[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A rise in the incidence of bullous pemphigoid (BP) was documented recently in Europe, and the main risk factors for BP remain unknown. We conducted a multicenter case-control study to evaluate risk factors for BP. We identified 201 incident BP cases and 345 controls individually matched for age, gender, center, and place of residence (home, nursing home, or extended-care facility). We used univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses to compare drugs used for over 3 months, comorbidities, and physical and cognitive impairments between cases and controls. Mean age of BP patients was 84.2 (±8.7) years. Factors independently associated with BP by multivariate analysis were major cognitive impairment (odds ratio (OR), 2.19; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.24-3.87), bedridden condition (OR, 2.19; 95% CI, 1.23-3.89), Parkinson's disease (OR, 2.16; 95% CI, 1.09-4.27), unipolar or bipolar disorder (OR, 5.25; 95% CI, 1.21-22.86), and chronic use of spironolactone (OR, 2.30; 95% CI, 1.20-4.46) or phenothiazines with aliphatic side chains (OR, 3.70; 95% CI, 1.21-11.34). Chronic analgesic use was associated with a lower risk of BP (OR, 0.49; 95% CI, 0.30-0.81). Thus, risk factors for BP include neurological disorders, particularly dementia and Parkinson's disease, psychiatric disorders (unipolar and bipolar disorders), bedridden condition, and chronic use of several drugs.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2010 · Journal of Investigative Dermatology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Factors implicated in the severity of drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) have not been identified. We retrospectively describe and analyze severe cases of DRESS defined by history of intensive care unit admission and death due to DRESS.
Of 15 patients retrospectively recruited in France, 14 were admitted to the intensive care unit and 3 died. The culprit drugs were already known to cause or trigger DRESS: allopurinol, minocycline hydrochloride, anticonvulsants, sulfonamides, and antibiotics. Visceral involvement with severe manifestations responsible for intensive care unit admission or death was variable and often multiple (pneumonitis, hepatitis, renal failure, encephalitis, hemophagocytosis, cardiac failure, and pancytopenia) and resulted in multiorgan failure in 11 patients. These severe complications sometimes developed late in DRESS. Human herpesvirus 6 infection was demonstrated in 6 of 7 patients. In addition, human herpesvirus 6 infection was demonstrated in involved viscera in 2 patients.
Severe DRESS is rare. Some specificities of visceral involvement were associated with allopurinol and minocycline. However, visceral involvement comprising multiorgan failure seemed to be unpredictable. Better knowledge of DRESS is necessary to propose specific and prompt treatment. Early demonstration of human herpesvirus 6 reactivation could be considered a prognostic factor for identifying patients at higher risk and, hence, needs to be evaluated.
No preview · Article · Feb 2009 · Archives of dermatology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Superpotent topical corticosteroids (CS) have been demonstrated to improve bullous pemphigoid (BP) patients' survival. We assessed whether a mild regimen using lower doses of topical CS and a shorter duration could improve the outcome of BP patients even more. Three-hundred and twelve BP patients were included in a multicenter randomized controlled trial and stratified depending on the extent of BP as moderate (n=134) or extensive (n=178). Patients were randomly assigned to the standard regimen (clobetasol propionate cream, 40 g per day initially, with CS tapering over 12 months) or the mild regimen (10-30 g per day), with CS tapering over 4 months. A noninferior rate of BP control was obtained with the mild regimen 156/159 (98%) as compared with the standard regimen 150/150 (100%; P=0.005). Event-free survival, that is, the combined outcome of deaths and life-threatening adverse events did not differ between the two treatment groups (P=0.77). However, upon adjusting through the Cox model for age and Karnofsky score, a strong beneficial effect of the mild regimen was observed in patients with moderate BP, with an almost twofold decrease in the risk of death or life-threatening adverse events relative to the standard regimen (hazard ratio=0.54; 95% confidence interval, 0.30-0.97; P=0.039). This mild regimen allows a 70% reduction of the cumulative doses of CS and improves BP patients' outcome.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2009 · Journal of Investigative Dermatology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To critically review the literature on the efficacy of modern dressings in healing chronic and acute wounds by secondary intention.
Search of 3 databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Controlled Clinical Trials Register) from January 1990 to June 2006, completed by manual research, for articles in English and in French.
The end points for selecting studies were the rate of complete healing, time to complete healing, rate of change in wound area, and general performance criteria (eg, pain, ease of use, avoidance of wound trauma on dressing removal, ability to absorb and contain exudates). Studies were selected by a single reviewer. Overall, 99 studies met the selection criteria (89 randomized controlled trials [RCTs], 3 meta-analyses [1 of which came from 1 of the selected systematic reviews], 7 systematic reviews, and 1 cost-effectiveness study).
The RCTs, meta-analyses, and cost-effectiveness studies were critically appraised by 2 reviewers to assess the clinical evidence level according to a modification of Sackett's 1989 criteria. Ninety-three articles were finally graded.
We found no level A studies, 14 level B studies (11 RCTs and 3 meta-analyses), and 79 level C studies. Hydrocolloid dressings proved superior to saline gauze or paraffin gauze dressings for the complete healing of chronic wounds, and alginates were better than other modern dressings for debriding necrotic wounds. Hydrofiber and foam dressings, when compared with other traditional dressings or a silver-coated dressing, respectively, reduced time to healing of acute wounds.
