[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Background:
The aims of this study were to analyze the relationship between the different causes of immunosuppression (IMS) and diverticulitis.
IMS patients admitted for colonic diverticulitis were included in the study. Patients were divided in 5 groups according to the reasons of IMS: group I, chronic corticosteroid therapy; group II, transplant patients; group III, malignant neoplasm disease; group IV, chronic renal failure; group V, others immunosuppressant treatment. Rate of emergency surgery, outcomes in terms of postoperative mortality, and recurrence rate after nonoperative management were analyzed according to the reason of IMS.
Emergency surgery was performed in 76 patients (39.3%). It was needed more frequently in group I. Overall, postoperative mortality was of 31.6% and recurrence rate after successful nonoperative management occurred in 30 patients (27.8%). No differences were observed among the groups.
The rate of emergency surgery in IMS patients at the first episode of acute colonic diverticulitis is high. Elective surgery in IMS patients should be individually indicated according to persistence of symptoms or early recurrences.
Full-text available · Article · May 2016 · American journal of surgery
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Changes in the multidisciplinary treatment of rectal cancer have been recently proposed. We performed a comprehensive review of the current data on neoadjuvant and adjuvant treatment of rectal cancer, focussing on chemoradiotherapy treatment and timing of surgery. Six components were proposed as the framework for the treatment of rectal cancer: neoadjuvant therapy and changing patterns in patient selection, long- or short-course radiotherapy, adverse effects of radiotherapy, timing of surgery, non-operative management of rectal cancer and postoperative adjuvant therapy. Lack of a consistent difference in terms of local recurrence has been observed between short-course radiotherapy and long-course chemoradiotherapy. Indications for preoperative radiotherapy have been reconsidered in the last years. An interval of 10-11 weeks seemed to be the optimal timing, with no impact on patient safety. Since assessment criteria of clinical complete response are not well defined, and the basis for non-operative management of rectal cancer is still not clear, further investigations are required. There is controversy about standard treatments for patients with locally advanced rectal cancer that are being analyzed by ongoing studies. Tailored treatments could avoid over-treatment for a large number of patients without any impairment of the oncologic results.
Full-text available · Article · Jan 2016 · Techniques in Coloproctology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Background:
Postoperative ileus is a common problem with significant clinical and economic consequences. We hypothesized that Gastrografin(®) may have therapeutic utility by accelerating the recovery of postoperative ileus after colorectal surgery. The aim of this trial was to study the impact of oral Gastrografin(®) administration on postoperative prolonged ileus (PPI) after elective colorectal surgery.
The main endpoint of this randomized, double-blinded, controlled trial was time of resolution of PPI. The secondary endpoints were overall hospital length of stay, time to start oral intake, time to first passage of flatus or stools, time of need of nasogastric tube, and need of parenteral nutrition. Included criteria were patients older than 18 years, operated for colonic neoplasia, inflammatory bowel disease, or diverticular disease. There were two treatments: Gastrografin(®) administration and placebo. The sample size was calculated taking into account the average length of postoperative ileus after colorectal resection until tolerance to oral intake. Statistical analysis showed that 29 subjects in each group were needed.
Twenty-nine patients per group were randomized. Groups were comparable for age, gender, ASA Physical Status Classification System, stoma construction, and surgical technique. No statistical differences were observed in mean time to resolution between the two groups, 9.1 days (CI 95 %, 6.51-11.68) in Gastrografin(®) group versus 10.3 days (CI 6.96-10.29) in Placebo group (P = 0.878). Even if not statistically significant, time of resolution of PPI, overall length of stay, time of need of nasogastric tube, and time to tolerance of oral intake were shorter in the G group.
Gastrografin(®) does not accelerate significantly the recovery of prolonged postoperative ileus after elective colorectal resection when compared with placebo. However, it seems to clinically improve all the analyzed variables.
