Mitsuru Akashi

Osaka University, Suika, Ōsaka, Japan

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Publications (600)2203.9 Total impact

  • Hang Thi Tran · Michiya Matsusaki · Mitsuru Akashi · Ngo Dinh Vu
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    ABSTRACT: Various acids such as aliphatic or carbocyclic fatty or aromatic acids were successfully conjugated into the ending hydroxyl group of poly(l-lactide) (PLLA). The chemical structures of various acid–PLLAs were confirmed by Fourier transform infrared and proton nuclear magnetic resonance analysis. The crystallinity and solubility of the original PLLA were maintained after the terminal conjugation of various acids. The thermal properties were significantly improved, especially the 10% weight-loss temperature that showed an increase of over 80°C for conjugation of aliphatic or aromatic acids as compared to that of the corresponding original PLLA. In addition, more than 60 wt.% of the aliphatic acid–PLLAs was pyrolyzed, and aromatic acid–PLLAs degraded only about 10 wt.% for 150 min, although the original PLLA was pyrolyzed completely at 250°C for 7 min. The thermal stability of PLLA was controlled by the conjugation of aliphatic or aromatic acids into a chain end. These acid–PLLAs may be useful as materials with high thermal stability for various application fields.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Journal of Electronic Materials
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    ABSTRACT: Statement of significance: In vitro fabrication of vascularized three-dimensional (3D) human cardiomyocyte (CM) tissues derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) has attracted much attention owing to their requirement of much amount of nutrition and oxygen, but not yet published. In this manuscript, we report construction of vascularized 3D-iPSC-CM tissues by a newly-discovered filtration-Layer-by-Layer (LbL) technique. The filtration-LbL fabricates nanometer-sized fibronectin and gelatin (FN-G) films onto iPSC-CM surfaces. The FN-G nanofilms induce cell-cell interactions via integrin molecules on cell surfaces, leading to construction of 3D-tissues. The constructed vascularized 3D-iPSC-CM tissues would be a promising tool for tissue regeneration and drug development. We believe that this manuscript has a strong impact and offers important suggestions to researchers concerned with biomaterials and tissue engineering.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Acta biomaterialia
  • Hiroharu Ajiro · Shogo Ito · Kai Kan · Mitsuru Akashi
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    ABSTRACT: Using different type of initiators, the antibacterial moieties are introduced at the chain end of poly(L,L-lactide) (PLLA) and poly(D,D-lactide) (PDLA), and the thermal properties are simultaneously improved using the stereocomplex approach. The physical interaction of polymers and antibacterial compounds is investigated. The double bonds at the chain end are utilized for the interaction of silver ion; however, the silver ions are not detected after stereocomplexation of PLLA and PDLA. On the other hand, catechin (CT) is selected as an initiator precursor of lactide polymerization, protecting the phenolic hydroxyl groups. The linear PLLA and PDLA are obtained by the initiator, resulting in CT conjugated PLAs at the chain end groups after deprotection of phenolic hydroxyl groups. The antibacterial properties are determined by proliferation tests of staphylococcus aureus. The results suggest that the antibacterial properties of CT modified PLAs are derived from the original CT parts.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Macromolecular Bioscience
  • Takami Akagi · Mitsuru Akashi
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    ABSTRACT: Nanomedicine is the medical application of nanotechnology and related study to the prevention and treatment of disease in the human body. In recent years, signifi cant effort has been directed to develop nanotechnology for drug delivery devices since it offers a suitable means of delivering small-molecule drugs, as well as biomacromolecules such as proteins, peptides, or oligonucleotides by either localized or targeted delivery to cells and tissues of interest. Until now, lipid-, polymer-, or nano-/microparticle-based drug delivery systems (DDS) have been developed to improve the effi cacy and reduce the systemic toxicity of a wide range of drugs. Several DDS formulations of anticancer drugs, antifungal drugs, and vaccines are approved for clinical use. In this chapter, we will mainly focus on the clinical use of DDS on therapy and prevention of infectious diseases.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016
