Takashi Yamanaka

Equine Research Institute, Totigi, Tochigi, Japan

Are you Takashi Yamanaka?

Claim your profile

Publications (53)65.88 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: Equine influenza (EI) is a highly contagious disease caused by viruses of the H3N8 subtype. The rapid diagnosis of EI is essential to reduce disease spread. Many rapid antigen detection (RAD) tests for diagnosing human influenza are available, but their ability to diagnose EI has not been systematically evaluated. Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare the performance of 22 RAD tests in the diagnosis of EI. Methods: The 22 RAD tests were performed on five-fold serial dilutions of EI virus to determine their detection limits. The four most sensitive RAD tests (ImmunoAce Flu, BD Flu examan, Quick chaser Flu A, B and ESPLINE Influenza A&B-N) were further evaluated using nasopharyngeal samples collected from experimentally infected and naturally infected horses. The results were compared to those obtained using molecular tests. Results: The detection limits of the 22 RAD tests varied hugely. Even the four RAD tests showing the best sensitivity were 125-fold less sensitive than the molecular techniques. The duration of virus detection in the experimentally infected horses was shorter using the RAD tests than the molecular techniques. The RAD tests detected between 27% and 73% of real-time RT-PCR positive samples from naturally infected horses. Conclusions: The study demonstrated the importance of choosing the right RAD tests as only three of 22 were fit for diagnosing EI. It was also indicated that even RAD tests with the highest sensitivity serve only as an adjunct to molecular tests because of the potential for false-negative results. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To increase the sensitivity of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for equine herpesvirus type 4 (EHV-4) that uses a 12-mer peptide of glycoprotein G (gG4-12-mer: MKNNPIYSEGSL) [4], we used a longer peptide consisting of a 24-mer repeat sequence (gG4-24-mer: MKNNPIYSEGSLMLNVQHDDSIHT) as an antigen. Sera of horses experimentally infected with EHV-4 reacted much more strongly to the gG4-24-mer peptide than to the gG4-12-mer peptide. We used peptide ELISAs to test paired sera from horses naturally infected with EHV-4 (n=40). gG4-24-mer ELISA detected 37 positive samples (92.5%), whereas gG4-12-mer ELISA detected only 28 (70.0%). gG4-24-mer ELISA was much more sensitive than gG4-12-mer ELISA.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: Equine coronavirus (ECoV) is considered to be a diarrheic pathogen in foals. In central Kentucky in the United States, it has been shown that approximately 30 % of thoroughbred foals are infected with ECoV and thus it is considered widely prevalent. In contrast, the epidemiology of ECoV and its relationship to diarrhea in foals are poorly understood in Japan. We investigated ECoV in rectal swabs collected from thoroughbred foals in Japan. Results: We collected 337 rectal swabs from 307 diarrheic foals in the Hidaka district of Hokkaido, the largest thoroughbred horse breeding region in Japan, between 2012 and 2014. In addition, 120 rectal swabs were collected from 120 healthy foals in 2012. These samples were tested by reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification and a real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. All samples collected from diarrheic foals were negative, and only three samples (2.5 %) collected from healthy foals were positive for ECoV. Compared with central Kentucky, ECoV is not prevalent among thoroughbred foals in the Hidaka district of Hokkaido. Conclusion: ECoV is not prevalent and was not related to diarrhea in thoroughbred foals in the Hidaka district of Hokkaido between 2012 and 2014.
    Preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Equine coronavirus has been responsible for several outbreaks of disease in the United States and Japan. Only one complete genome sequence (NC99 isolated in the US) had been reported for this pathogenic RNA virus. Here, we report the complete genome sequences of three equine coronaviruses isolated in 2009 and 2012 in Japan. The genome sequences of Tokachi09, Obihiro12-1 and Obihiro12-2 were 30,782, 30,916 and 30,916 nucleotides in length, respectively, excluding the 3'-poly (A) tails. All three isolates were genetically similar to NC99 (98.2-98.7 %), but deletions and insertions were observed in the genes nsp3 of ORF1a, NS2 and p4.7.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Archives of Virology
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We investigated the influences of various reaction conditions on equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) disinfection by 5 commercial disinfectants (3 quaternary ammonium compounds [QACs] and 2 chlorine-based disinfectants) and 1 anionic surfactant. QACs at their highest recommended concentrations had no virucidal effect on EHV-1 with a 10-min reaction time at 0°C or a 1-min reaction time at room temperature. Chlorine-based disinfectants achieved EHV-1 disinfection with a 10-min reaction time at −10°C or a 30-sec reaction time at room temperature. In the presence of 5% fetal bovine serum, QACs (except for benzalkonium chloride) showed more stable virucidal effects than did chlorine-based disinfectants. The virucidal effect of the anionic surfactant was almost equivalent to that of the QACs.
    Preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To clarify the factors causing an outbreak in 2014 of Getah virus infection among racehorses at the Miho training center, Japan, we isolated virus strains and performed an epizootiological investigation of affected horses and related horse populations. Three Getah virus isolates were recovered from clinical samples, and one of them (14-I-605) was used in a virus-neutralizing test. Of the affected horses (n = 33), 20 (60.6%) were 2-year-olds. We investigated the histories of Getah virus vaccination of the affected horses and the whole population at the Miho training center. Among the 2-year-old population, the prevalence of the disease in horses that had been vaccinated once was 14.1%. This was significantly higher than that in horses that had been vaccinated twice or more (1.3%, P < 0.01). Among horses that had entered the training center from farms in Ibaraki Prefecture surrounding the training center and from neighboring Chiba Prefecture, the rate of seropositivity against Getah virus was 13.0% in September 2014 and 42.9% in October 2014; that in the corresponding periods in 2010 and 2013 was 0%. In conclusion, we identified two possible causes of the outbreak of Getah virus infection in the training center in 2014: 1) the existence of susceptible horses that had received only one dose of vaccination before the outbreak; and 2) increased risk of exposure to the virus because of epizootic Getah virus infection among horses on surrounding farms in Ibaraki and Chiba prefectures. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.
    No preview · Article · May 2015 · Journal of clinical microbiology
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: An outbreak of Getah virus infection occurred among racehorses in Japan during September and October 2014. Of 49 febrile horses tested by reverse transcription PCR, 25 were positive for Getah virus. Viruses detected in 2014 were phylogenetically different from the virus isolated in Japan in 1978.
    Preview · Article · May 2015 · Emerging Infectious Diseases
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay was developed for the rapid detection of equine coronavirus (ECoV). This assay was conducted at 60°C for 40min. Specificity of the RT-LAMP assay was confirmed using several equine intestinal and respiratory pathogens in addition to ECoV. The novel assay failed to cross-react with the other pathogens tested, suggesting it is highly specific for ECoV. Using artificially synthesized ECoV RNA, the 50% detection limit of the RT-LAMP assay was 101.8copies/reaction. This is a 50-fold greater sensitivity than conventional reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assays, but a 4-fold lower sensitivity than quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) assays. Eighty-two fecal samples collected during ECoV outbreaks were analyzed. ECoV was detected in 59 samples using the RT-LAMP assay, and in 30 and 65 samples using RT-PCR or qRT-PCR assays, respectively. Although the RT-LAMP assay is less sensitive than qRT-PCR techniques, it can be performed without the need for expensive equipment. Thus, the RT-LAMP assay might be suitable for large-scale surveillance and diagnosis of ECoV infection in laboratories with limited resources.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2015 · Journal of virological methods
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Recently, outbreaks associated with equine coronavirus (ECoV) have occurred in Japan and the United States. While ECoV is likely to be pathogenic to horses, it has not been shown that experimental inoculation of horses with ECoV produces clinical signs of disease. In this study, we inoculated three Japanese draft horses with an ECoV-positive diarrheic fecal sample to confirm infection after inoculation and to investigate the clinical course and virus shedding patterns of ECoV. Virus neutralization tests showed that all three horses became infected with ECoV. Two of the three horses developed clinical signs similar to those observed during ECoV outbreaks, including fever, anorexia, and gastrointestinal dysfunction. All horses excreted a large amount of virus into their feces for more than 9 days after inoculation regardless of the presence or absence of clinical signs, which suggests that feces are an important source of ECoV infection. ECoV was also detected in nasal swabs from all horses, suggesting that respiratory transmission of ECoV may occur. Both symptomatic horses developed viremia, while the asymptomatic horse did not. White blood cell counts and serum amyloid A concentrations changed relative to the clinical condition of the inoculated horses; these may be useful markers for monitoring the clinical status of horses infected with ECoV. This is the first report of induction of clinical signs of ECoV infection in horses by experimental inoculation. These clinical and virological findings should aid further investigation of the pathogenesis of ECoV.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2014 · Archives of Virology
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Equine herpesviruses type 1 (EHV-1) is a major cause of winter pyrexia in racehorses in two training centers (Ritto and Miho) in Japan. Until the epizootic period of 2008-2009, a vaccination program using a killed EHV-1 vaccine targeted only those of the 3-year-old susceptible horses with low antibody levels to EHV-1 antigens. However, because protective effect was not satisfactory, in 2009-2010 the vaccination program was altered to target all 3-year-old horses. To evaluate vaccine efficacy, we investigated the number of pyretic horses due to EHV-1 or equine herpesvirus type-4 (EHV-4) infection, or both, and examined the vaccination coverage in the 3-year-old population and in the whole population before and after changing the program. The mean estimated number of horses infected with EHV-1 or EHV-4, or both, among pyretic horses from 1999-2000 to 2008-2009 was 105±47 at Ritto and 66±44 at Miho. Although the estimated number of infected horses did not change greatly in the first period of the current program, it decreased from the second period, with means of 21±12 at Ritto and 14±15 at Miho from 2010-2011 to 2012-2013. Vaccination coverage in the 3-year-old population was 99.4% at Ritto and 99.8% at Miho in the first period, and similar values were maintained thereafter. Coverage in the whole population increased more gradually than that in the 3-year-old population. The results suggested that EHV-1 epizootics can be suppressed by maintaining high vaccination coverage, not only in the 3-year-old population but also in the whole population.
