Lynne Kiorpes

NYU Langone Medical Center, New York, New York, United States

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Publications (88)273.96 Total impact

  • Lynne Kiorpes · Paul Mangal
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    ABSTRACT: Perceptual learning is gaining acceptance as a potential treatment for amblyopia in adults and children beyond the critical period. Many perceptual learning paradigms result in very specific improvement that does not generalize beyond the training stimulus, closely related stimuli, or visual field location. To be of use in amblyopia, a less specific effect is needed. To address this problem, we designed a more general training paradigm intended to effect improvement in visual sensitivity across tasks and domains. We used a "global" visual stimulus, random dot motion direction discrimination with 6 training conditions, and tested for posttraining improvement on a motion detection task and 3 spatial domain tasks (contrast sensitivity, Vernier acuity, Glass pattern detection). Four amblyopic macaques practiced the motion discrimination with their amblyopic eye for at least 20,000 trials. All showed improvement, defined as a change of at least a factor of 2, on the trained task. In addition, all animals showed improvements in sensitivity on at least some of the transfer test conditions, mainly the motion detection task; transfer to the spatial domain was inconsistent but best at fine spatial scales. However, the improvement on the transfer tasks was largely not retained at long-term follow-up. Our generalized training approach is promising for amblyopia treatment, but sustaining improved performance may require additional intervention.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Journal of Vision
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    Full-text · Article · Jun 2015 · Vision research
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    Kritika Nayar · John Franchak · Karen Adolph · Lynne Kiorpes

    Full-text · Article · Apr 2015 · Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
  • Lynne Kiorpes
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    ABSTRACT: Despite many decades of research into the development of visual cortex, it remains unclear what neural processes set limitations on the development of visual function and define its vulnerability to abnormal visual experience. This selected review examines the development of visual function and its neural correlates, and highlights the fact that in most cases receptive field properties of infant neurons are substantially more mature than infant visual function. One exception is temporal resolution, which can be accounted for by resolution of neurons at the level of the LGN. In terms of spatial vision, properties of single neurons alone are not sufficient to account for visual development. Different visual functions develop over different time courses. Their onset may be limited by the existence of neural response properties that support a given perceptual ability, but the subsequent time course of maturation to adult levels remains unexplained. Several examples are offered suggesting that taking account of weak signaling by infant neurons, correlated firing, and pooled responses of populations of neurons brings us closer to an understanding of the relationship between neural and behavioral development. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2015 · Developmental Neurobiology
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    ABSTRACT: Amblyopia is a developmental disorder resulting in poor vision in one eye. The mechanism by which input to the affected eye is prevented from reaching the level of awareness remains poorly understood. We recorded simultaneously from large populations of neurons in the supragranular layers of areas V1 and V2 in 6 macaques that were made amblyopic by rearing with artificial strabismus or anisometropia, and 1 normally reared control. In agreement with previous reports, we found that cortical neuronal signals driven through the amblyopic eyes were reduced, and that cortical neurons were on average more strongly driven by the non-amblyopic than by the amblyopic eyes. We analyzed multiunit recordings using standard population decoding methods, and found that visual signals from the amblyopic eye, while weakened, were not degraded enough to explain the behavioral deficits. Thus additional losses must arise in downstream processing. We tested the idea that under monocular viewing conditions, only signals from neurons dominated by – rather than driven by – the open eye might be used. This reduces the proportion of neuronal signals available from the amblyopic eye, and amplifies the interocular difference observed at the level of single neurons. We conclude that amblyopia might arise in part from degradation in the neuronal signals from the amblyopic eye, and in part from a reduction in the number of signals processed by downstream areas.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2015 · Vision Research
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    Kritika Nayar · John Franchak · Karen Adolph · Lynne Kiorpes
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    ABSTRACT: Global visual processing is important for segmenting scenes, extracting form from background, and recognizing objects. Local processing involves attention to the local elements, contrast, and boundaries of an image at the expense of extracting a global percept. Previous work is inconclusive regarding the relative development of local and global processing. Some studies suggest that global perception is already present by 8months of age, whereas others suggest that the ability arises during childhood and continues to develop during adolescence. We used a novel method to assess the development of global processing in 3- to 10-year-old children and an adult comparison group. We used Kanizsa illusory contours as an assay of global perception and measured responses on a touch-sensitive screen while monitoring eye position with a head-mounted eye tracker. Participants were tested using a similarity match-to-sample paradigm. Using converging measures, we found a clear developmental progression with age such that the youngest children performed near chance on the illusory contour discrimination, whereas 7- and 8-year-olds performed nearly perfectly, as did adults. There was clear evidence of a gradual shift from a local processing strategy to a global one; young children looked predominantly at and touched the "pacman" inducers of the illusory form, whereas older children and adults looked predominantly at and touched the middle of the form. These data show a prolonged developmental trajectory in appreciation of global form, with a transition from local to global visual processing between 4 and 7years of age. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2014 · Journal of Experimental Child Psychology

  • No preview · Article · Aug 2014 · Journal of Vision

  • No preview · Article · Aug 2014 · Journal of Vision
  • A. Voyles · A. M. Norcia · L. Kiorpes

