[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The development of intestinal permeability and the penetration of microbial products are key factors associated with the onset of metabolic disease. However, the mechanisms underlying this remain unclear. Here we show that, unlike liver or adipose tissue, high fat diet (HFD)/obesity in mice does not cause monocyte/macrophage infiltration into the intestine or pro-inflammatory changes in gene expression. Rather HFD causes depletion of intestinal eosinophils associated with the onset of intestinal permeability. Intestinal eosinophil numbers were restored by returning HFD fed mice to normal chow and were unchanged in leptin-deficient (Ob/Ob) mice, indicating that eosinophil depletion is caused specifically by a high fat diet and not obesity per se. Analysis of different aspects of intestinal permeability in HFD fed and Ob/Ob mice shows an association between eosinophil depletion and ileal paracelullar permeability, as well as leakage of albumin into the feces, but not overall permeability to FITC dextran. These findings provide the first evidence that a high fat diet causes intestinal eosinophil depletion, rather than inflammation, which may contribute to defective barrier integrity and the onset of metabolic disease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Obese patients are susceptible to increased morbidity and mortality associated with infectious diseases such as influenza A virus. γδ T cells and memory αβ T cells play key roles in reducing viral load by rapidly producing IFN-γ and lysing infected cells. In this article we analyze the impact of obesity on T lymphocyte antiviral immunity. Obese donors exhibit a reduction in γδ T cells in the peripheral blood. The severity of obesity negatively correlates with the number of γδ T cells. The remaining γδ T cells have a skewed maturation similar to that observed in aged populations. This skewed γδ T cell population exhibits a blunted antiviral IFN-γ response. Full γδ T cell function can be restored by potent stimulation with 1-Hydroxy-2-methyl-buten-4yl 4-diphosphate (HDMAPP), suggesting that γδ T cells retain the ability to produce IFN-γ. Additionally, γδ T cells from obese donors have reduced levels of IL-2Rα. IL-2 is able to restore γδ T cell antiviral cytokine production, which suggests that γδ T cells lack key T cell specific growth factor signals. These studies make the novel finding that the γδ T cell antiviral immune response to influenza is compromised by obesity. This has important implications for the development of therapeutic strategies to improve vaccination and antiviral responses in obese patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The world population is rapidly growing and ageing at a pace that is projected to continue for at least three decades. This shift towards an older populace has invariably increased the number of individuals with diseases related to ageing, such as chronic kidney disease. The increase in chronic kidney disease is associated with a growing number of elderly patients receiving kidney transplants. Understanding how the immune system changes with increasing age will help to define the risks of rejection and infection in the elderly population and will focus attention on the need for individualized immunosuppression for patients in this age group. This Review addresses what is currently known about ageing and the immune system, highlighting age-related changes that affect the outcome of transplantation in elderly individuals. The need for new strategies to improve outcomes in this growing population of elderly renal transplant recipients is also emphasized.
No preview · Article · Nov 2012 · Nature Reviews Nephrology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: TCR-specific activation is pivotal to dendritic epidermal T cell (DETC) function during cutaneous wound repair. However, DETC TCR ligands are uncharacterized, and little is known about their expression patterns and kinetics. Using soluble DETC TCR tetramers, we demonstrate that DETC TCR ligands are not constitutively expressed in healthy tissue but are rapidly upregulated following wounding on keratinocytes bordering wound edges. Ligand expression is tightly regulated, with downmodulation following DETC activation. Early inhibition of TCR-ligand interactions using DETC TCR tetramers delays wound repair in vivo, highlighting DETC as rapid responders to injury. To our knowledge, this is the first visualization of DETC TCR ligand expression, which provides novel information about how ligand expression impacts early stages of DETC activation and wound repair.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2012 · The Journal of Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Obesity and related type 2 diabetes are increasing at epidemic proportions globally. It is now recognized that inflammatory responses mediated within the adipose tissue in obesity are central to the development of disease. Once initiated, chronic inflammation associated with obesity leads to the modulation of immune cell function. This review will focus specifically on the impact of obesity on γδ T cells, a T-cell subset that is found in high concentrations in epithelial tissues such as the skin, intestine, and lung. Epithelial γδ T cell function is of particular concern in obesity as they are the guardians of the epithelial barrier and mediate repair. A breakdown in their function, and subsequently the deterioration of the epithelium can result in dire consequences for the host. Obese patients are more prone to non-healing injuries, infection, and disease. The resulting inflammation from these pathologies further perpetuates the disease condition already present in obese hosts. Here we will provide insight into the immunomodulation of γδ T cells that occurs in the epithelial barrier during obesity and discuss current therapeutic options.