    Preview · Article · May 2014 · Clinical and vaccine Immunology: CVI
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Reasons for performing studyThe protection induced by an equine influenza (EI) vaccine strain depends on its antigenic relatedness to the challenge virus. Although the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) recommend that both Florida sublineage clade 1 (Fc1) and clade 2 (Fc2) viruses should be included in EI vaccines, Japanese EI vaccines have not, thus far, been updated to include a Fc2 virus.Objectives To evaluate the efficacy of antibodies raised against Japanese EI vaccine strains in the neutralisation of recent Fc2 viruses.Study designAntigenic analysis.Methods Virus neutralisation tests were performed using antisera from experimentally infected horses and from horses that had received a primary course of the currently available vaccines.ResultsAntiserum raised against the Japanese EI vaccine strain A/equine/La Plata/1993, exhibited poor cross-neutralising activity against the Fc2 viruses isolated recently in Ireland and the UK which have the substitution alanine to valine at position 144 in antigenic site A of the haemagglutinin gene. In contrast the antiserum exhibited good cross-neutralising activity against the Fc2 viruses without the substitution. This finding was supported in experiments with antisera collected from vaccinated horses.Conclusions This suggests that the efficacy of the Japanese EI vaccine for some of the recent Fc2 viruses is suboptimal and that vaccines should be updated in accordance with the OIE recommendations.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2014 · Equine Veterinary Journal
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Although many disinfectants are commercially available in the veterinary field, information on the virucidal effects of disinfectants against equine group A rotavirus (RVA) is limited. We evaluated the performance of commercially available disinfectants against equine RVA. Chlorine- and iodine-based disinfectants showed virucidal effects, but these were reduced by the presence of organic matter. Glutaraldehyde had a virucidal effect regardless of the presence of organic matter, but the effect was reduced by low temperature or short reaction time, or both. Benzalkonium chloride had the greatest virucidal effect among the three quaternary ammonium compounds examined, but its effect was reduced by the presence of organic matter or by low temperature or a short reaction time. These findings will be useful for preventing the spread of equine RVA infection.
    Preview · Article · Mar 2014 · Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Non-specific hemolysis has often been observed during complement-fixation (CF) tests for equine herpesvirus type-1 (EHV-1), even when the sera have virus-specific CF antibodies. This phenomenon has also been reported in CF tests for various infectious diseases of swine. We found that the sera from 22 of 85 field horses (25.9%) showed non-specific hemolysis during conventional CF testing for EHV-1. Because pretreatment of swine sera with potassium periodate (KIO4) improves the CF test for swine influenza, we applied this method to horse sera. As we expected, horse sera treated with KIO4 did not show non-specific hemolysis in the EHV-1 CF test, and precise determination of titers was achieved.
