[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background and purpose - Obesity increases the risk of deep infection after total joint arthroplasty (TJA). Our objective was to determine whether there may be body mass index (BMI) and weight thresholds indicating a higher prosthetic joint infection rate. Patients and methods - We included all 9,061 primary hip and knee arthroplasties (mean age 70 years, 61% women) performed between March 1996 and December 2013 where the patient had received intravenous cefuroxime (1.5 g) perioperatively. The main exposures of interest were BMI (5 categories: < 24.9, 25-29.9, 30-34.9, 35-39.9, and ≥ 40) and weight (5 categories: < 60, 60-79, 80-99, 100-119, and ≥ 120 kg). Numbers of TJAs according to BMI categories (lowest to highest) were as follows: 2,956, 3,350, 1,908, 633, and 214, respectively. The main outcome was prosthetic joint infection. The mean follow-up time was 6.5 years (0.5-18 years). Results - 111 prosthetic joint infections were observed: 68 postoperative, 16 hematogenous, and 27 of undetermined cause. Incidence rates were similar in the first 3 BMI categories (< 35), but they were twice as high with BMI 35-39.9 (adjusted HR = 2.1, 95% CI: 1.1-4.3) and 4 times higher with BMI ≥ 40 (adjusted HR = 4.2, 95% CI: 1.8-9.7). Weight ≥ 100 kg was identified as threshold for a significant increase in infection from the early postoperative period onward (adjusted HR = 2.1, 95% CI: 1.3-3.6). Interpretation - BMI ≥ 35 or weight ≥ 100 kg may serve as a cutoff for higher perioperative dosage of antibiotics.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Millions of orthopedic implant procedures are performed worldwide each year. The safety and biocompatibility of these devices are good and only 10% of patients experience complications, of which infections are one of the most serious. Their management usually requires a combined approach of surgical intervention and prolonged courses of intravenous or oral antimicrobial therapy. Despite a significant amount of basic and clinical research, many questions pertaining to the definition, diagnosis, prevention and management of these infections remain unanswered. The aim of this chapter is to provide some basic insight into the clinical diagnosis and management of implant-associated infections.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:
In this study, we assess interdisciplinary surgical and medical parameters associated to recurrences of infected pressure ulcers.
There is a little in the published literature regarding factors associated with the outcome of treatment of infected pressure ulcers.
We undertook a single-center review of spinal injured adults hospitalized for an infected pressure ulcer or implant-free osteomyelitis and reviewed the literature on this topic from 1990-2015.
We found 70 lesions in 31 patients (52 with osteomyelitis) who had a median follow-up of 2.7 years (range, 4 months to 19 years). The median duration of antibiotic therapy was 6 weeks, of which 1 week was parenteral. Clinical recurrence after treatment was noted in 44 infected ulcers (63%), after a median interval of 1 year. In 86% of these recurrences, cultures yielded a different organism than the preceding episode. By multivariate analyses, the following factors were not significantly related to recurrence: number of surgical interventions (hazard ratio 0.9, 95% confidence interval 0.5-1.5); osteomyelitis (hazard ratio 1.5; 0.7-3.1); immune suppression; prior sacral infections, and duration of total (or just parenteral) antibiotic sue. Patients with antibiotic treatment for <6 weeks had the same failure rate as those with as >12 weeks (χ test; P = 0.90).
In patients with infected pressure ulcers, clinical recurrence occurs in almost two-thirds of lesions, but in only 14% with the same pathogen(s). The number of surgical debridements, flap use, or duration of antibiotic therapy was not associated with recurrence, suggesting recurrences are caused by reinfections caused by other extrahospital factors.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · Annals of surgery
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Infection is a common epiphenomenon of advanced diabetic foot disease and the most common reason for diabetes-related hospitalizations and lower extremity amputations. Major advances have been made in the past three decades in our understanding and management of diabetic foot infections (DFIs). The optimal treatment of DFIs clearly involves multidisciplinary input. Methods: A comprehensive search of the literature on DFIs from January 1960 through June 2015 was performed, with an emphasis on information published in the past 30 years. Results: There have been many new insights into the microbiology, diagnosis, and treatment of DFIs, although the implementation of this knowledge in clinical practice has been suboptimal. Today, the use of evidence-based guidelines, multidisciplinary teams, and institution-specific clinical pathways helps guide optimal care of this multifaceted problem. Patients are more often treated in the ambulatory setting, with antibiotic regimens that are more targeted, oral and shorter course, and with more conservative (but earlier) surgical interventions. New diagnostic and therapeutic methods are being developed at an accelerating pace. Conclusions: The worldwide increase in the incidence of diabetes and longer lifespan of diabetic patients will undoubtedly increase the incidence of DFIs. Clinicians caring for diabetic patients should have an understanding of current methods for preventing, diagnosing, and treating DFIs.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · International Journal of Infectious Diseases
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Clinical experience suggests that a high proportion of orthopaedic infections occur in persons with diabetes.