Full-text available · Article · Oct 2015 · World Journal of Surgery
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Background
The evidence is sparse concerning the natural history of acute diverticulitis after successful conservative management. This observational study aimed to evaluate the rate, severity, and need of surgery for recurrence after a first episode of acute diverticulitis successfully managed conservatively.
All patients admitted for acute diverticulitis between 1994 and 2011 were considered for inclusion in the study. Severity of the first episode, demographic data, comorbidities, management, recurrence, and elective or emergency surgery during the follow-up period were prospectively recorded.
The study included 560 patients. The mean follow-up period was of 67.2 ± 44.4 months. Severe diverticulitis was diagnosed in 22.3 % of the cases. Recurrence was observed in 14.8 % of the patients, and the rate of severe recurrence was 3.4 %. Most of the recurrences occurred during the first year of follow-up evaluation. Chronic corticoid therapy (P = 0.043) and the presence of more than one abscess (P
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Aim:
Immunosuppression is believed to worsen outcomes for patients who require surgery for perforated diverticulitis. The aim of this study was to compare surgical outcomes between immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients undergoing surgery for complicated diverticulitis.
All patients who underwent emergency surgery for complicated diverticulitis between 2004 and 2012 in a single unit were studied. Patients were classified as immunosuppressed (group I) or immunocompetent (group II). Operation type and postoperative morbidity and mortality were compared between groups. The impact of operating surgeons' specialization and the Peritonitis Severity Score (PSS) were also evaluated to determine their impact on the restoration of gastrointestinal (GI) continuity.
One-hundred and sixteen patients (mean age: 63.7 years), 41.4% women, were included. Fifty-three (45.7%) patients were immunosuppressed (group I): 42 underwent Hartmann's procedure (HP) (79.2%), nine (17.0%) underwent resection and primary anastomosis (RPA) with ileostomy (IL) and two (3.8%) underwent RPA without IL. In group II, 15 HP (23.8%), nine RPA with IL (14.3%) and 39 RPA without IL (61.9%) were performed. Postoperative morbidity and mortality were 79.2% and 26.4%, respectively, in group I and 63.5% and 6.3%, respectively, in group II. The overall mean PSS was 9.5, with a mean PSS of 11.1 in group I and of 8.1 in group II. The decision to perform a primary anastomosis differed significantly between colorectal surgeons and general surgeons in the patients with a PSS of 9-10-11.
In immunocompromised patients, RPA with IL can be a safe surgical option, whereas HP should be reserved for patients with a PSS of > 11. Colorectal surgical specialization is associated with higher rates of restoration of GI continuity in patients with perforated diverticulitis, especially in patients with an intermediate PSS score. Evaluation of each patient's PSS facilitates decision making in surgery for perforated diverticulitis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE:: We compare the results of 2 different strategies for the management of patients with uncomplicated left colonic diverticulitis and to analyze differences in quality of life and economic costs. BACKGROUND:: The most frequent standard management of acute uncomplicated diverticulitis still is hospital admission both in Europe and United States. METHODS:: This multicenter, randomized controlled trial included patients older than 18 years with acute uncomplicated diverticulitis. All the patients underwent abdominal computed tomography. There were 2 strategies of management: hospitalization (group 1) and outpatient (group 2). The first dose of antibiotic was given intravenously to all patients in the emergency department and then group 1 patients were hospitalized whereas patients in group 2 were discharged. The primary end point was the treatment failure rate of the outpatient protocol and need for hospital admission. The secondary end points included quality-of-life assessment and evaluation of costs. RESULTS:: A total of 132 patients were randomized: 4 patients in group 1 and 3 patients in group 2 presented treatment failure without differences between the groups (P = 0.619). The overall health care cost per episode was 3 times lower in group 2, with savings of &OV0556;1124.70 per patient. No differences were observed between the groups in terms of quality of life. CONCLUSIONS:: Outpatient treatment is safe and effective in selected patients with uncomplicated acute diverticulitis. Outpatient treatment allows important costs saving to the health systems without negative influence on the quality of life of patients with uncomplicated diverticulitis. Trial registration ID: EudraCT number 2008-008452-17.
Full-text available · Article · May 2013 · Annals of surgery
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: AimIleocolic anastomosis is performed using a stapled or manual technique, but with either there is a risk of bleeding from the suture line. The aim of this study was to analyse, retrospectively, bleeding after different anastomotic techniques. Method
Patients having elective right colectomy were divided, according to the type of ileocolic anastomosis, into Group 1 (circular, double-stapled, end-to-side), Group 2 (linear-stapled, side-to-side) and Group 3 (handsewn, side-to-side). Postoperative lower gastrointestinal bleeding (LGIB) was studied in the three groups. Uni- and multivariate analysis was performed to study risk factors for LGIB and the need for postoperative allogeneic blood transfusion. ResultsThree-hundred and fifty patients were included: 174 in Group 1, 59 in Group 2 and 117 in Group 3. The postoperative LGIB rate was 4.9% and occurred exclusively in Group 1. Five patients had severe anastomotic bleeding. Postoperative blood transfusion was indicated in Groups 1, 2 and 3 in 19.0%, 5.1% and 13.7% of patients. In the five patients with severe bleeding, four attempts of colonoscopic arrest were made, achieving bleeding control in one. Angiographic embolization was successful in one patient. There were no procedure-specific complications. Conclusion
End-to-side, circular, double-stapling ileocolic anastomosis seems to be related to an increased incidence of anastomotic bleeding and of postoperative blood transfusion compared with patients having other techniques of ileocolic anastomosis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Despite recent advances in the medical treatment of ulcerative colitis (UC), approximately 25-40% of patients will need surgery during their disease. The aim of elective surgical treatment of UC is to remove the colon/and rectum with minimal postoperative morbidity, and to offer a good long-term quality of life. There are several technical options for the surgical treatment of UC; at present, the most frequently offered is restorative proctocolectomy and ileal pouch-anal anastomosis. Both the surgeon and patient should be aware of the risks associated with a technically demanding procedure and possible postoperative complications, including the possibility of infertility, permanent stoma, or several surgical procedures for pouch-related complications.A precise knowledge of each surgical technique, and its indications, complications, long-term risks and benefits is useful to offer the best surgical option tailored to each patient.We searched in PubMed, MEDLINE, and EMBASE for all kinds of articles (all the publications until April 2012). Papers on Crohn's disease, indeterminate colitis, or other forms of colitis were excluded from the review. We reviewed the abstracts and identified potentially relevant articles. MeSH words were used as search, “ulcerative colitis”, “surgery”, “indications”, “elective surgery”, “colectomy,” “proctocolectomy,” “laparoscopy”, “Complications,” “outcome”, “results” “quality of life”.One hundred and four articles were included in this review.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Despite recent advances in the medical treatment of ulcerative colitis (UC), approximately 25-40% of patients will need surgery during their disease. The aim of elective surgical treatment of UC is to remove the colon/and rectum with minimal postoperative morbidity, and to offer a good long-term quality of life. There are several technical options for the surgical treatment of UC; at present, the most frequently offered is restorative proctocolectomy and ileal pouch-anal anastomosis. Both the surgeon and patient should be aware of the risks associated with a technically demanding procedure and possible postoperative complications, including the possibility of infertility, permanent stoma, or several surgical procedures for pouch-related complications. A precise knowledge of each surgical technique, and its indications, complications, long-term risks and benefits is useful to offer the best surgical option tailored to each patient. We searched in PubMed, MEDLINE, and EMBASE for all kinds of articles (all the publications until April 2012). Papers on Crohn's disease, indeterminate colitis, or other forms of colitis were excluded from the review. We reviewed the abstracts and identified potentially relevant articles. MeSH words were used as search, "ulcerative colitis", "surgery", "indications", "elective surgery", "colectomy," "proctocolectomy," "laparoscopy", "Complications," "outcome", "results" "quality of life". One hundred and four articles were included in this review.