    Preview · Article · Dec 2013 · Journal of Equine Science
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Virus-neutralizing (VN) testing is essential for evaluating virus-specific immunity in equine herpesvirus type-1 (EHV-1) infection. We developed a focus-reduction neutralization test (FRNT) for EHV-1 using 96-well plates for faster large-scale testing with sufficient sensitivity. We used an overlay medium containing Avicel (FMC Biopolymer), a microcrystalline cellulose with lower viscosity than the methylcellulose. The foci were visualized by immuno-staining with anti-EHV-1 gp14 monoclonal antibody. The FRNT successfully detected seroconversion in horses experimentally infected with EHV-1 (n=3) and in those infected naturally (n=16). The FRNT for EHV-1 was high-throughput and time saving. The FRNT can be used in large-scale seroepidemiological studies of EHV-1 and in evaluating vaccine efficacy.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2013 · Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Disinfection is one of the most important biosecurity measures to minimize disease spread during outbreaks of equine influenza. Although many disinfectants are commercially available, information about their effects against equine influenza A virus (EIV) is limited. This report describes an evaluation of the effects of six disinfectants against EIV (∼104.7 egg infectious dose 50/200 μL) under different conditions (reaction time [10 and/or 30 minutes], temperature [4°C–25°C], and the absence and/or presence of uninfected allantoic fluid that served as our best choice of “organic matter” equivalent). Although the efficacy of didecyldimethylammonium chloride decreased with decreasing reaction temperature, the compound showed the highest efficacy of the three quaternary ammonium compounds tested in this study. The effects of sodium dichloroisocyanurate and nonoxynol iodine were not affected by reaction time or temperature, but they were affected by the presence of organic matter. Antec Virkon S containing potassium peroxymonosulfate and sodium chloride consistently inactivated EIV regardless of reaction time, temperature, and the presence of organic matter. These findings will help us to take rational biosecurity measures during outbreaks of equine influenza.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2013 · Journal of Equine Veterinary Science
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background Both the G3P[12] and the G14P[12] type of equine group A rotavirus (RVA) have recently become predominant in many countries, including Japan. G3 types are classified further into G3A and G3B. The G3A viruses have been circulating in Europe, Australia, and Argentina, and the G3B viruses have been circulating in Japan. However, only an inactivated vaccine containing a single G3BP[12] strain is commercially available in Japan. To assess the efficacy of the current vaccine against recently circulating equine RVA strains, we examined antibody responses in pregnant mares to recent G3BP[12] and G14P[12] strains by virus neutralization test. Findings After vaccination in five pregnant mares, the geometric mean serum titers of virus-neutralizing antibody to recent G3BP[12] strains increased 5.3- to 7.0-fold and were similar to that against homologous vaccine strain. Moreover, antibody titers to recent G14P[12] strains were also increased 3.0- to 3.5-fold. Conclusions These results suggest that inoculation of mares with the current vaccine should provide foals with virus-neutralizing antibodies against not only the G3BP[12] but also the G14P[12] RVA strain via the colostrum.
    Preview · Article · Nov 2012 · Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica

  • No preview · Article · Oct 2012 · Journal of Equine Veterinary Science

  • No preview · Article · Oct 2012 · Journal of Equine Veterinary Science
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To investigate the pathology of equine influenza, necropsy of 7 horses experimentally infected with equine influenza A virus (EIV) subtype H3N8 was conducted on post-infection days (PID) 2, 3, 7, and 14. Histopathologically, rhinitis or tracheitis including epithelial degeneration or necrosis with loss of ciliated epithelia and a reduction in goblet cell numbers, was observed in the respiratory tracts on PIDs 2 and 3. Epithelial hyperplasia or squamous metaplasia and suppurative bronchopneumonia with proliferation of type II pneumocytes were observed on PIDs 7 and 14. Viral antigen was detected immunohistochemically in the epithelia of the nasal mucosa, trachea, and bronchi on PIDs 2 and 3. The sodA gene of Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus, a suspected cause of suppurative bronchopneumonia, was detected in paraffin-embedded lung tissue sections, but only on PIDs 7 and 14. These findings suggest that damage caused to ciliated epithelia and goblet cells by EIV infection results in secondary bacterial bronchopneumonia due to a reduction in mucociliary clearance.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2012 · Journal of Equine Science
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Since equine influenza A virus (H3N8) was transmitted to dogs in the United States in 2004, the causative virus, which is called canine influenza A virus (CIV), has become widespread in dogs. To date, it has remained unclear whether or not CIV-infected dogs could transmit CIV to horses. To address this, we tested whether or not close contact between horses and dogs experimentally infected with CIV would result in its interspecies transmission. Three pairs of animals consisting of a dog inoculated with CIV (10(8.3) egg infectious dose 50/dog) and a healthy horse were kept together in individual stalls for 15 consecutive days. During the study, all the dogs and horses were clinically observed. Virus titres in nasal swab extracts and serological responses were also evaluated. In addition, all the animals were subjected to a gross pathological examination after euthanasia. All three dogs inoculated with CIV exhibited clinical signs including, pyrexia, cough, nasal discharge, virus shedding and seroconversion. Gross pathology revealed lung consolidations in all the dogs, and Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus was isolated from the lesions. Meanwhile, none of the paired horses showed any clinical signs, virus shedding or seroconversion. Moreover, gross pathology revealed no lesions in the respiratory tracts including the lungs of the horses. These findings may indicate that a single dog infected with CIV is not sufficient to constitute a source of CIV infection in horses.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2012 · Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica