[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sustained activation of PKCα is required for long-term physiological responses such as growth arrest and differentiation. However, studies with pharmacological agonists (e.g., phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, PMA) indicate that prolonged stimulation leads to PKCα desensitization via dephosphorylation and/or degradation. The current study analyzed effects of chronic stimulation with the physiological agonist, diacylglycerol. Repeated addition of 1,2-dioctanoyl-sn-glycerol (DiC8) resulted in sustained plasma membrane association of PKCα, in a pattern comparable with that induced by PMA. However, while PMA potently downregulated PKCα, prolonged activation by DiC8 failed to engage known desensitization mechanisms, with the enzyme remaining membrane-associated and able to support sustained downstream signaling. DiC8-activated PKCα did not undergo dephosphorylation, ubiquitination or internalization, early events in PKCα desensitization. Although DiC8 efficiently downregulated novel PKCs, PKCδ and PKCϵ, differences in Ca(2+) sensitivity and diacylglycerol affinity were excluded as mediators of the selective resistance of PKCα. Roles for Hsp/Hsc70 and Hsp90 were also excluded. PMA, but not DiC8, targeted PKCα to detergent-resistant membranes, and disruption of these domains with cholesterol-binding agents demonstrated a role for differential membrane compartmentalization in selective agonist-induced degradation. Chronic DiC8 treatment failed to desensitize PKCα in several cell types and did not affect PKCβI; thus, conventional PKCs appear generally insensitive to desensitization by sustained diacylglycerol stimulation. Consistent with this conclusion, prolonged (several days) membrane association/activation of PKCα is seen in self-renewing epithelium of the intestine, cervix, and skin. PKCα deficiency affects gene expression, differentiation and tumorigenesis in these tissues, highlighting the importance of mechanisms that protect PKCα from desensitization in vivo.
Preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cellular accumulation of cyclin D1, a key regulator of cell proliferation and tumor-igenesis, is subject to tight control. Our previous studies have identified PKCα as a negative regulator of cyclin D1 in the intestinal epithelium. However, treatment of non-transformed IEC-18 ileal crypt cells with PKC agonists has a biphasic effect on cyclin D1 expression. Initial PKCα-mediated downregulation is followed by recovery and subsequent accumulation of the cyclin to levels markedly higher than those seen in untreated cells. Using protein overexpression strategies, siRNA and pharmacological inhibitors, we now demonstrate that the recovery and hyperinduction of cyclin D1 reflect the combined effects of (a) loss of negative signals from PKCα due to agonist-induced PKCα downregulation, and (b) positive effects of PKCϵ. PKCϵ-mediated upregulation of cyclin D1 requires sustained ERK stimulation and transcriptional activation of the proximal cyclin D1 (CCDN1) promoter, without apparent involvement of changes in protein stability or translation. PKCϵ also upregulates cyclin D1 expression in colon cancer cells, through mechanisms that parallel those in IEC-18 cells. While induction of cyclin D1 by PKCϵ is dependent on non-canonical NF-κB activation, the NF-κB site in the proximal promoter is not required. Instead, cyclin D1 promoter activity is regulated by a novel interaction between NF-κB and factors that associate with the cyclic AMP response element (CRE) adjacent to the NF-κB site. The differential effects of PKCα and PKCϵ on cyclin D1 accumulation likely contribute to the opposing tumor suppressive and tumor promoting activities of these PKC family members in the intestinal epithelium.
Preview · Article · Jun 2014 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although alterations in stimulus-induced degradation of PKC have been implicated in disease, mechanistic understanding of this process remains limited. Evidence supports the existence of both proteasomal and lysosomal mechanisms of PKC processing. An established pathway involves rate-limiting priming site dephosphorylation of the activated enzyme and proteasomal clearance of the dephosphorylated protein. However, here we show that agonists promote downregulation of endogenous PKCα with minimal accumulation of a non-phosphorylated species in multiple cell types. Furthermore, proteasome and lysosome inhibitors predominantly protect fully phosphorylated PKCα, pointing to this form as a substrate for degradation. Failure to detect substantive dephosphorylation of activated PKCα was not due to rephosphorylation since inhibition of Hsp70/Hsc70, which is required for re-priming, had only a minor effect on agonist-induced accumulation of non-phosphorylated protein. Thus, PKC degradation can occur in the absence of dephosphorylation. Further analysis revealed novel functions for Hsp70/Hsc70 and Hsp90 in control of agonist-induced PKCα processing. These chaperones help to maintain phosphorylation of activated PKCα, but have opposing effects on degradation of the phosphorylated protein: Hsp90 is protective, whereas Hsp70/Hsc70 activity is required for proteasomal processing of this species. Notably, downregulation of non-phosphorylated PKCα shows little Hsp70/Hsc70 dependence, arguing that phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated species are differentially targeted for proteasomal degradation. Finally, lysosomal processing of activated PKCα is not regulated by phosphorylation or Hsps. Collectively, these data demonstrate that phosphorylated PKCα is a direct target for agonist-induced proteasomal degradation via an Hsp-regulated mechanism, and highlight the existence of a novel pathway of PKC desensitization in cells.