No preview · Article · Dec 2011 · Immunologic Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Skin complications and chronic non-healing wounds are common in obesity, metabolic disease, and type 2 diabetes. Epidermal γδ T cells normally produce keratinocyte growth factors, participate in wound repair, and are necessary for keratinocyte homeostasis. We have determined that in γδ T cell-deficient mice, there are reduced numbers of keratinocytes and the epidermis exhibits a flattened, thinner structure with fewer basal keratinocytes. This is important in obesity, where skin-resident γδ T cells are reduced and rendered dysfunctional. Similar to γδ T cell-deficient mice, keratinocytes are reduced and the epidermal structure is altered in two obese mouse models. Even in regions where γδ T cells are present, there are fewer keratinocytes in obese mice, indicating that dysfunctional γδ T cells are unable to regulate keratinocyte homeostasis. The impact of absent or impaired γδ T cells on epidermal structure is exacerbated in obesity as E-cadherin localization and expression are additionally altered. These studies reveal that γδ T cells are unable to regulate keratinocyte homeostasis in obesity and that the obese environment further impairs skin structure by altering cell-cell adhesion. Together, impaired keratinocyte homeostasis and epidermal barrier function through direct and indirect mechanisms result in susceptibility to skin complications, chronic wounds, and infection.
Preview · Article · Aug 2011 · Journal of Investigative Dermatology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The major gammadelta T cell subset in the human peripheral blood expresses the Vgamma9delta2 TCR and recognizes non-peptidic prenyl pyrophosphate antigens such as isopentylpyrophosphate (IPP). Upon activation the gammadelta T cells rapidly secrete antiviral cytokines similar to classical memory alphabeta T cells. Here we have investigated the ability of gammadelta T lymphocytes from human PBMC to become activated by influenza A virus infection. Vgamma9Vdelta2 T lymphocytes rapidly upregulate expression of CD25 and CD69 and produce IFN-gamma following influenza infection of PBMC. Moreover, the recognition is cross-reactive between various subtypes of influenza, but not with vaccinia virus. Vgamma9Vdelta2 T cell responses are potently reduced by the HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor mevastatin, which inhibits the mevalonate pathway and IPP synthesis. Our results indicate that influenza virus infection induces the rapid activation and function of Vgamma9Vdelta2 T lymphocytes in the peripheral blood via a mechanism that depends on the mevalonate pathway.
Preview · Article · Dec 2010 · Cellular Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Epithelial cells provide an initial line of defense against damage and pathogens in barrier tissues such as the skin; however this balance is disrupted in obesity and metabolic disease. Skin gammadelta T cells recognize epithelial damage, and release cytokines and growth factors that facilitate wound repair. We report here that hyperglycemia results in impaired skin gammadelta T cell proliferation due to altered STAT5 signaling, ultimately resulting in half the number of gammadelta T cells populating the epidermis. Skin gammadelta T cells that overcome this hyperglycemic state are unresponsive to epithelial cell damage due to chronic inflammatory mediators, including TNFalpha. Cytokine and growth factor production at the site of tissue damage was partially restored by administering neutralizing TNFalpha antibodies in vivo. Thus, metabolic disease negatively impacts homeostasis and functionality of skin gammadelta T cells, rendering host defense mechanisms vulnerable to injury and infection.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The murine epidermis contains resident T cells that express a canonical gammadelta TCR. These cells arise from fetal thymic precursors and use a TCR that is restricted to the skin in adult animals. These cells assume a dendritic morphology in normal skin and constitutively produce low levels of cytokines that contribute to epidermal homeostasis. When skin is wounded, an unknown Ag is expressed on damaged keratinocytes. Neighboring gammadelta T cells then round up and contribute to wound healing by local production of epithelial growth factors and inflammatory cytokines. In the absence of skin gammadelta T cells, wound healing is impaired. Similarly, epidermal T cells from patients with healing wounds are activated and secreting growth factors. Patients with nonhealing wounds have a defective epidermal T cell response. Information gained on the role of epidermal-resident T cells in the mouse may provide information for development of new therapeutic approaches to wound healing.