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    ABSTRACT: The ability to control cell function is one of the challenges for cell-based therapy in regenerative medicine. In this study, we describe a novel method to fabricate cell-hydroxyapatite (HAp) nanocrystal composites to modulate cellular microenvironment. By preparation of layer-by-layer nanometer-sized extracellular matrix films onto cell surfaces, HAp nanocrystals were fabricated onto cell surfaces without cytotoxicity. This technology may have a possibility to modulate cellular functions such as adhesion, growth and differentiation.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2015 · Chemistry Letters
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Emulsions stabilized by colloidal particles are known as Pickering emulsions. To date, soft microgel particles as well as inorganic and organic particles have been utilized as Pickering emulsifiers. Although cyclodextrin (CD) works as an attractive emulsion stabilizer through the formation of a CD-oil complex at the oil-water interface, a high concentration of CD is normally required. Our research focuses on an effective Pickering emulsifier based on a soft colloidal CD polymer (CD nanogel) with a unique surface-active property. Results: CD nanogels were prepared by crosslinking heptakis(2,6-di-O-methyl)-β-cyclodextrin with phenyl diisocyanate and subsequent immersion of the resulting polymer in water. A dynamic light scattering study shows that primary CD nanogels with 30-50 nm diameter assemble into larger CD nanogels with 120 nm diameter by an increase in the concentration of CD nanogel from 0.01 to 0.1 wt %. The CD nanogel has a surface-active property at the air-water interface, which reduces the surface tension of water. The CD nanogel works as an effective Pickering emulsion stabilizer even at a low concentration (0.1 wt %), forming stable oil-in-water emulsions through interfacial adsorption by the CD nanogels. Conclusion: Soft CD nanogel particles adsorb at the oil-water interface with an effective coverage by forming a strong interconnected network and form a stable Pickering emulsion. The adsorption property of CD nanogels on the droplet surface has great potential to become new microcapsule building blocks with porous surfaces. These microcapsules may act as stimuli-responsive nanocarriers and nanocontainers.
    Preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Beilstein Journal of Organic Chemistry
  • Dongjian Shi · Lei Zhang · Jiali Shen · Xiaojie Li · Mingqing Chen · Mitsuru Akashi
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    ABSTRACT: 3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) has the property of self-polymerization to form a PDOPA polymer with crosslinking structure, and coats onto surfaces of diverse substrates at alkaline pH values. In this study, rod-like nanocapsules were facilely fabricated based on a bio-based polymer by taking advantage of the DOPA properties. A block-like poly(lactide)-b-amidated poly(3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine) (PLA-b-APDOPA) copolymer was firstly synthesized through an amidation reaction with pre-prepared functional PLA and APDOPA. The DOPA compound and obtained PLA-b-APDOPA copolymer were subsequently coated onto the silica nanorods to get PLA-b-APDOPA/PDOPA@SiO2 nanorods. Afterwards, PLA-b-APDOPA/PDOPA nanocapsules were formed by removal of the silica template. The structure of the copolymer was confirmed by a 1H NMR spectrum. The formed nanorods and nanocapsules were observed by SEM and TEM. The structure and amount of the coated layers were determined by XPS and TGA. The results showed a rough surface of the nanorods after being coated with the polymers and the formation of a thin PDOPA layer and a thick PLA-b-APDOPA layer on the silica surface. Moreover, the formed nanocapsules had good biocompatibility. A model drug was successfully entrapped into the capsules, and could be slowly released from the nanocapsules in vitro depending on the pH buffer. The obtained rod-like nanocapsules could be used as carriers in biomedical fields.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · RSC Advances
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    ABSTRACT: We have established a novel three-dimensional (3D) tissue-constructing technique, referred to as the 'cell-accumulation method', which is based on the self-assembly of cultured human cells. In this technique, cells are coated with fibronectin and gelatin to construct extracellular matrix (ECM) nanofilms and cultured to form multi-layers in vitro. By using this method, we have successfully fabricated artificial tissues with vascular networks constructed by co-cultivation of human umbilical vein-derived vascular endothelial cells between multi-layers of normal human dermal fibroblasts. In this study, to assess these engineered vascular tissues as therapeutic implants, we transplanted the 3D human tissues with microvascular networks, fabricated based on the cell-accumulation method, onto the back skin of nude mice. After the transplantation, we found vascular networks with perfusion of blood in the transplanted graft. At the boundary between host and implanted