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The colonic pouch is considered as an alternative to the standard straight low anastomosis after resection for rectal cancer. The aim of this prospective randomized trial was to compare short- and long-term functional results of colonic J-pouch (CJP) and transverse coloplasty (TCP) after low anterior resection for rectal cancer. METHODS: Between 2000 and 2005, patients with mid or low rectal cancer scheduled for an elective sphincter-preserving resection were eligible. The primary end point was to compare bowel functional results 6 months and 3 years after ileostomy closure. Fecal incontinence score and a questionnaire that included items for clinical evaluation of bowel function were used. RESULTS: One-hundred six patients were randomized; 54 patients were allocated to the CJP group and 52 in the TCP group. There were no differences between the 2 groups in terms of demographic and clinical data. Overall, postoperative complication rate was 19.8% without differences between the groups. Two patients (1.9%; one in each group) presented with anastomotic dehiscence. Long-term incomplete evacuation rates were 29.2% in the CPT group and 33.3% in the CJP group, without substantial differences. Overall, short- and long-term functional outcomes of both procedures were comparable. No differences were observed in terms of fecal incontinence or in all the items included in the questionnaire. CONCLUSION: TCP reconstruction after rectal cancer resection and coloanal anastomosis is functionally similar to CJP both in short- and long-term outcomes. The TCP technique does not seem to improve significantly the incomplete defecation symptom respect to CJP. Registration number: NCT01396928; http://register.clinicaltrial.gov.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: To evaluate the probability of recurrence and the virulence of colonic diverticulitis correlated with immunocompromised status.
Nine hundred thirty-one patients admitted in a single tertiary referral university hospital over a 14-year period were included. Patients were divided into 2 groups: group 1, 166 immunosuppressed patients, and group 2, 765 nonimmunosuppressed patients. The variables studied were sex, age, American Society of Anesthesiologist status, reasons of immunosuppression (eg, chronic use of corticosteroids, transplant recipients, and diseases affecting the immune system), severity of the diverticulitis episode, recurrence, emergency and elective surgery, and morbidity and mortality rates.
Two hundred thirteen patients underwent an emergency operation during the first hospitalization and 26 patients in further episodes. One hundred thirty-six patients developed 1 or more recurrent episodes of diverticulitis. The overall recurrence rate was similar in both groups. Patients in group 1 with a severe first episode presented significantly higher rates of recurrence and severity without needing more emergency surgery. Mortality after emergency surgery was 33.3% in group 1 and 15.9% in group 2 (P = .004).
After successful medical treatment of acute diverticulitis, patients with immunosuppression need not be advised to have an elective sigmoidectomy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to analyze factors contributing to prolonged postoperative ileus (POI) after elective bowel resection in patients with colorectal cancer.
This was a retrospective review of a prospectively maintained database of patients operated on for colorectal cancer during 2006-2009. Patients with abdominal procedures and bowel resection without anastomotic leakage were included. Prolonged POI was defined as no flatus by postoperative day (POD) 6, with or without intolerance to oral intake by POD 6. Variables studied included demographics, prior medical conditions, details of the surgical procedure, and hospital stay.
A total of 773 patients met the inclusion criteria. POI occurred in 15.9%. The mean hospital stay was 11 days without POI and 20 days for POI patients (P < 0.001). Factors associated with POI in the univariate analysis were ASA III-IV (P < 0.005), male sex (P < 0.004), smoking (P < 0.015), chronic pulmonary disease (COPD) (P < 0.002), rectal cancer (P < 0.02), and ileostomy (P < 0.001). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed male sex [odds ratio (OR) 1.6, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.04-3.5]; COPD (OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.25-31.0), and ileostomy (OR 1.9; 95% CI 1.23-3.07) as risk factors for POI.
