A G Sjöholm

Aarhus University, Aarhus, Central Jutland, Denmark

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Publications (156)560.73 Total impact

  • Anna-Brita Laurell · U. Johnson · U. Martensson · A. G. SjöHolm
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: CI subcomponent complexes in normal serum incubated with Clq binding substances or with proteolytic enzymes were studied by crossed Immunoelectrophoresis. Cr, Cs, trypsin. Heat aggregated IgG, immune complexes, cell-bound antibody or complexes of C-reactive protein with- protamine sulphate gave rise to dissociation of CI and the appearance of Cls protein in the 02 position. In contrast, plasmin, DNA and endotoxin did not affect the normal Cls protein pattern. Following incubation with Cr, Cs, trypsin, or complexes containing C-reactive protein, the Cq in serum was found in a cathodal position similar to that of purified Cq. The Cs protein in the α2 position was shown to be part of a complex composed of Cr, Cs and C inactivator proteins. Cr in the complex was only detected immunochemically by using anti Cr and anti Cls in combination. The complex had a molecular weight of about 5 105 daltons. The results show that complexes of Cr, Cs and C inactivator proteins in serum are formed on C activation, implying that the complexes contain activated Cr and Cs (Cr-Cs-C IA). Cr-Cs complexes with (Si mobility were not formed in vitro, β1 Clr-Cls complexes in pathological sera could be converted to Cr-Cs-C IA by treatment with Cr and Cs and also, provided Clq was available in serum, by treatment with heat aggregated IgG. It was concluded that β1 Cr-Cs complexes in serum contain Cr and Cs in proenzyme form.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2009 · Apmis
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Proteus mirabilis bacilli play an important role in human urinary tract infections, bacteremia, and rheumatoid arthritis. The authors previously studied human complement C3 conversion by smooth-form P. mirabilis O10, O23, O30, and O43 lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) and showed that smooth Proteus LPSs fragmented C3 in a dose- and time-dependent manner. In the present study, one smooth P. mirabilis S1959 and its two polysaccharide-truncated LPSs isolated from an R mutant strain were used to study the C3 conversion. The conversion of C3 to C3c by smooth and rough P. mirabilis LPSs was studied by capture ELISA and crossed immunoelectrophoresis. Proteins isolated from the outer membrane were analyzed by discontinuous sodium dodecyl sulfate gel electrophoresis. The smooth P. mirabilis S1959 (O3) strain was resistant to the bactericidal activity of human serum, in contrast to the Ra and Re mutant strains. The presence of an exposed core oligosaccharide in R110 LPS was not sufficient to protect the strain from serum-dependent killing. In addition to LPS structure, the outer-membrane proteins may also play roles in protecting the smooth P. mirabilis S1959 (O3) strain from the bactericidal action of serum. It was shown that the Ra P. mirabilis R110 and the Re P. mirabilis R45 mutants possess very different OMP compositions from that of the P. mirabilis S 1959 strain. Regardless of the complement resistance of the P. mirabilis strains, the S1959, R110, and R45 LPSs fragmented C3 and induced C3c neo-antigen exposure. The use of complement-deficient human serum allows the conclusion that the Re-type P. mirabilis R45 LPS fragmented C3 by the antibody-independent classical pathway.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2009 · Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis
  • G. Zeipel · A. Sjöholm · Anna-Brita Laurell
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: HeLa cells and diploid human fetal lung fibroblasts in culture synthesize an esterase, which is immunochemically and enzymatically identical with C1s of human serum. No C1q was found in the purified preparations or the concentrated crude cell culture fluids investigated. In the presence of Ca++ the C1s of the cell cultures complexed with a substance, also present in the culture medium, possibly being C1r.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2009 · Acta pathologica et microbiologica Scandinavica. Section B: Microbiology and immunology
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Under specified conditions purified Clq, activated Cr and Cs and Cr-Cs complexes were bound independently of Ca2+, to heparin-Sepharose, and could be eluted by an increasing salt gradient. Zymogen Clr and Cls, Cr-Cs complexes, C inactivator, and Cr-Cs-C inactivator complexes were not bound. However, at lower conductance Ca2+ independent binding of Clr occurred, which was utilized in the purification of Clr and Cls. In the presence of Clt (serum amyloid P component), Cls was firmly retained on heparin-Sepharose, which was probably due to formation of a Cls-Clt complex.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2009 · Apmis
  • A. B. Laurell · U. Mârtensson · A. G. Sjöholm