We reviewed several databases of adult patients hospitalized for orthopaedic infections at Geneva University Hospitals from 2004 to 2014 and retrieved 2740 episodes of infection.
Overall, diabetes was noted in the medical record for 659 (24%) of these cases. The patients with, compared with those without, diabetes had more than five times more foot infections (274/659 [42%] vs 155/2081 [7%]; p < 0.01) and a significantly higher serum C-reactive protein level at admission (median 96 vs 70 mg/L; p < 0.01). Diabetic patients were older (median 67 vs 52 years; p < 0.01), more often male (471 [71%] vs 1398 [67%]; p = 0.04), and had more frequent polymicrobial infections (219 [37%] vs 353 [19%]; p < 0.01), including more gram-negative non-fermenting rods (90 [15%] vs 168 [9%]; p < 0.01). Excluding foot infections from these analyses did not change the statistically significant differences. Diabetes was present in 17% of all infected orthopaedic patients without foot involvement. In Geneva canton, the overall prevalence of diabetes is estimated at 5.1%, while we have found that the prevalence is 13% in our hospitalized adults.
Diabetes is present in 24% of all adult patients hospitalized for surgery for an orthopaedic infection, a prevalence that is several times higher than for the general population and twice as high as that for the population of hospitalized patients. Compared with non-diabetics, patients with diabetes have significantly more infections that are polymicrobial, including gram-negative non-fermenting rods.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The total number of total knee and hip joint arthroplasties is constinuously rising, due to an increasing population of physically active elderly patients. For primary elective arthroplasties, the infection risk ranges between 1 and 2%, but equals to a high morbidity, costs and complications for the individual infected patient. Diagnosis and management of prosthetic joint infections are improving. We review the latest consensus on the diagnosis and management of these infections and reveal some insight in still debated issues.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Treatment of septic hand tenosynovitis is complex, and often requires multiple débridements and prolonged antibiotic therapy. The authors undertook this study to identify factors that might be associated with the need for subsequent débridement (after the initial one) because of persistence or secondary worsening of infection.
In this retrospective single-center study, the authors included all adult patients who presented to their emergency department from 2007 to 2010 with septic tenosynovitis of the hand.
The authors identified 126 adult patients (55 men; median age, 45 years), nine of whom were immunosuppressed. All had community-acquired infection; 34 (27 percent) had a subcutaneous abscess and eight (6 percent) were febrile. All underwent at least one surgical débridement and had concomitant antibiotic therapy (median, 15 days; range, 7 to 82 days). At least one additional surgical intervention was required in 18 cases (median, 1.13 interventions; range, one to five interventions). All but four episodes (97 percent) were cured of infection on the first attempt after a median follow-up of 27 months. By multivariate analysis, only two factors were significantly associated with the outcome "subsequent surgical débridement": abscess (OR, 4.6; 95 percent CI, 1.5 to 14.0) and longer duration of antibiotic therapy (OR, 1.2; 95 percent CI, 1.1 to 1.2).
In septic tenosynovitis of the hand, the only presenting factor that was statistically predictive of an increased risk of needing a second débridement was the presence of a subcutaneous abscess.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Foot infections are a frequent and potentially harmful complication of diabetes mellitus. In one skin ulceration out of two, further evolution towards infection occurs and often leads to amputation increasing morbidity and health care costs. Skin disruptions, favored by the sensorimotor neuropathy and vascular disease, constitute the initial factors leading to this complication. To ensure effective care, these cases must be managed by a multidisciplinary team in a specialized center. All caretakers involved with patients suffering from diabetes mellitus must be capable of preventing and recognizing diabetic foot infections, as well as informing the patients about this complication and its management.
No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Revue médicale suisse
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The diagnosis of acute native joint bacterial infection can be difficult, because of its non- specific clinical and biological manifestation. Its management is often an emergency. Following a joint puncture, early joint lavage is performed, either by surgical drainage or by repeated arthrocentesis; and accompanied by systemic antibiotics, of which the ideal duration and route of administration remains unknown. The postoperative care is characterized by joint mobilization to avoid joint stiffening.