    No preview · Article · Aug 2014 · Journal of Vision

  • No preview · Article · Aug 2014 · Journal of Vision
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    ABSTRACT: Many experiments in neuroscience require or would benefit tremendously from a wireless neural recording system. However, commercially available wireless systems are expensive, have moderate to high noise and are often not customizable. Academic wireless systems present impressive capabilities [1]-[4], but are not available for other labs to use. To overcome these limitations, we have developed an ultra-low noise 8 channel wireless electrophysiological data acquisition system using standard, commercially available components. The system is capable of recording many types of neurological signals, including EEG, ECoG, LFP and unit activity. With a diameter of just 25 mm and height of 9 mm, including a CR2032 Lithium coin cell battery, it is designed to fit into a small recording chamber while minimizing the overall implant height (Fig. 1 and 3). Using widely available parts we were able to keep the material cost of our system under $100 dollars. The complete design, including schematic, PCB layout, bill of materials and source code, will be released through an open source license, allowing other labs to modify the design to fit their needs. We have also developed a driver to acquire data using the BCI2000 software system. Feedback from the community will allow us to improve the design and create a more useful neuroscience research tool.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2014
  • Lynne Kiorpes · Karen Dobkins · Janine D Mendola

    No preview · Article · Nov 2013 · Visual Neuroscience

  • No preview · Conference Paper · Oct 2013
  • DA-Peng Li · Maureen A Hagan · Lynne Kiorpes
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    ABSTRACT: Lateral spatial interactions among elements of a scene, which either enhance or degrade visual performance, are ubiquitous in vision. The neural mechanisms underlying lateral spatial interactions are a matter of debate, and various hypotheses have been proposed. Suppressive effects may be due to local inhibitory interactions, whereas facilitatory effects are typically ascribed either to the function of long-range horizontal projections in V1 or to uncertainty reduction. We investigated the development of lateral spatial interactions, facilitation and suppression, and compared their developmental profiles to those of potential underlying mechanisms in the visual system of infant macaques. Animals ranging in age from 10 weeks to 3 years were tested with a lateral masking paradigm. We found that suppressive interactions are present from very early in postnatal life, showing no change over the age range tested. However, facilitation develops slowly over the first year after birth. Our data suggest that the early maturation of suppressive interactions is related to the relatively mature receptive field properties of neurons in early visual cortical areas near birth in infant macaques, whereas the later maturation of facilitation is unlikely to be explained by development of local or long-range connectivity in primary visual cortex. Instead our data favor a late developing feedback or top-down cognitive process to explain the origin of facilitation.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2013 · Visual Neuroscience
  • L. Kiorpes · A. Pham · M. Carrasco

    No preview · Article · Jul 2013 · Journal of Vision

  • No preview · Article · Jul 2013 · Journal of Vision
  • A. C. Voyles · L. Kiorpes

    No preview · Article · Aug 2012 · Journal of Vision
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    ABSTRACT: To explore the relative development of the dorsal and ventral extrastriate processing streams, we studied the development of sensitivity to form and motion in macaque monkeys (Macaca nemestrina). We used Glass patterns and random dot kinematograms (RDK) to assay ventral and dorsal stream function, respectively. We tested 24 animals, longitudinally or cross-sectionally, between the ages of 5 weeks and 3 years. Each animal was tested with Glass patterns and RDK stimuli with each of two pattern types--circular and linear--at each age using a two alternative forced-choice task. We measured coherence threshold for discrimination of the global form or motion pattern from an incoherent control stimulus. Sensitivity to global motion appeared earlier than to global form and was higher at all ages, but performance approached adult levels at similar ages. Infants were most sensitive to large spatial scale (Δx) and fast speeds; sensitivity to fine scale and slow speeds developed more slowly independently of pattern type. Within the motion domain, pattern type had little effect on overall performance. However, within the form domain, sensitivity for linear Glass patterns was substantially poorer than that for concentric patterns. Our data show comparatively early onset for global motion integration ability, perhaps reflecting early development of the dorsal stream. However, both pathways mature over long time courses reaching adult levels between 2 and 3 years after birth.
    Preview · Article · May 2012 · Vision research
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    ABSTRACT: Amblyopic humans are known to have a range of spatial vision abnormalities. Prior studies have documented amblyopic deficits in global form perception but have typically used only one set of stimulus parameters. Our aim in this study was to examine the extent and nature of global form perception deficits in strabismic amblyopia using a range of spatial scales and pattern types. Glass patterns are random dot stimuli in which the local orientations of paired dots must be integrated over space to yield a global form percept. We measured coherence thresholds for discrimination of pattern structure in translational (linear) and concentric Glass patterns at three spatial scales in two control and six amblyopic observers. We found that sensitivity to Glass patterns depended on both spatial scale and pattern type in all observers. Participants with a history of abnormal early visual experience showed greater interocular threshold difference when the discrimination was based on translational patterns than when it was based on concentric patterns, and the degree of amblyopic loss was greatest at fine spatial scale. Our results show that the nature and extent of global form vision deficits vary substantially with stimulus parameters and are greatest at fine spatial scales.
    Preview · Article · Oct 2010 · Journal of Vision
  • L. Kiorpes · J. A. Movshon

    No preview · Article · Oct 2010 · Journal of Vision

Publication Stats

2k Citations
273.96 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2007-2015
    • NYU Langone Medical Center
      New York, New York, United States
  • 1988-2015
    • CUNY Graduate Center
      New York, New York, United States
  • 2010
    • University of California, Berkeley
      • School of Optometry
      Berkeley, MO, United States
  • 1994-2001
    • Howard Hughes Medical Institute
      Ashburn, Virginia, United States
  • 1998
    • McMaster University
      Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
  • 1980-1985
    • University of Washington Seattle
      • • Department of Ophthalmology
      • • Department of Psychology
      Seattle, Washington, United States