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The electroimmunoassay for Clr-Cls complexes was performed in two electrophoretic steps, the first in the presence of Ca2+ without antibody, and the second in the presence of EDTA with anti-Clr in the gel. The results were reproducible and in agreement with semiquantitative estimates of Clr-ClS complexes in normal and pathological sera on crossed immunoelectrophoresis.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2009 · Apmis
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Complete deficiency of complement inhibitor factor I (FI) results in secondary complement deficiency due to uncontrolled spontaneous alternative pathway activation leading to susceptibility to infections. Current genetic examination of two patients with near complete FI deficiency and three patients with no detectable serum FI and also close family members revealed homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations in several domains of FI. These mutations were introduced into recombinant FI and the resulting proteins were purified for functional studies, while transient transfection was used to analyze expression and secretion. The G170V mutation resulted in a protein that was not expressed, whereas the mutations Q232K, C237Y, S250L, I339M and H400L affected secretion. Furthermore, the C237Y and the S250L mutants did not degrade C4b and C3b as efficiently as the WT. The truncated Q336x mutant could be expressed, in vitro, but was not functional because it lacks the serine protease domain. Furthermore, this truncated FI was not detected in serum of the patient. Structural investigations using molecular modeling were performed to predict the potential impact the mutations have on FI structure. This is the first study that investigates, at the functional level, the consequences of molecular defects identified in patients with full FI deficiency.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2009 · European Journal of Immunology
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Deficiencies of complement proteins of the classical pathway are strongly associated with the development of autoimmune diseases. Deficiency of C1r has been observed to occur concomitantly with deficiency in C1s and 9 out of 15 reported cases presented systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Here, we describe a family in which all four children are deficient in C1s but only two of them developed SLE. Hemolytic activity mediated by the alternative and the lectin pathways were normal, but classical pathway activation was absent in all children's sera. C1s was undetectable, while in the parents' sera it was lower than in the normal controls. The levels of C1r observed in the siblings and parents sera were lower than in the control, while the concentrations of other complement proteins (C3, C4, MBL and MASP-2) were normal in all family members. Impairment of C1s synthesis was observed in the patients' fibroblasts when analyzed by confocal microscopy. We show that all four siblings are homozygous for a mutation at position 938 in exon 6 of the C1s cDNA that creates a premature stop codon. Our investigations led us to reveal the presence of previously uncharacterized splice variants of C1s mRNA transcripts in normal human cells. These variants are derived from the skipping of exon 3 and from the use of an alternative 3' splice site within intron 1 which increases the size of exon 2 by 87 nucleotides.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2008 · Molecular Immunology
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Antibody-based microarrays is a novel technology with great promise for high-throughput proteomics. The process of designing high-performing arrays has, however, turned out to be challenging. Here, we have designed the next generation of a human recombinant scFv antibody microarray platform for protein expression profiling of nonfractionated biotinylated human plasma and serum proteomes. The setup, based on black polymer Maxisorb slides interfaced with a fluorescent-based read-out system, was found to provide specific, sensitive (subpicomolar (pM) range) and reproducible means for protein profiling. Further, a chip-to-chip normalization protocol critical for comparing data generated on different chips was devised. Finally, the microarray data were found to correlate well with clinical laboratory data obtained using conventional methods, as demonstrated for a set of medium abundant (micromolar (microM) to nanomolar (nM) range) protein analytes in serum and plasma samples derived from healthy and complement-deficient individuals.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2007 · Journal of Proteome Research