Preview · Article · May 2010 · The Journal of Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Epidermal T cells have been shown to play unique roles in tissue homeostasis and repair in mice through local secretion of distinct growth factors in the skin. Human epidermis contains both alphabeta(+) and gammadelta(+) T cells whose functional capabilities are not understood. We demonstrate that human epidermal T cells are able to produce insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) upon activation and promote wound healing in a skin organ culture model. Moreover, an analysis of the functional capabilities of T cells isolated from acute versus chronic wounds revealed a striking difference. Both alphabeta(+) and Vdelta1(+) T cells isolated from acute wounds actively produced IGF-1, demonstrating that they are activated during tissue damage to participate in wound repair. In contrast, IGF-1 production could not be detected in T cells isolated from chronic wounds. In fact, skin T cells isolated from chronic wounds were refractory to further stimulation, suggesting an unresponsive state. Collectively, these results define a novel role for human epidermis-resident T cells in wound healing and provide new insight into our understanding of chronic wound persistence.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2009 · Journal of Experimental Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway integrates signals from the environment to the nucleus for the regulation of cellular growth, metabolism and survival. Lymphocytes frequently rely on this pathway, but it is carefully regulated through the reception of signals via cytokine, growth factor and co-stimulatory receptors. Recent studies have begun to elucidate why T cell subsets rely on this pathway to varying degrees. Ultimately these findings will help distinguish the parameters that guide T cell homeostasis and activation-induced function between the different T cell populations. The mTOR pathway has been the focus of many immunosuppressive and cancer treatment regimens, therefore there is a great need to understand the impact of suppression not only on the T cell populations targeted, but on bystander T cells as well.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Disruptions in the normal program of tissue repair can result in poor wound healing, which perturbs the integrity of barrier tissues such as the skin. Such defects in wound repair occur in transplant recipients treated with the immunosuppressant drug rapamycin (sirolimus). Intraepithelial lymphocytes, such as gammadelta T cells in the skin, mediate tissue repair through the production of cytokines and growth factors. The capacity of skin-resident T cells to function during rapamycin treatment was analyzed in a mouse model of wound repair. Rapamycin treatment renders skin gammadelta T cells unable to proliferate, migrate, and produce normal levels of growth factors. The observed impairment of skin gammadelta T cell function is directly related to the inhibitory action of rapamycin on mammalian target of rapamycin. Skin gammadelta T cells treated with rapamycin are refractory to IL-2 stimulation and attempt to survive in the absence of cytokine and growth factor signaling by undergoing autophagy. Normal wound closure can be restored in rapamycin-treated mice by addition of the skin gammadelta T cell-produced factor, insulin-like growth factor-1. These studies not only reveal that mammalian target of rapamycin is a master regulator of gammadelta T cell function but also provide a novel mechanism for the increased susceptibility to nonhealing wounds that occurs during rapamycin administration.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2008 · The Journal of Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Among 17 HLA-A2-positive healthy adults, CD8+ T-cell responses against an HLA-A2-restricted matrix protein 1 (M1) epitope increased after immunization with trivalent inactivated
influenza vaccine (TIV) in two individuals. The presence of M1 in TIV was confirmed by Western blotting. T-cell cytotoxicity
assays showed that TIV is processed and the epitope is presented by antigen-presenting cells to an M1 epitope-specific CD8+ T-cell line for specific lysis. These data show that TIV, which is formulated to contain surface glycoproteins to induce
serotype-specific antibody responses, also contains M1, capable of inducing subtype cross-reactive CD8+ T-cell responses in some vaccinees.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2008 · Journal of Virology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There is a resident population of T cells found in murine skin that expresses an invariant Vgamma3Vdelta1 T-cell receptor (TCR), and these cells are significantly different from lymphoid gammadelta T cells and alphabeta T cells in terms of ontogeny, tissue tropism, and antigen receptor diversity. These dendritic epidermal T cells are derived from fetal thymic precursor cells, are in constant contact with neighboring epidermal cells, and express a monoclonal gammadeltaTCR only found in the skin. Skin gammadelta T cells have been shown to play unique roles in tissue homeostasis and during tissue repair through local secretion of distinct growth factors including keratinocyte growth factors and insulin-like growth factor-1. In this review, we discuss evidence supporting a role for cross talk between skin gammadelta T cells and keratinocytes that contributes to the maintenance of normal skin and wound healing.