tissue, connectivity between murine and human vessels was found. Transmission electron microscopy of the implanted artificial vascular tubules demonstrated the ultrastructural features of blood capillaries. Moreover, maturation of the vascular tissues after transplantation was shown by the presence of pericyte-like cells and abundant collagen fibrils in the ECM surrounding the vasculature. These results demonstrated that artificial human vascular tissues constructed by our method were engrafted and matured in animal skin. In addition, the implanted artificial human vascular networks were connected with the host circulatory system by anastomosis. This method is an attractive technique for engineering prevascularized artificial tissues for transplantation. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
  • Hang Thi Tran · Hiroharu Ajiro · Mitsuru Akashi
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    ABSTRACT: Novel polylactides (PLAs) with conjugation of both terminals by cinnamic acid (CA) derivatives showed high thermal stability and photoreactivity. Their stereocomplex formation was influenced by the conjugation groups at both chain ends of the PLAs and showed photoreactivity and a dramatic improvement in their 10% weight thermal decomposition temperature (T10) from 250 to 320 or 345 °C for conjugated CA or 3,4-diacetoxycinnamic acid (DACA). Interestingly, CA or DACA-conjugated stereocomplexes showed above 98% weight remaining, although the original PLAs showed a 23 wt% pyrolysis, during isothermal degradation at 200 °C for 120 min. The thermal stability and photoreactivity of the PLAs or their stereocomplexes were controlled by the cinnamic acid derivatives. These PLAs and their stereocomplexes may be useful as functional bio-based materials for various application fields. This journal is
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · RSC Advances
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    ABSTRACT: 3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA)-based polymers are well-known to form functional hydrogels with self-healing properties by chelating metal ions. However, DOPA-based hydrogels with self-healing properties are difficult to obtain in the absence of the metal ions, as previously reported. Thus, the aim of this study is to prepare a self-healable DOPA-based hydrogel in the absence of metal ions. Firstly, poly(vinyl alcohol)–DOPA (PVA–DOPA) was synthesized by modifying PVA with DOPA through an esterification reaction. The composition of the PVA–DOPA polymer was determined by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) spectroscopy. Then, the PVA–DOPA hydrogel in a metal-free environment could be easily prepared by dissolving the polymer in buffer solution. Rheological analyses showed that the PVA–DOPA polymers had different dynamic moduli depending on the pH of the buffer solutions. The results from the FTIR and UV-vis spectra indicated that there were hydrogen bond interactions between the PVA–DOPA polymers under low pH conditions, while there were both hydrogen bond and covalent interactions under high pH conditions. The PVA–DOPA hydrogel could be rapidly self-healed within 270 s, which was much quicker than the hydrogel prepared in the presence of Fe3+ (about 600 s). The metal-free PVA–DOPA hydrogel has the potential for application in coating and biomedical fields.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · RSC Advances
  • Hiroharu Ajiro · Ayaka Kuroda · Kai Kan · Mitsuru Akashi
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    ABSTRACT: The stereocomplex formation of poly(L,L-lactide) (PLLA) and poly(D,D-lactide) (PDLA) using an inkjet system was expanded to the amphiphilic copolymers, using poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) as hydrophilic polymer. The diblock copolymers which are composed of PEG and PLLA (MPEG-co-PLLA) and PEG and PDLA (MPEG-co-PDLA) were employed for thin film preparation using an aqueous inkjet system. The solvent and temperature conditions were optimized for the stereocomplex formation between MPEG-co-PLLA and MPEG-co- PDLA. As a result, the stereocomplex was adequately formed in acetonitrile/water (1/1, v/v) at 40 ºC. The aqueous conditions improved the stereocomplex film preparation, which have suffered from clogging when using the organic solvents in previous work. The triblock copolymers, PLLA-co-PEG-co-PLLA and PDLA-co-PEG-co-PDLA, were employed for square patterning with the inkjet system, which produced thin films. The amphiphilic polymer film was able to retain hydrophobic compounds inside. The present result contributed to the rapid film preparation by inkjet, retaining drugs with difficult solubility in water, such as paclitaxel within the films.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Langmuir