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To analyse rheumatological manifestations, organ damage and autoimmune responses in a large cohort of patients (n = 45) with homozygous C2 deficiency (C2D) and long-term follow-up. Medical records were reviewed and were supplemented with a mailed questionnaire for assessment of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. Organ damage was evaluated using the Systemic Lupus International Collaborative Clinics/American College of Rheumatology Damage Index (SLICC/ACR DI). Causes for disability pensions were investigated. Autoantibodies were determined with established methods. Patients with rheumatological diseases had systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE, n = 12), undifferentiated connective tissue disease (n = 5) or vasculitis (n = 3). Judging from annual SLICC/ACR DI, C2D patients with SLE run a similar risk of development of severe disease as other patients with SLE. An increased rate of CVD was observed not explained by Framingham-related risk factors. Disability pensions were mainly related to rheumatological disease. The prevalence of anti-nuclear antibodies in C2D with SLE and of anti-SS-A was 25% while anti-RNP was found in 45%. Only one patient showed antibodies to dsDNA. Formation of anti-cardiolipin antibodies (aCL) appeared to be increased in C2D despite the absence of an anti-phospholipid syndrome. The prevalence of antibodies to the collagen-like region of C1q (C1qCLR) was also remarkably high and was not related to rheumatological manifestations. Severity of SLE in C2D is similar to that of SLE in other patients. Conventional risk factors do not explain the occurrence of CVD in C2D. The high prevalence of aCL and anti-C1qCLR indicates mechanisms through which impaired complement function promotes formation of autoantibodies.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2007 · Rheumatology
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The complement system is an important part of the innate immune system. Three pathways, the classical, the alternative and the lectin pathway, lead to the cleavage of complement factor C3, a central event in the activation of the complement system. We investigated the deposition of C3b (solid-phase C3 activation product) on a mannan-coated surface at high concentration of human serum (17%). At these conditions, mannan-binding lectin (MBL) promoted the activation of C3 through the combined action of MBL-associated serine protease (MASP)-1 and MASP-2 without appreciable involvement of the alternative pathway. In serum depleted of MASP-1, MASP-2 and MASP-3, we observed synergetic effect of reconstitution with MASP-1 and MASP-2. This was inhibited by MASP-3. No C3b deposition was observed with C2- or C4-depleted serum. Depletion of factor B had no effect on the MBL-MASP-promoted C3b deposition. Our results demonstrate a function of the orphan protease MASP-1 by providing evidence that this enzyme collaborates with MASP-2 in the generation of C3 convertase, a process observable at high serum concentration, but not at low serum concentration.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2007 · International Immunology
  • No preview · Article · Jan 2007 · Molecular Immunology
  • No preview · Article · Jan 2007 · Molecular Immunology
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Unlabelled: Bacterial meningitis is a rare presentation for congenital immunodeficiency, but meningococcal invasive diseases and meningitis have been associated with late complement component deficiencies and properdin deficiency. A 5-y-old boy of non-consanguineous parents was admitted to our hospital with meningococcal septic shock. He had previously been suffering from recurrent respiratory infections. His 13-y-old brother had also been treated for meningococcal meningitis when he was 7 y old. Immunological studies, done after recovery, on the patient and his two brothers revealed normal immunoglobulin, IgG subclasses, C3, C4 and CH50 levels. Haemolytic activity of the alternative complement pathway could not be detected, and properdin concentrations were <0.01 mg/l in serum samples from the patient and his brothers. The patient and family members received quadrivalent polysaccharide meningococcal vaccine. The patient was discharged on penicillin prophylaxis, and he remained healthy during the ensuing year. Conclusion: Our findings stress that measurement of the haemolytic activity of the alternative complement pathway in addition to classical pathway haemolytic complement activity should be performed in patients with meningococcal disease to reveal various forms of complement deficiency. This is particularly important when there is a family history, or recurrences or infection due to uncommon serogroups. Deficient individuals and affected family members might be protected from infection by vaccination.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2006 · Acta Paediatrica
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Homozygous C2 deficiency (C2D) is the most common deficiency of the classical complement pathway in Western countries. It is mostly found in patients with autoimmune disease or susceptibility to bacterial infections and in healthy persons. We wished to assess to what extent other immunological factors might explain differences of susceptibility to infections in C2D. For this reason, 44 Swedish patients with C2D were stratified with regard to the severity of documented infections. Investigations of IgG subclass levels, IgG subclass-specific GM allotypes, concentrations of factor B, properdin, and factor H, and polymorphisms of mannan-binding lectin and the Fc receptors FcgammaRIIa and FcgammaRIIIb were performed. Homozygosity for the G2M*n allele, which is known to promote Ab responses to polysaccharide Ags, was strongly associated with the absence of severe infections (p < 0.001) in the patients, suggesting a major protective role. The combination of mannan (or mannose)-binding lectin and C2 deficiency was found to be a minor susceptibility factor for invasive infection (p = 0.03). Low concentrations of IgG2 and factor B might sometimes contribute to susceptibility to infection. Other factors investigated did not appear to be important. In conclusion, the findings indicated that efficient Ab responses to polysaccharides are protective against severe infection in C2D. Implications with regard to vaccination should be considered.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2006 · The Journal of Immunology
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lectin pathway activation of C3 is known to involve target recognition by mannan-binding lectin (MBL) or ficolins and generation of classical pathway C3 convertase via cleavage of C4 and C2 by MBL-associated serine protease 2 (MASP-2). We investigated C3 activation in C2-deficient human sera and in sera with other defined defects of complement to assess other mechanisms through which MBL might recruit complement. The capacity of serum to support C3 deposition was examined by ELISA using microtiter plates coated with O antigen-specific oligosaccharides derived from Salmonella typhimurium, S. thompson, and S. enteritidis corresponding to serogroups B, C, and D (BO, CO, and DO). MBL bound to CO, but not to BO and DO, and efficiently supported C3 deposition in the absence of C2, C4, or MASP-2. The existence of an MBL-dependent C2 bypass mechanism for alternative pathway-mediated C3 activation was clearly demonstrated using CO, solid-phase mannan, and E. coli LPS. MASP-1 might contribute, but was not required for C3 deposition in the model used. Independent of MBL, specific antibodies to CO supported C3 deposition through classical and alternative pathways. MBL-dependent C2 bypass activation could be particularly important in various inherited and acquired complement deficiency states.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2006 · Journal of Clinical Investigation
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated the phenotypic expression of factor H mutations in two patients with atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). Factor H in serum was assayed by rocket immunoelectrophoresis, immunoblotting, and double immunodiffusion and in tissue by immunohistochemistry. Functional activity was analyzed by hemolysis of sheep erythrocytes and binding to endothelial cells. A homozygous mutation in complement control protein (CCP) domain 10 of factor H was identified in an adult man who first developed membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis and later HUS. C3 levels were very low. The patient had undetectable factor H levels in serum and a weak factor H 150 kDa band. Double immunodiffusion showed partial antigenic identity with factor H in normal serum owing to the presence of factor H-like protein 1. Strong specific labeling for factor H was detected in glomerular endothelium, mesangium and in glomerular and tubular epithelium as well as in bone marrow cells. A heterozygous mutation in CCP 20 of factor H was found in a girl with HUS. C3 levels were moderately decreased at onset. Factor H levels were normal and a normal 150 kDa band was present. Double immunodiffusion showed antigenic identity with normal factor H. Factor H labeling was minimal in the renal cortex. Factor H dysfunction was demonstrated by increased sheep erythrocyte hemolysis and decreased binding to endothelial cells. In summary, two different factor H mutations associated with HUS were examined: in one, factor H accumulated in cells, and in the other, membrane binding was reduced.
    Preview · Article · Apr 2006 · Kidney International
  • A.G. Sjöholm · G Jönsson · J.H. Braconier · G Sturfelt · L Truedsson
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Complement deficiencies are probably vastly under-diagnosed within clinical medicine. Judging from a Swedish study of C2 deficiency, a deficiency with an estimated prevalence of about 1/20,000 in Western countries, less than 10% of the deficiencies of the classical and alternative pathways and the late complement components are identified in Sweden. C1 inhibitor deficiency and deficiencies of MBL and MASP-2 were not included in the assessment. The introduction of new screening methods should facilitate detection of complement deficiencies in clinical practice. In our study of C2 deficiency (n=40), 57% of the patients had a history of invasive infection with encapsulated bacteria, mainly Streptococcus pneumoniae. This emphasizes the importance of the classical and/or the lectin pathway in defence against severe infection. Rheumatological disease, mainly systemic lupus erythematosus was present in 43% of the patients. In addition, a significant association was found between C2 deficiency and atherosclerosis. Complement-dependent disease mechanisms are discussed together with the potential importance of non-complement genes for disease expression in complement deficiencies. Analysis of larger patient groups is required in order to establish guidelines for investigation and treatment of patients with complement deficiency.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2006 · Molecular Immunology
  • L Skattum · P Akesson · L Truedsson · A G Sjöholm