No preview · Article · Mar 2007 · Immunological Reviews
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Intraepithelial gammadelta-T cells are present in all epithelial tissues, where they reside in close contact with neighboring epithelial cells. Our data support the idea that the role of these cells is to monitor neighboring cells for signs of damage or disease. Once a problem is detected, the intraepithelial gammadelta-T cells can lyse damaged or malignant epithelial cells, directly participate in tissue repair through production of epithelial growth factors, and play a unique role in the recruitment of inflammatory cells to the site of damage. Intraepithelial gammadelta-T cells play unique roles in homeostasis and disease.
No preview · Article · Nov 2005 · AJP Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nonhealing wounds are a major complication of diseases such as diabetes and rheumatoid arthritis. For efficient tissue repair, inflammatory cells must infiltrate into the damaged tissue to orchestrate wound closure. Hyaluronan is involved in the inflammation associated with wound repair and binds the surface of leukocytes infiltrating damaged sites. Skin gammadelta T cells play specialized roles in keratinocyte proliferation during wound repair. Here, we show that gammadelta T cells are required for hyaluronan deposition in the extracellular matrix (ECM) and subsequent macrophage infiltration into wound sites. We describe a novel mechanism of control in which gammadelta T cell-derived keratinocyte growth factors induce epithelial cell production of hyaluronan. In turn, hyaluronan recruits macrophages to the site of damage. These results demonstrate a novel function for skin gammadelta T cells in inflammation and provide a new perspective on T cell regulation of ECM molecules.
Full-text · Article · May 2005 · Journal of Experimental Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A fine balance between rates of proliferation and apoptosis in the skin provides a defensive barrier and a mechanism for tissue repair after damage. Vgamma3(+) dendritic epidermal T cells (DETCs) are primary modulators of skin immune responses. Here we show that DETCs both produce and respond to insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) after T cell receptor stimulation. Mice deficient in DETCs had a notable increase in epidermal apoptosis that was abrogated by the addition of DETCs or IGF-1. Furthermore, DETC-deficient mice had reduced IGF-1 receptor activation at wound sites. These findings indicate critical functions for DETC-mediated IGF-1 production in regulating skin homeostasis and repair.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2005 · Nature Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although gammadelta T cells compose a small proportion of lymphocytes in lymphoid compartments and peripheral blood, they are the major T-cell population present in epithelial tissues. However, the role played by gammadelta TCR expressing intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL) has been enigmatic. The location of tissue-resident IEL suggests that they are important members of the first line of defense against insult for organs exposed to the environment, including the skin, gut, lungs, and reproductive system. Dendritic epidermal T cells (DETC) are the skin-resident gammadeltaIEL and serve as a model system for gammadeltaIEL in other locations. DETC have demonstrated importance in the modulation of immune responses, surveillance and repair of tissue, and resistance to infection. This work discusses recent developments in understanding DETC activation.
No preview · Article · Feb 2005 · Critical Reviews in Immunology