuronium dose for consecutive patients, determined by Dixon's up-and-down method, was increased or decreased by 0.05 mg/kg according to the result of the previous patient. The mean arterial pressure and heart rate were recorded before induction, 1 min before intubation, 1 and 2 min after intubation.
The 50% clinical effective dose (cED(50)) of rocuronium for tracheal intubation using a lightwand was 0.20 +/- 0.05 mg/kg according to Dixon's up and down method. Isotonic regression revealed the cED(50) and cED(95) (95% confidence intervals) to be 0.20 mg/kg (0.10-0.3 mg/kg) and 0.35 mg/kg (0.16-0.49 mg/kg), respectively.
The cED(50) and cED(95) of rocuronium for tracheal intubation using the lightwand were 0.20 mg/kg and 0.35 mg/kg, respectively, after induction with alfentanil, propofol, and a low concentration of sevoflurane.
Preview · Article · Aug 2010 · Korean journal of anesthesiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ramosetron can be administered orally as well as intravenously. We investigated the effect of oral ramosetron on postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) in patients undergoing gynecological laparoscopy.
One hundred and twenty women were allocated randomly to one of three groups (n = 40 in each) to receive saline (control), 0.1 mg oral ramosetron (PO), or 0.3 mg IV ramosetron (IV). Total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) with propofol and remifentanil was used in all patients.
The incidence of complete response (no PONV, no rescue) in the control, IV, and PO groups was: 65%, 90%, and 87.5%, respectively, during the first 1 h; and 67.5%, 87.5%, and 80%, respectively, during 1 to 24 h.
The effect of oral ramosetron 0.1 mg was comparable to that of IV ramosetron 0.3 mg on the prevention of PONV in women undergoing gynecological laparoscopy with TIVA. Both the oral and IV forms were effective at preventing PONV during the first 1 h after surgery.
No preview · Article · Feb 2009 · Journal of Anesthesia
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There is both in vitro and clinical evidence that high-dose propofol can inhibit mitochondrial respiration, resulting in metabolic acidosis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of propofol anesthesia on the acid-base status in neurosurgical patients with large amount of normal saline administration. Thirty patients undergoing clipping of cerebral aneurysm were randomly assigned to receive propofol (n=15) or isoflurane (n=15). Propofol dose (mean+/-standard error) infused for maintenance was 5.7+/-0.2 mg/kg/h in propofol group. Acid-base parameters such as PaCO2, pH, serum bicarbonate concentration, standard base excess, serum electrolyte concentration, total protein, albumin, lactate, and phosphate were measured before and 4 hours after the induction of anesthesia, and after surgery. The apparent strong ion difference (SIDa), the effective SID (SIDe), and the amount of weak plasma acid were calculated using the Stewart equation. There were no significant differences in pH, PaCO2, bicarbonate, and lactate between 2 groups throughout the whole investigation period. After surgery, standard base excess significantly decreased in both groups without intergroup difference. SIDa and SIDe significantly decreased in both groups, and lactate and strong ion gap significantly increased after surgery in propofol group, but there were no significant differences between 2 groups. Both propofol and isoflurane were associated with hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis in neurosurgical patients with large amount of normal saline administration. The acid-base balance between the 2 anesthetics was similar using Stewart's physicochemical approach.
Preview · Article · Feb 2008 · Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 63-year-old woman with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) was scheduled for open reduction and internal fixation of the right tibia. Total intravenous anesthesia using propofol and remifentanil without muscle relaxant was selected as the anesthetic method, in order to avoid the possible occurrence of ventilatory depression due to abnormal responses to muscle relaxants and exacerbation of the motor neuron disease. After standard and neuromuscular monitoring devices were applied, anesthesia was induced and maintained with target controlled infusion of propofol and remifentanil in the range of 2.5-5.0 microg x ml(-1) and 2.5-5.0 ng x ml(-1), respectively. To avoid delayed neuromuscular recovery, we did not use any muscle relaxant at all. Intubation was successful and there were no remarkable events during anesthesia, except for three brief hypotensive events; there was no exacerbation of ALS itself during or after the anesthesia. She was discharged on postoperative day 3, without any discomfort.
No preview · Article · Feb 2008 · Journal of Anesthesia