The risk of POI seems increased in patients with preoperative COPD and patients with an ileostomy, especially in men. Consideration of these factors could be important for the prevention and treatment of POI.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: The long-term recurrence rate of fibrin glue treatment was analysed in patients with trans-sphincteric cryptoglandular fistula operated by a two-phase procedure: (i) fistulectomy with seton placement; (ii) fibrin sealant (Tissucol Duo®, Baxter) insertion in the track.
Clinical data were collected prospectively for all patients operated between 2004 and 2010. The statistical association of clinical variables and recurrence was analysed and a disease-free curve was constructed using the Kaplan-Meier method.
Twenty-eight consecutive patients (mean age 48.3 ± 13.3 years; 22 men) were enrolled in the study. Middle and high trans-sphincteric fistulae were diagnosed in 20 (71.4%) and eight (28.6%) patients. Seven (25%) had secondary track formation. The mean interval between the first operation and the fibrin sealant treatment was 12.5 ± 7.6 months. There were no complications related to the procedure. Nine (32.1%, 95% CI 17.9-50.7%) patients developed recurrence between 3 and 27 months after fibrin sealant treatment. Disease-free curves showed that the highest probability of recurrence occurred in the first 2 years. No incontinence was found at a mean follow-up of 20.6 (3-60) months among the 67.8% patients with no evidence of recurrence.
Fibrin sealant is safe and simple. The healing rate is satisfactory without the risk of incontinence.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: The high morbidity and mortality of emergency surgery, has led to the use of endoluminal self-expanding metal implants (stents) in the management of intestinal occlusion. The purpose of this study was to review the results of the management of intestinal occlusion treatment in a Colorectal Surgery Unit in those patients who had a stent implant, and the relationship between chemotherapy and complications.
A retrospective study was carried out on patients treated with a stent in a university hospital between 2004 and 2010.
A total of 93 patients were treated, of which 77 were considered palliative for a stage IV neoplasm of the colon with non-resectable metastases or due to a performance status > 2. Other indications were 7 ASA IV patients with acute renal failure, 6 with benign disease, and 3 due to other causes. The technical and clinical success of the procedure was 93.5% and 78.5%, respectively. Delayed occlusion was 19.3% and perforation 6.4%. There was migration (2.1%) and intestinal bleeding (2.1%) and 1.1% with tenesmus. No significant differences were seen between complications and chemotherapy. The overall mortality was 17.2%.
Stents, as a definitive treatment option in palliative patients with and without chemotherapy, is an alternative treatment that is not exempt from complications. We believe that in patients with mortality risk factors and patients with tumours with non-resectable metastases it could be the initial treatment of choice.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: To study any possible differences in morbidity, mortality and overall survival rate after curative surgery for obstructive colon cancer according to tumour location.
From January 1994 to December 2006, patients with colonic cancer presenting as obstruction were analysed. The two groups were defined as proximal and distal according to the tumour location with respect to the splenic flexure. In relation to the surgeon specialization, patients were operated on by a colorectal surgeon and by a general surgeon. Postoperative morbidity and mortality and cancer-related survival at 3 years were analysed.
Of the 377 patients included in the study, there were 173 patients (45.9%) in the proximal group and 204 patients (54.1%) in the distal group. The global morbidity was 54.9% without differences in postoperative morbidity except for anastomotic leakage, which was higher in the proximal group (P < 0.014). No differences in postoperative mortality were observed. After patients were stratified by the tumour node metastasis system, the differences between the groups, with respect to 3-year overall survival, cancer-related survival and probability of being free from recurrence, did not reach statistical significance. The overall survival after radical surgery for colonic obstruction was 57.6%.
Mortality and morbidity after emergency surgery for obstructing colon cancer are high. Specialization in colorectal surgery influences postoperative results in terms of lower anastomotic dehiscence rate after emergency proximal colon resection. After radical surgery, tumour location does not appear to influence the prognosis of obstructive colon cancer.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Background:
The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the morbidity associated with 2 strategies of treatment of colorectal anastomotic leakage: surgical drainage of anastomosis with loop ileostomy versus anastomotic takedown.