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Responses against antigens from the potentially nephritogenic Streptococcus pyogenes serotype M1 in patients with acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis (AGN) were studied to seek indications of expression of these antigens during the preceding infection. Also, the question was asked whether the complement protein mannan-binding lectin (MBL) is required for development of the hypocomplementemia associated with AGN. Hypothetically, the lectin pathway might trigger the alternative pathway, which is consistently activated in AGN. Antibodies against three proteins associated with M1, M1 protein, streptococcal inhibitor of complement (SIC) and protein H, an IgG-binding protein, were determined by ELISA in 56 children and 17 adults with AGN. Antibodies against streptococcal cysteine proteinase, which is produced by all serotypes of S. pyogenes, were also examined. MBL concentrations were measured in the same 71 patients by a sandwich ELISA. Increased concentrations of antibodies were found against all four streptococcal proteins, albeit not uniformly distributed between different subgroups of patients. The prevalence of low MBL concentrations (<100 microg/l) including 2 patients with undetectable MBL (<10 microg/l) was similar in AGN (11%) and in controls (16%). Our results give evidence of exposure to SIC and protein H in conjunction with AGN. This implies that SIC and protein H and/or cross-reacting proteins may have a role in the pathogenesis of AGN or that streptococci expressing SIC or protein H are nephritogenic for other reasons. The finding of MBL-deficient individuals among the patients demonstrates that MBL is not necessary for the recruitment of complement in AGN.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2006 · International Archives of Allergy and Immunology
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To compare antibody responses to 23-valent pneumococcal vaccine (Pneumovax) in controls and patients with established rheumatoid arthritis (RA) treated with TNF blockers, methotrexate (MTX) or a combination of both. Patients with RA (n = 149) and healthy controls (n = 47) were vaccinated. Treatment with TNF blockers (etanercept or infliximab) and MTX was given to 50 patients, and 62 patients were treated with TNF blockers alone or with other DMARDs. MTX alone was given to 37 patients. Concentrations of immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies against pneumococcal capsular polysaccharides 23F and 6B were measured by enzyme-linked immunoassay before and 4-6 weeks after vaccination. An immune response was defined as a twofold or higher increase in antibody concentration following vaccination. Prevaccination antibody levels for both 23F and 6B were similar in the patient groups. Antibody concentrations after vaccination increased significantly in all groups. Patients treated with TNF blockers without MTX showed better immune responses than those treated with TNF blockers in combination with MTX (P = 0.037 for 23F and P = 0.004 for 6B) or MTX alone (P<0.001 for both 23F and 6B). RA patients given MTX alone had the lowest immune responses. Prednisolone treatment did not influence the responses. Patients treated with TNF blockers and controls showed similar responses to vaccination. In contrast, patients treated with MTX had reduced responses regardless of anti-TNF treatment. The findings do not argue against the use of pneumococcal vaccination in RA patients undergoing treatment with TNF blockers.
    Preview · Article · Jan 2006 · Rheumatology
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In cystic fibrosis (CF) prognosis concerning lung damage development is highly variable and difficult to predict. Mannan-binding lectin (MBL) deficiency has been reported to be associated with poor outcome in CF lung disease. MBL is a recognition molecule of the MBL pathway of the complement system and is encoded by a gene characterized by a high degree of polymorphism. Some genotypes result in low serum concentrations of MBL. MBL-associated serine protease 2 (MASP-2) is another protein belonging to the MBL pathway. A mutation resulting in low levels of MASP-2 in serum has been described recently. In the present study, 112 CF patients aged 4-54 years were investigated for MBL and MASP-2 genotypes, serum levels of MBL and MASP-2 and the MBL pathway function in serum. No correlation to reduced lung function or need for lung transplantation was seen, either for MBL deficiency, MASP-2 gene mutation or reduced MBL pathway function. However, in the 27 patients colonized with Staphylococcus aureus, MBL-deficient genotypes were associated with decreased lung function. As expected, MBL pathway function in serum was reduced both in MBL-deficient patients and in patients carrying a mutant MASP-2 allele. An unexpected finding was that CF patients had higher serum levels of MBL than healthy controls when corrected for MBL genotype. In conclusion, MBL pathway function was affected both by MBL and by MASP-2 genotypes. However, MBL or MASP-2 levels in serum did not affect the clinical outcome in the cohort of CF patients studied.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2005 · Clinical & Experimental Immunology