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    ABSTRACT: Gas hydrates in the upstream oil and gas industry often cause problems during production, such as plugged pipelines causing down time and loss of revenue. Kinetic hydrate inhibitors (KHIs) have successfully been used in the field for about 2 decades. KHIs work to delay hydrate nucleation and/or crystal growth in the hydrate-stable operating region. KHIs, such as polymers containing N-vinyl amide units, for example, methacrylamide-based KHI polymers with isopropyl groups, have been commercialized and are now used in field operations. However, there are no reports of polymers with n-propyl groups that have been commercialized as a KHI. Using a structure-II-forming natural gas, we have now investigated the KHI performance of homopolymers with n-propyl and isopropyl groups based on the N-vinylformamide (NVF) monomer. A range of copolymers with NVF with higher cloud points were also synthesized and tested because the cloud points of these homopolymers were found to be lower than preferred for most field operations. The polymer series containing nPr-NVF monomer was found to perform better as KHIs than the iPr-NVF series as KHIs at 2500 ppm concentration in deionized water at all copolymer ratios with a similar molecular weight. Two of the best polymers from each of the nPr-NVF and iPr-NVF series were tested at varying concentrations from 1500 to 5000 ppm. A similar trend was found as with the tests of the complete series, in which the nPr-NVF polymer performed better than the iPr-NVF polymer. Poly(N-(n-propyl)-N-vinylformamide) homopolymer gave a similar KHI performance as a commercial sample of polyvinylcaprolactam (PVCap).
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Energy & Fuels
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    Akihiro Nishiguchi · Michiya Matsusaki · Mitsuru Akashi
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    ABSTRACT: Modulation of living cell surfaces by chemical and biological engineering and the control of cellular functions has enormous potential for immunotherapy, transplantation, and drug delivery. However, traditional detection techniques have limitations in the identification of physical properties of viscoelastic films and interaction with living cells in real time. Here, we present the structural analysis of extracellular matrix (ECM) based nanofilms and their interaction with living cells using a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) with dissipation (QCM-D), multiple parameter surface plasmon resonance (SPR), and flow cytometry measurements. QCM-D measurements according to the Voigt-based viscoelastic model allowed for the evaluation of the kinetic adsorption of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins and physical parameters of viscoelastic ECM-nanofilms in a swelled state. These results reflected the characteristics of viscoelastic films as compared to Sauerbrey’s equation. Moreover, we found that gelatin molecules played a crucial role as a binder to build up layered films and control their properties. Using the multiple parameter SPR approach, we confirmed the interaction between FN-G nanofilms and living cells from signal response in real time which was different from the gold substrate–protein signal. Moreover, flow cytometry analysis supported the importance of the domain interaction between the RGD sequence in FN and integrin as a driving force to form the films on cell surfaces. The use of three different analyses supported clarification of the contribution of the protein–protein interaction and viscoelastic properties of ECM films and investigation of the interaction between films and living cells. The knowledge regarding protein–protein and protein–cell interaction in real time would make a contribution to biomaterial design by using protein interactions for modulating the living cell surfaces in biomedical applications.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Surface modification can play a crucial role in enhancing cell adhesion to synthetic polymer-based scaffolds in tissue engineering applications. Here, we report a novel approach for layer-by-layer (LbL) fabrication of nanometer-size fibronectin and gelatin (FN-G) layers on electrospun fibrous poly(carbonate urethane)urea (PCUU) scaffolds. Alternate immersions into the solutions of fibronectin and gelatin provided thickness-controlled FN-G nano-layers (PCUU(FN-G) ) which maintained the scaffold's 3D structure and width of fibrous bundle of PCUU as evidenced by scanning electron miscroscopy. The PCUU(FN-G) scaffold improved cell adhesion and proliferation of bladder smooth muscles (BSMCs) when compared to uncoated PCUU. The high affinity of PCUU(FN-G) for cells was further demonstrated by migration of adherent BSMCs from culture plates to the scaffold. Moreover, the culture of UROtsa cells, human urothelium-derived cell line, on PCUU(FN-G) resulted in an 11-15 μm thick multilayered cell structure with cell-to-cell contacts although many UROtsa cells died without forming cell connections on PCUU. Together these results indicate that this approach will aid in advancing the technology for engineering bladder tissues in vitro. Because FN-G nano-layers formation is based on nonspecific physical adsorption of fibronectin onto polymer and its subsequent interactions with gelatin, this technique may be applicable to other polymer-based scaffold systems for various tissue engineering/regenerative medicine applications. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A
  • Chun-Yen Liu · Michiya Matsusaki · Mitsuru Akashi
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    ABSTRACT: In the field of tissue engineering, fabrication of millimeter- or centimeter-sized three-dimensional (3D) human tissues with controlled 3D cell density, 3D cell components, and 3D cell locations has been a goal of researchers. In this study, we fabricated collagen nanofiber layers of varying thicknesses on cell surfaces by previously reported collagen-coating techniques and then constructed millimeter-sized 3D human tissues, controlling the 3D cell–cell distance. In these 3D tissues, cells in the constructed 3D tissues kept a constant cell–cell distance after 24 h of incubation. Thickness of the obtained 3D tissues was controlled successfully by altering the number of cells seeded and coating times. The maximum thickness was over 2 mm when coating was carried out three times. Cell–cell distance was also controllable from approximately 15–30 μm. When cells coated once and twice with collagen nanofibers were used for the continuous construction of 3D tissues, millimeter-sized 3D tissues with areas of different cell density were obtained. The interfaces between higher and lower cell density areas were slightly mixed, but more than 80% viability was maintained after 4 days of incubation. The results suggested that stable millimeter-sized 3D tissues can be achieved using collagen nanofiber-coated cells. In addition, 3D tissues constructed by collagen-coated iPS-CM and human cardiac fibroblast were also successful.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2015
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    ABSTRACT: The cellular uptake of biodegradable particles as drug or vaccine carriers was observed by scanning electron microscopy employing an ionic liquid. The samples were observed by simply dipping them into the ionic liquid, and high-resolution images (sub-nanometer order) were achieved. The cellular uptake of polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) composed of biodegradable amphiphilic polymers was observed using an ionic liquid method for the first time. In particular, these NPs were observed when the quantum dots were immobilized on the NPs. In addition, when the cells were incubated with microparticles (MPs), the filopodia that covered the MPs were observed, and the cellular uptake of the MPs was evaluated in a time-dependent manner. This ionic liquid method is a promising technique for evaluating the cellular uptake behavior of drug or vaccine carriers. This method also provides a strategy for observing carriers that are sensitive to conventional pretreatment conditions by choosing a suitable ionic liquid.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · Polymer Journal
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    ABSTRACT: Hydroxyapatite (HA) or calcium carbonate (CaCO3) formed on an organic polymer of agarose gel is a biomaterial that can be used for bone tissue regeneration. However, in critical bone defects, the regeneration capability of these materials is limited. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells that can differentiate into bone forming osteoblasts. In this study, we loaded MSCs on HA- or CaCO3-formed agarose gel and cultured them with dexamethasone, which triggers the osteogenic differentiation of MSCs. High alkaline phosphatase activity was detected on both the HA- and CaCO3-formed agarose gels; however, basal activity was only detected on bare agarose gel. Bone-specific osteocalcin content was detected on CaCO3-formed agarose gel on Day 14 of culture, and levels subsequently increased over time. Similar osteocalcin content was detected on HA-formed agarose on Day 21 and levels increased on Day 28. In contrast, only small amounts of osteocalcin were found on bare agarose gel. Consequently, osteogenic capability of MSCs was enhanced on CaCO3-formed agarose at an early stage, and both HA- and CaCO3-formed agarose gels well supported the capability at a later stage. Therefore, MSCs loaded on either HA- or CaCO3-formed agarose could potentially be employed for the repair of critical bone defects.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2015 · International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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    ABSTRACT: Phase-sensitive vibrational sum frequency generation (SFG) spectroscopy has been utilized to study the molecular orientation of molecules adsorbed on dielectric solid substrates. Our results show that the complex second-order nonlinear susceptibility χ(2) spectra of various organic thin films can be obtained by using a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) of octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS) as a standard sample for the phase correction and a gold thin film as a local oscillator. Furthermore, by using the present phase-sensitive SFG setup, the orientation flipping of water molecules on positively and negatively charged solid/liquid interface can be distinguished.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2015 · Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics
  • Yukie Takemoto · Hiroharu Ajiro · Mitsuru Akashi
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    ABSTRACT: Layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly based on hydrogen-bonding interactions is generating great interest for biomedical applications because it is composed of neutral polymers, while LbL assembly based on electrostatic interaction requires polycations which may induce toxicity issues. As a neutral polymer, poly(N-vinylamide), which has low toxicity compared to poly(acrylamide), has the potential to fabricate LbL thin films via hydrogen-bonding interactions. Herein we report interpolymer complexes of poly(N-vinylamide)s and natural polyphenol tannic acid to form the multilayered thin film. Poly(N-vinylformamide) and poly(N-vinylacetamide), which are water-soluble and insoluble in acetonitrile, could not form complexes with TA in water. On the other hand, N-alkylated poly(N-vinylamide) such as poly(N-ethyl-N-vinylformamide) and poly(N-methyl-N-vinylacetamide) was soluble in acetonitrile and allowed the LbL assembly to proceed with TA. Furthermore, the QCM frequency shift with films composed of poly(N-ethyl-N-vinylformamide) and TA were stable in water, while those of poly(N-methyl-N-vinylacetamide) and TA were instable in water, possibly because formamide has lower steric hindrance compared to acetamide to allow stronger hydrogen-bonding interactions to take place. Thus, LbL assembly reactions with alkylated poly(N-vinylamide)s and TA were investigated and revealed that poly(N-ethyl-N-formamide) and TA, which are water-soluble, effectively interacted with one another to generate water-stable hydrogen-bonded multilayered films.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Langmuir
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    ABSTRACT: The porous isotactic (it-) poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) thin film, which is prepared by layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly with it-PMMA and syndiotactic (st-) poly(methacrylic acid) (PMAA) on a substrate and the successive extraction of st-PMAA, was investigated on the aspect of the mechanism of stereoregular template polymerization, inspired by the idea “molecular technology”. The porous it-PMMA film was analyzed with XRD and FT-IR spectra, after the treatment with acetonitrile or a heating process, resulting in partially crystallized it-PMMA, which gave low efficiency of stereoregular template polymerization. The template polymerization under various conditions was also tested, using methacrylamide, methyl methacrylate, and acrylic acid as methacrylic acid derivatives. Furthermore, st-PMAAs with different syndiotacticity were employed to prepare the porous it-PMMA film after LbL film preparation, resulting in low yields and stereoregularity on template polymerization. The results imply that perfect polymer-polymer interaction is essential to achieve precise polymerization in stereoregular template polymerization.
    No preview · Article · May 2015 · Kōbunshi rombun shū

Publication Stats

11k Citations
2,203.90 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2003-2016
    • Osaka University
      • • Division of Applied Chemistry
      • • Division of Molecular Biochemistry
      • • Graduate School of Engineering
      Suika, Ōsaka, Japan
  • 2005-2015
    • Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST)
      Edo, Tokyo, Japan
  • 2012
    • RWTH Aachen University
      • Institute of Inorganic Chemistry
      Aachen, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
  • 1984-2010
    • Kagoshima University
      • • Faculty of Engineering
      • • Center for Educational Research and Development
      • • Graduate School of Science and Engineering
      Kagosima, Kagoshima, Japan
  • 2009
    • Jiangnan University
      • School of Chemical and Material Engineering
      Wuxi, Jiangsu Sheng, China
  • 2007
    • Kyoto Institute of Technology
      Kioto, Kyōto, Japan
  • 2006
    • Zhejiang University
      Hang-hsien, Zhejiang Sheng, China
  • 2004
    • Chulalongkorn University
      • Petroleum and Petrochemical College
      Krung Thep, Bangkok, Thailand
    • Yangtze University
      • School of Chemical and Material Engineering
      Hu-pei-ts’un, Shanxi Sheng, China
  • 1997
    • Slovak Academy of Sciences
      • Polymer Institute
      Presburg, Bratislavský, Slovakia