An observational study of patients operated on for ileocolic or colorectal anastomotic leakage between 2001 and 2009. Patients were classified into 2 groups: group 1, salvage of the anastomosis, and group 2, anastomotic takedown. Mortality and morbidity were assessed. Morbidity and mortality of bowel restoration were also evaluated.
Thirty-nine patients were included into group 1 and 54 into group 2. Mortality was 15% for group 1 and 37% for group 2 (P = .022). The rate of patients suitable for stoma reversal was 91% for loop ileostomy and 38% for end stoma (P < .001). Morbidity was 18% after loop ileostomy closure and 71% after end stoma reversal (P = .021). Hospitalization was 10 days and 21 days, respectively (P = .009). There was no mortality.
Salvage of anastomosis with loop ileostomy is an effective strategy to control peritoneal sepsis for colorectal anastomotic leakage.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Hartmann's procedure (HP) still remains the most frequently performed procedure for diffuse peritonitis due to perforated diverticulitis. The aims of this study were to assess the feasibility and safety of resection with primary anastomosis (RPA) in patients with purulent or fecal diverticular peritonitis and review morbidity and mortality after single stage procedure and Hartmann in our experience.
From January 1995 through December 2008, patients operated for generalized diverticular peritonitis were studied. Patients were classified into two main groups: RPA and HP.
A total of 87 patients underwent emergency surgery for diverticulitis complicated with purulent or diffuse fecal peritonitis. Sixty (69%) had undergone HP while RPA was performed in 27 patients (31%). At the multivariate analysis, RPA was associated with less post-operative complications (P < 0.05). Three out of the 27 patients with RPA (11.1%) developed a clinical anastomotic leakage and needed re-operation.
RPA can be safely performed without adding morbidity and mortality in cases of diffuse diverticular peritonitis. HP should be reserved only for hemodynamically unstable or high-risk patients. Specialization in colorectal surgery improves mortality and raises the percentage of one-stage procedures.
Article · Mar 2011 · International Journal of Colorectal Disease
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Double-barreled wet colostomy consists of simultaneous urinary and fecal diversions into a lateral colostomy and is indicated after pelvic exenteration or in palliative operations, when complete intestinal and urinary reconstruction is not possible. We report experience at our institution with Double-barreled wet colostomy regarding postoperative and long-term morbidity and mortality.
All patients who underwent double-barreled wet colostomy construction at our institution from 1980 through 2008 were included in the study. Medical records were reviewed for type and history of the malignant tumor, previous treatments, comorbidity according to the American Society of Anesthesiologists' score, type and length of surgery, length of hospital stay, and postoperative (within 30 days after the operation) and long-term morbidity and mortality.
The study comprised 41 patients. The underlying disease was a malignant pelvic tumor in 30 patients (primary in 6 and recurrent in 24 patients) and a nonmalignant disease in 11 patients. Surgical mortality was 2.4%, and the postoperative morbidity rate was 65.9%. Double-barreled wet colostomy-related morbidity observed during follow-up included pyelonephritis (9.8%, with renal deterioration due to chronic pyelonephritis in 2.4%), stenosis of the uretero-colonic anastomosis (2.4%), and lithiasis in the urine reservoir (7.3%). Follow-up was discontinued after a mean of 18.6 (SD, 19.9) months in 14 patients who had been referred from other centers. A total of 27 patients were followed in our center for a mean of 32.2 (range, 1-156) months. Of these, 7 patients are currently alive, 1 with recurrent disease; 14 patients died from local or distant recurrence; and 6 patients died of causes other than malignancy.
Double-barreled wet colostomy is a safe alternative for patients who need simultaneous urinary and fecal diversion, although the risk of ascending urinary infection must be taken into consideration.
Article · May 2010 · Diseases of the Colon & Rectum