No preview · Article · Jul 2013 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Protein kinase C (PKC) isozymes undergo downregulation upon sustained stimulation. Previous studies have pointed to the existence of both proteasome-dependent and -independent pathways of PKCα processing. Here we demonstrate that these downregulation pathways are engaged in different subcellular compartments: proteasomal degradation occurs mainly at the plasma membrane, while non-proteasomal processing occurs in the perinuclear region. Using cholesterol depletion, pharmacological inhibitors, RNA interference, and dominant-negative mutants, we define the mechanisms involved in perinuclear accumulation of PKCα, and identify the non-proteasomal mechanism mediating its degradation. We show that intracellular accumulation of PKCα involves at least two clathrin-independent, cholesterol/lipid raft-mediated pathways that do not require ubiquitination of the protein: one is dynamin-dependent and likely involves caveolae, while the other is dynamin- and small GTPase-independent. Internalized PKCα traffics through endosomes and is delivered to the lysosome for degradation. Supportive evidence includes (a) detection of the enzyme in EEA1-positive early endosomes, Rab7-positive late endosomes/multivesicular bodies, and LAMP-1-positive lysosomes, and (b) inhibition of its downregulation by lysosome disrupting agents and leupeptin. Only limited dephosphorylation of PKCα occurs during trafficking, with fully mature enzyme being the main target for lysosomal degradation. These studies define a novel and widespread mechanism of desensitization of PKCα signaling, which involves endocytic trafficking and lysosome-mediated degradation of the mature, fully phosphorylated protein.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2013 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Alternatively spliced variants of several oncogenes and tumor suppressors have been shown to be important for their tumorigenicity. In the present study we have tested whether serine-arginine protein kinase 1 (SRPK1), a major regulator of splicing factors, is involved in ovarian cancer progression and plays a role in chemo-sensitivity. By Western blot analyses, SRPK1 protein was found to be overexpressed in 4 out of 6 ovarian cancer cell lines as compared with an immortalized ovarian surface epithelial cell line; and in 55% of ovarian tumor samples as compared with non-neoplastic ovarian tissue samples. Reduction of SRPK1 expression using small interfering RNA (siRNA) encoding small hairpin RNA in ovarian cancer cells led to (i) reduced cell proliferation rate, slower cell cycle progression and compromised anchorage-independent growth and migration ability in vitro, (ii) decreased level of phosphorylation of multiple serine-arginine proteins, and P44/42MAPK and AKT proteins, and (iii) enhanced sensitivity to cisplatin. Together, these results suggest that elevated SRPK1 expression may play a role in ovarian tumorigenesis and SRPK1 may be a potential target for ovarian cancer therapy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: AKT is a critical effector kinase downstream of the PI3K pathway that regulates a plethora of cellular processes including cell growth, death, differentiation and migration. Mechanisms underlying activated phospho-AKT (pAKT) translocation to its action sites remain unclear. Here we show that NEDD4-1 is a novel E3 ligase that specifically regulates ubiquitin-dependent trafficking of pAKT in IGF-1 signaling. NEDD4-1 physically interacts with AKT and promotes HECT domain-dependent ubiquitination of exogenous and endogenous AKT. NEDD4-1 catalyzes K63-type polyubiquitin chain formation on AKT in vitro. Plasma membrane binding is the key step for AKT ubiquitination by NEDD4-1 in vivo. Ubiquitinated pAKT translocates to perinuclear regions, where it is either released into the cytoplasm, imported into the nucleus or coupled with proteasomal degradation. IGF-1 signaling specifically stimulates NEDD4-1-mediated ubiquitination of pAKT, without altering total AKT ubiquitination. A cancer-derived plasma membrane-philic mutant AKT(E17K) is more effectively ubiquitinated by NEDD4-1 and more efficiently trafficked into the nucleus compared with wild type AKT. This study reveals a novel mechanism by which a specific E3 ligase is required for ubiquitin-dependent control of pAKT dynamics in a ligand-specific manner.