Our systematic review provided only weak levels of evidence on the clinical efficacy of modern dressings compared with saline or paraffin gauze in terms of healing, with the exception of hydrocolloids. There was no evidence that any of the modern dressings was better than another, or better than saline or paraffin gauze, in terms of general performance criteria. More wound care research providing level A evidence is needed.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2007 · Archives of Dermatology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Efficacy of oral antiviral therapies, ie, acyclovir, valacyclovir (VACV), and famciclovir, for suppression of recurrent genital herpes was studied at different doses and regimens.
We sought to compare the clinical efficacies of the different oral antiviral drugs prescribed prophylactically to suppress recurrent genital herpes.
MEDLINE and EMBASE databases were searched for articles on genital herpes and selected antiviral drugs. The selected trials were: parallel randomized clinical trials testing prophylactic oral antiviral treatment of genital herpes versus placebo in immunocompetent and nonpregnant patients.
Fourteen randomized clinical trials were selected, including a total of 6158 patients. The global relative risk of developing at least one recurrence during the study was reduced by 47% (95% confidence interval 45%-49%) in antiviral drug groups compared with the placebo. The best evaluated regimens, with comparable efficacies, were given twice daily, ie, acyclovir (400 mg twice daily), VACV (250 mg twice daily), and famciclovir (250 mg twice daily), or once daily (VACV 500 mg).
The only end point available for all the studies was the number of patients presenting at least one recurrence of genital herpes during the observation period.
The results of this first meta-analysis confirmed the high clinical efficacy of oral acyclovir, VACV, or famciclovir for prophylaxis against recurrent genital herpes.
No preview · Article · Sep 2007 · Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: † Background and Design.—
Bullous pemphigoid is usually treated with systemic corticosteroids. Side effects are common in elderly patients, justifying the search for adjuvant therapy. This randomized, multicentric unblind study was designed to assess the efficacy of azathioprine or plasma exchange when added to conventional doses of prednisolone. One hundred patients with active disease entered the study. They were randomly allocated to receive 28 days of treatment with oral prednisolone sodium metasulfobenzoate (1 mg/kg per day) either alone or in combination with oral azathioprine (100 to 150 mg/d) or four large-volume plasma exchanges. After 28 days, the prednisolone doses were progressively decreased according to the same strict regimen in the three groups (in combination with oral azathioprine in group 2).
No preview · Article · Feb 1993 · Archives of Dermatology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: • We retrospectively analyzed 63 observations collected in nine French departments of dermatology of an acute pustular dermatosis, recently named in the French literature acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP). Even though 11 of these cases occurred in patients with a history of psoriasis, AGEP appeared distinct from pustular psoriasis based on several slight pathologic differences, drug induction in most cases, and a more acute course of fever and pustulosis, with rapid spontaneous healing. We, therefore, suggest that AGEP is a reaction pattern, perhaps favored by a "psoriatic background." The most frequent causes of AGEP seem to be drug reactions, acute infections with enteroviruses, and hypersensitivity to mercury. With 55 (87%) of 63 cases attributed to drugs in this series, AGEP should be added to the list of cutaneous adverse drug reactions. Among druginduced skin eruptions, AGEP is remarkable by its short time to onset after the administration of the suspected drug (<24 hours in half of our cases) and the great predominance (80%) of antibiotics as causative agents. It is suggested that some cases previously reported as "drug-induced pustular psoriasis" were in fact AGEP.(Arch Dermatol. 1991;127:1333-1338)
No preview · Article · Oct 1991 · Archives of Dermatology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: • Eighty-seven patients with toxic epidermal necrolysis were observed at Hôpital Henri Mondor in Créteil, France, over the last 12 years. The mean percentage of body surface area involved was 39%. Erosive mucous membrane lesions, identical to those of Stevens-Johnson syndrome, were present in all but three cases. Necrolysis was sometimes generalized within 24 hours but usually spread progressively after a Stevens-Johnson syndrome—like aspect at the onset. Mortality was 25%. Infection, mainly with Staphylococus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, was the first cause of death, clearly responsible in ten of 20 cases. Age, extension of necrolysis, idiopathic nature of toxic epidermal necrolysis, ingestion of many drugs, elevation of urea, creatinine, and glucose levels, neutropenia, lymphopenia, and thrombocytopenia were statistically linked to a bad prognosis. A multivariant analysis showed that three of these prognosis factors are of paramount importance, namely: age, area of necrolysis, and serum urea level. Pigmentary changes and sicca syndrome were frequently observed sequelae in survivors.(Arch Dermatol 1987;123:1160-1165)
No preview · Article · Oct 1987 · Archives of Dermatology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pemphigus is a severe cutaneous blistering disease caused by antiepidermal antibodies. The well-demonstrated role of autoantibodies and the side effects of conventional therapy with high doses of steroids prompted trials of plasma exchange (PE). While most open studies reported effectiveness of PE, mainly in steroid-resistant cases, a recent controlled study showed no benefit from PE when given with a low steroid dose. This study points to the difficulty of removing pemphigus antibody unless PE is accompanied by effective immunosuppression. Since steroids remain the principal immunosuppressive form of therapy in pemphigus, the clinical usefulness of PE in this disease may be restricted to the management of cases resistant to high steroid doses.
No preview · Article · Jun 1987 · Plasma Therapy and Transfusion Technology