No preview · Article · Nov 2012 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A link between T cell proliferation and the protein kinase C (PKC) family of serine/threonine kinases has been recognized for about 30 years. However, despite the wealth of information on PKC-mediated control of, T cell activation, understanding of the effects of PKCs on the cell cycle machinery in this cell type remains limited. Studies in other systems have revealed important cell cycle-specific effects of PKC signaling that can either positively or negatively impact proliferation. The outcome of PKC activation is highly context-dependent, with the precise cell cycle target(s) and overall effects determined by the specific isozyme involved, the timing of PKC activation, the cell type, and the signaling environment. Although PKCs can regulate all stages of the cell cycle, they appear to predominantly affect G0/G1 and G2. PKCs can modulate multiple cell cycle regulatory molecules, including cyclins, cyclin-dependent kinases (cdks), cdk inhibitors and cdc25 phosphatases; however, evidence points to Cip/Kip cdk inhibitors and D-type cyclins as key mediators of PKC-regulated cell cycle-specific effects. Several PKC isozymes can target Cip/Kip proteins to control G0/G1 → S and/or G2 → M transit, while effects on D-type cyclins regulate entry into and progression through G1. Analysis of PKC signaling in T cells has largely focused on its roles in T cell activation; thus, observed cell cycle effects are mainly positive. A prominent role is emerging for PKCθ, with non-redundant functions of other isozymes also described. Additional evidence points to PKCδ as a negative regulator of the cell cycle in these cells. As in other cell types, context-dependent effects of individual isozymes have been noted in T cells, and Cip/Kip cdk inhibitors and D-type cyclins appear to be major PKC targets. Future studies are anticipated to take advantage of the similarities between these various systems to enhance understanding of PKC-mediated cell cycle regulation in T cells.
Preview · Article · Jan 2012 · Frontiers in Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previous studies have demonstrated that curcumin induces mitochondria-mediated apoptosis. However, understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying curcumin-induced cell death remains limited. In this study, we demonstrate that curcumin treatment of cancer cells caused dose- and time-dependent caspase-3 activation, which is required for apoptosis as confirmed using the pan caspase inhibitor, z-VAD. Knockdown experiments and knockout cells excluded a role of caspase-8 in curcumin-induced caspase-3 activation. In contrast, Apaf-1 deficiency or silencing inhibited the activity of caspase-3, pointing to a requisite role of Apaf-1 in curcumin-induced apoptotic cell death. Curcumin treatment led to Apaf-1 upregulation both at the protein and mRNA levels. Cytochrome c release from mitochondria to the cytosol in curcumin-treated cells was associated with upregulation of proapoptotic proteins such as Bax, Bak, Bid, and Bim. Crosslinking experiments demonstrated Bax oligomerization during curcumin-induced apoptosis, suggesting that induced expression of Bax, Bid, and Bim causes Bax-channel formation on the mitochondrial membrane. The release of cytochrome c was unaltered in p53-deficient cells, whereas absence of p21 blocked cytochrome c release, caspase activation, and apoptosis. Importantly, p21-deficiency resulted in reduced expression of Apaf-1 during curcumin treatment, indicating a requirement of p21 in Apaf-1 dependent caspase activation and apoptosis. Together, our findings demonstrate that Apaf-1, Bax, and p21 as novel potential targets for curcumin or curcumin-based anticancer agents.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Increasing evidence supports a role for PKCα in growth arrest and tumor suppression in the intestinal epithelium. In contrast, the Id1 transcriptional repressor has pro-proliferative and tumorigenic properties in this tissue. Here, we identify Id1 as a novel target of PKCα signaling. Using a highly specific antibody and a combined morphological/biochemical approach, we establish that Id1 is a nuclear protein restricted to proliferating intestinal crypt cells. A relationship between PKCα and Id1 was supported by the demonstration that (a) down-regulation of Id1 at the crypt/villus junction coincides with PKCα activation, and (b) loss of PKCα in intestinal tumors is associated with increased levels of nuclear Id1. Manipulation of PKCα activity in IEC-18 nontransformed intestinal crypt cells determined that PKCα suppresses Id1 mRNA and protein via an Erk-dependent mechanism. PKCα, but not PKCδ, also inhibited Id1 expression in colon cancer cells. Id1 was found to regulate cyclin D1 levels in IEC-18 and colon cancer cells, pointing to a role for Id1 suppression in the antiproliferative/tumor suppressive activities of PKCα. Notably, Id1 expression was elevated in the intestinal epithelium of PKCα-knock-out mice, confirming that PKCα regulates Id1 in vivo. A wider role for PKCα in control of inhibitor of DNA binding factors is supported by its ability to down-regulate Id2 and Id3 in IEC-18 cells, although their suppression is more modest than that of Id1. This study provides the first demonstrated link between a specific PKC isozyme and inhibitor of DNA binding factors, and it points to a role for a PKCα → Erk ⊣ Id1 → cyclin D1 signaling axis in the maintenance of intestinal homeostasis.
No preview · Article · Mar 2011 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Members of the PKC family have been widely implicated in control of cell proliferation. Consistent with this role, PKC signaling
can negatively or positively modulate the cell cycle at multiple stages, including cell cycle entry and exit, progression
through G1 and S phases, and transit through the G1 and G2 checkpoints. The cell cycle-specific effects of PKCs are dependent on the timing and duration of PKC activation, the specific
PKC isozyme(s) involved, and the cellular context. Various cell cycle regulatory molecules, including cyclins, cyclin-dependent
kinases (Cdks), and Cdk inhibitors, have been implicated in PKC-induced cell cycle effects, with p21Waf1/Cip1 and cyclin D1 emerging as key targets of PKC control. p21Waf1/Cip1 can be targeted by distinct PKC isozymes at different stages of the cell cycle to control both the G1→S and G2→M transitions, while cyclin D1 expression is modulated by transcriptional or translational mechanisms to regulate progression
through G1 phase. PKC signaling can also phosphorylate lamin B to promote nuclear lamina disassembly and G2→M progression. Although understanding of the specific functions of individual PKC isozymes in regulation of the cell cycle
remains a major challenge for the future, accumulated evidence indicates that PKCα and δ can either inhibit or promote G1→S and G2→M progression in a highly context-dependent manner, while PKCβII and ε are predominantly cell cycle stimulatory, and PKCη
is generally inhibitory. Elucidation of the complex mechanisms underlying PKC isozyme-mediated control of the cell cycle is
critical for the development of novel anticancer therapies targeting individual PKCs or their downstream effectors.
KeywordsPKC-Cell cycle-G1 progression-G1 and G2/M arrest-Cell cycle exit-G2/M progression-Senescence-S phase-Cyclin D1-p21Waf1/Cip1-PKCalpha-PKCd-PKCbII-PKC¼-PKCq-PKCz and i
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Alterations in PKC isozyme expression and aberrant induction of cyclin D1 are early events in intestinal tumorigenesis. Previous studies have identified cyclin D1 as a major target in the antiproliferative effects of PKCalpha in non-transformed intestinal cells; however, a link between PKC signaling and cyclin D1 in colon cancer remained to be established. The current study further characterized PKC isozyme expression in intestinal neoplasms and explored the consequences of restoring PKCalpha or PKCdelta in a panel of colon carcinoma cell lines. Consistent with patterns of PKC expression in primary tumors, PKCalpha and delta levels were generally reduced in colon carcinoma cell lines, PKCbetaII was elevated and PKCepsilon showed variable expression, thus establishing the suitability of these models for analysis of PKC signaling. While colon cancer cells were insensitive to the effects of PKC agonists on cyclin D1 levels, restoration of PKCalpha downregulated cyclin D1 by two independent mechanisms. PKCalpha expression consistently (a) reduced steady-state levels of cyclin D1 by a novel transcriptional mechanism not previously seen in non-transformed cells, and (b) re-established the ability of PKC agonists to activate the translational repressor 4E-BP1 and inhibit cyclin D1 translation. In contrast, PKCdelta had modest and variable effects on cyclin D1 steady-state levels and failed to restore responsiveness to PKC agonists. Notably, PKCalpha expression blocked anchorage-independent growth in colon cancer cells via a mechanism partially dependent on cyclin D1 deficiency, while PKCdelta had only minor effects. Loss of PKCalpha and effects of its re-expression were independent of the status of the APC/beta-catenin signaling pathway or known genetic alterations, indicating that they are a general characteristic of colon tumors. Thus, PKCalpha is a potent negative regulator of cyclin D1 expression and anchorage-independent cell growth in colon tumor cells, findings that offer important perspectives on the frequent loss of this isozyme during intestinal carcinogenesis.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2009 · Experimental Cell Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It has been previously shown that both survivin and the survivin splice variant survivin-2B are localized in mitochondria. Whereas the mechanism involved in blockade of mitochondria-mediated apoptosis by survivin has been extensively studied, the role of survivin-2B in regulation of apoptosis has not been well defined. In the present study, we report that in addition to mitochondria, survivin-2B is also localized in the microtubule organization center (MTOC) and, in contrast to other survivin isoforms (i.e. survivin and survivin-DeltaEx3), behaves as a proapoptotic molecule. We show that forced expression of survivin-2B blocks tubulin polymerization, ablates mitotic cells, and induces mitochondria-dependent apoptosis. The mitochondria-mediated apoptosis induced by survivin-2B was indicated by Smac release from mitochondria, activation of caspases 9 and 3, and loss of mitochondrial potential, while caspase-8 remained inactive. Further analysis of the mechanism for the mitochondria-associated events of apoptosis induced by forced expression of survivin-2B revealed down-regulation of the pro-survival factor Bcl-2 and up-regulation of the pro-apoptotic factor Bax in mitochondria, while the apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) remains unchanged. Our studies further showed that taxol (paclitaxel) treatment of cancer cells not only up-regulates survivin but also down-regulates survivin-2B and that forced expression of survivin-2B sensitizes cells to taxol-induced cell growth inhibition and cell death, while silencing of endogenous survivin-2B transcripts by survivin-2B-specific siRNA made cells resistant to taxol treatment. These findings advance our current knowledge about survivin-2B and may help to develop novel approaches for cancer treatment.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2007 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We reported previously that protein kinase Calpha (PKCalpha), a negative regulator of cell growth in the intestinal epithelium, inhibits cyclin D1 translation by inducing hypophosphorylation/activation of the translational repressor 4E-BP1. The current study explores the molecular mechanisms underlying PKC/PKCalpha-induced activation of 4E-BP1 in IEC-18 nontransformed rat ileal crypt cells. PKC signaling is shown to promote dephosphorylation of Thr(45) and Ser(64) on 4E-BP1, residues directly involved in its association with eIF4E. Consistent with the known role of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/mTOR pathway in regulation of 4E-BP1, PKC signaling transiently inhibited PI3K activity and Akt phosphorylation in IEC-18 cells. However, PKC/PKCalpha-induced activation of 4E-BP1 was not prevented by constitutively active mutants of PI3K or Akt, indicating that blockade of PI3K/Akt signaling is not the primary effector of 4E-BP1 activation. This idea is supported by the fact that PKC activation did not alter S6 kinase activity in these cells. Further analysis indicated that PKC-mediated 4E-BP1 hypophosphorylation is dependent on the activity of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A). PKC signaling induced an approximately 2-fold increase in PP2A activity, and phosphatase inhibition blocked the effects of PKC agonists on 4E-BP1 phosphorylation and cyclin D1 expression. H(2)O(2) and ceramide, two naturally occurring PKCalpha agonists that promote growth arrest in intestinal cells, activate 4E-BP1 in PKC/PKCalpha-dependent manner, supporting the physiological significance of the findings. Together, our studies indicate that activation of PP2A is an important mechanism underlying PKC/PKCalpha-induced inhibition of cap-dependent translation and growth suppression in intestinal epithelial cells.
Preview · Article · Jun 2007 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In preclinical models, calcitriol and the tyrosine kinase inhibitor gefitinib are synergistic and modulate extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk) and Akt pathways. Therefore, we conducted a phase I study of calcitriol and gefitinib to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of this combination.
Calcitriol was given i.v. over 1 h on weeks 1, 3, and weekly thereafter. Gefitinib was given at a fixed oral daily dose of 250 mg starting at week 2 (day 8). Escalation occurred in cohorts of three patients until the MTD was defined. Pharmacokinetic studies were done for calcitriol and gefitinib. Serial skin biopsies were done to investigate epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) pathway pharmacodynamic interactions.
Thirty-two patients were treated. Dose-limiting hypercalcemia was noted in two of four patients receiving 96 mug/wk of calcitriol. One of seven patients developed dose-limiting hypercalcemia at the MTD 74 mug/wk calcitriol dose level. The relationship between calcitriol dose and peak serum calcitriol (C(max)) and systemic exposure (AUC) was linear. Mean (+/-SD) serum calcitriol C(max) at the MTD was 6.68 +/- 1.42 ng/mL. Gefitinib treatment inhibited EGFR, Akt, and Erk phosphorylation in the skin. Calcitriol did not have consistent effects on skin EGFR or its downstream elements. The combination of gefitinib and calcitriol did not modulate tumor EGFR pathway in patients with serial tumor biopsies.
High doses of weekly i.v. calcitriol can be administered safely in combination with gefitinib. Calcitriol concentrations achieved at the MTD 74 mug calcitriol exceed in vivo concentrations associated with antitumor activity in preclinical models.
No preview · Article · Mar 2007 · Clinical Cancer Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Overexpression of signaling proteins including epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), Akt, mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) occurs in cholangiocarcinoma cell lines. However, the prognostic value of these markers is unknown. No prior study correlated the expression of these signaling proteins with clinical outcome. Further, co-expression of these proteins has not been reported. Co-expression may reflect cross-talk between signaling pathways. The aim of this clinicopathological study was to investigate the overexpression and co-expression of EGFR and related signaling proteins in cholangiocarcinoma and explore their relationship to clinical outcome.
Twenty-four consecutive cases of cholangiocarcinoma treated from 1996 to 2002 at Roswell Park Cancer Institute were included. Immunohistochemical staining of paraffin-embedded tissue sections was performed using antibodies against Akt, p-Akt, MAPK, p-MAPK, COX-2, EGFR and p-EGFR. Two pathologists independently scored the protein expression.
Cyclooxygenase-2, Akt, and p-MAPK were commonly expressed in biliary cancers (100%, 96% and 87% of malignant cells, respectively). EGFR (60%) and p-EGFR (22%) overexpression was also detected. There was a significant association between EGFR and p-EGFR (P = 0.027) and between Akt and p-Akt (P = 0.017) expression in tumor tissue. A noteworthy association was shown between MAPK and p-Akt (P = 0.054). Multivariate analysis using the Cox proportional hazard model identified the use of chemotherapy (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.039, P = 0.0002), radiation (HR = 0.176, P = 0.0441) and Akt expression (HR = 0.139, P = 0.006) as the best predictors of overall prognosis.
Epidermal growth factor receptor signaling intermediates are commonly expressed in cholangiocarcinoma. Expression of Akt and use of systemic chemotherapy or radiation may correlate with improved survival.
No preview · Article · Dec 2006 · Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Long-term survival of surgically resectable pancreatic cancer patients is uncommon. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and the phosphoinositol-3-kinase pathways are often activated in pancreatic cancer, and an understanding of their role in resected cases may help refine adjuvant therapy.
We investigated the expression of EGFR, Erk, Akt, and their phosphoforms (p-) in pancreatectomy specimens and correlated these with survival. Thirty-nine consecutive surgically resected pancreatic adenocarcinoma cases were included. Immunohistochemical staining of paraffin-embedded blocks was performed by using monoclonal antibodies against EGFR, Erk, p-Erk, Akt, and p-Akt. A standard immunoperoxidase technique was used to detect the avidin-biotin peroxidase complex. Immunostaining was visually scored with the histoscore method by two surgical pathologists.
Patient characteristics were as follows: 17 men and 22 women; median age, 66 years; and American Joint Committee on Cancer stage I, 5 patients; stage II, 4 patients; stage III, 27 patients; and stage IV, 3 patients. The tumor was World Health Organization grade 1 in 4, grade 2 in 17, and grade 3 in 18 cases. Adjuvant therapies were chemotherapy (n = 6), radiotherapy (n = 1), and chemoradiotherapy (n = 17). Immunohistochemistry revealed positive expression of EGFR in 30.8%, Erk in 92.3%, p-Erk in 45.9%, Akt in 71.8%, and p-Akt in 20.5% of cases. On univariate analyses, tumor grade (P = .0098), p-Akt (P = .0003), and p-Erk (P = .0052) expression correlated with survival. On multivariate analyses, age (P = .0002; hazard ratio [HR], 1.8), grade (P = .00318; HR, 3.0), Akt (P = .0433; HR, .4), p-Akt (P = .0002; HR, .2), and p-Erk (P = .0003; HR, 3.5) expression correlated significantly with survival.
p-Erk and p-Akt expression may have prognostic and therapeutic implications in pancreatic cancer.
No preview · Article · Aug 2006 · Annals of Surgical Oncology