[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In terminally differentiated ileal villus Na+-absorptive cells, epidermal growth factor (EGF) stimulates NaCl absorption and its component brush border Na+/H+ exchanger, acting via basolateral membrane receptors, and as we confirm here, a brush border tyrosine kinase. In the present study we show that brush border phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) is involved in EGF stimulation of NaCl absorption and brush border Na+/H+ exchange. In rabbit ileum studied with the Ussing chamber-voltage clamp technique, EGF stimulation of active NaCl absorption is inhibited by the selective PI 3-kinase inhibitor wortmannin. PI 3-kinase, a largely cytosolic enzyme, translocates specifically to the brush border of ileal absorptive cells following EGF treatment. This translocation occurs as early as 1 min after EGF treatment and remains increased at the brush border for at least 15 min. EGF also causes a rapid (1 min) and large (4-5-fold) increase in brush border PI 3-kinase activity. Involvement of PI 3-kinase activity in intestinal Na+ absorption is established further by studies done in the human colon cancer cell line, Caco-2, stably transfected with the intestinal brush border isoform of the Na+/H+ exchanger, NHE3 (Caco-2/NHE3 cells). Brush border Na+/H+ exchange activity was measured using the pH-sensitive fluorescent dye 2'7'-bis(carboxyethyl)5-(6)-carboxyfluorescein. EGF added to the basolateral surface but not apical surface of Caco-2/NHE3 cells increased brush border Na+/H+ exchange activity. The EGF-induced increase in brush border Na+/H+ exchange activity was completely abolished in cells pretreated with wortmannin. EGF treatment caused increased tyrosine phosphorylation of PI 3-kinase in both ileal brush border membranes and Caco-2/NHE3 cells, suggesting that a tyrosine kinase upstream of the PI 3-kinase is involved in the EGF effects on Na+ absorption. In conclusion, the present study provides evidence in two separate intestinal models, the ileum and a human colon cancer cell line, that PI 3-kinase is an intermediate in EGF stimulation of intestinal Na+ absorption.
Preview · Article · May 1996 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effect of hyperosmolarity on cloned Na+/H+ exchanger (NHE) isoforms NHE2 and NHE3 was studied in stably transfected PS120 fibroblasts. Na+/H+ exchanger activity was determined spectrofluorometrically in acidified cells that were exposed to isosmolar (300 mosmol/kg) or hyperosmolar (450 mosmol/kg) media, in which the only difference is the presence or absence of 150 mM mannitol. Hyperosmolar solution reversibly inhibited NHE2 and NHE3 with a delay of approximately 15 s. Hyperosmolarity significantly reduced their maximal reaction velocity compared with isosmolar medium but did not alter their Michaelis-Menten constant for intracellular H+. The Michaelis-Menten constant of the exchangers for extracellular Na+ in hyperosmolar medium was not different from that in isosmolar medium. Pretreatment of PS120/NHE3 cells with the protein kinase C inhibitor 1-(5-isoquinolinylsulfonyl)-2-methylpiperazine, the tyrosine kinase inhibitor genistein, and the serine/threonine protein phosphatase inhibitor okadaic acid did not affect the hyperosmolar inhibition of NHE3. Hyperosmolar inhibition of Na+/H+ exchanger activity was also observed in PS120 cells transfected with truncated NHE3 cDNAs (E3/585, E3/543, E3509, and E3/475) and NHE2 cDNA (E2/499). We conclude that 1) hyperosmolarity inhibits NHE2 and NHE3, in contrast to the stimulatory effect on the housekeeping isoform NHE1, 2) this inhibition is reversible, and 3) the COOH termini of NHE2 and NHE3 are not necessary for hyperosmolar inhibition of NHE2 and NHE3.
No preview · Article · Apr 1996 · The American journal of physiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Elevation in intracellular Ca2+ acting via protein kinase C (PKC) is shown to regulate tight junction resistance in T84 cells, a human colon cancer line and a model Cl- secretory epithelial cell. The Ca2+ ionophore A23187, which was used to increase the intracellular Ca2+ concentration, caused a decrease in tight junction resistance in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Dual Na+/mannitol serosal-to-mucosal flux analysis performed across the T84 monolayers treated with 2 microM A23187 revealed that A23187 increased both fluxes and that in the presence of ionophore there was a linear relationship between the Na+ and mannitol fluxes with a slope of 56.4, indicating that the decrease in transepithelial resistance was due to a decrease in tight junction resistance. Whereas there was no effect of 0.1 microM A23187, 1 or 2 microM produced a 55% decrease in baseline resistance in 1 hr and 10 microM decreased resistance more than 80%. The A23187-induced decrease in tight junction resistance was partially reversible by washing 3 times with a Ringer's-HCO3 solution containing 1% BSA. The A23187 effect on resistance was dependent on intracellular Ca2+; loading the T84 cells with the intracellular Ca2+ chelator BAPTA significantly reduced the decrease in tight junction resistance caused by A23187. This intracellular Ca2+ effect was mediated by protein kinase C and not calmodulin. While the protein kinase C antagonist H-7 totally prevented the action of A23187 on tight junction resistance, the Ca2+/calmodulin inhibitor W13 did not have any effect. Sphingosine, another inhibitor of PKC, partially reduced the A23187-induced decline in tight junction resistance. The PKC agonist PMA mimicked the A23187 effect on resistance, although the effect was delayed up to 1 hr after exposure. In addition, however, PMA also caused an earlier increase in resistance, indicating it had an additional effect in addition to mimicking the effect of elevating Ca2+. The effects of a phospholipase inhibitor (mepacrine) and of inhibitors of arachidonic acid metabolism (indomethacin for the cyclooxygenase pathway, NDGA for the lipoxygenase pathway, and SKF 525A for the epoxygenase pathway) on the A23187 action were also examined. None of these agents altered the A23187-induced decrease in resistance. Monolayers exposed to 2 microM A23187 for 1 hr were stained with fluorescein conjugated phalloidin, revealing that neighboring cells did not part one from another and that A23187 did not have a detectable effect on distribution of F-actin in the perijunctional actomyosin ring. The results indicate that elevation in intracellular Ca2+ decreases tight junction resistance in the T84 monolayer, acting through protein kinase C by a mechanism which does not involve visible changes in the perijunctional actomyosin ring.
No preview · Article · Feb 1996 · Journal of Membrane Biology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rabbit NHE2 and NHE3 are two epithelial isoform Na+/H+ exchangers (NHE), the messages for which are found predominantly and entirely, respectively, in renal, intestinal, and gastric mucosa. The current studies used Western analysis and immunohistochemistry to identify and characterize the apical vs. basolateral membrane distribution of NHE2 and NHE3 in intestinal epithelial cells. Based on Western analysis, NHE2 and NHE3 both are present in brush-border but not basolateral membranes of small intestine. Both NHE2 and NHE3 are 85-kDa proteins. Consistent with Western analysis, NHE2 and NHE3 are immunolocalired to the brush-border but not basolateral membranes of villus epithelial cells, but not goblet cells, in human jejunum and ileum and in surface epithelial cells in the ascending and descending colon and rectum. In addition, NHE2 and NHE3 are present in small amounts in the crypt cell brush border of human jejunum, ileum, ascending and descending colon, and rectum. In rabbit jejunum, ileum, and ascending colon, NHE2 and NHE3 are present in the brush border of epithelial and not goblet cells, again much more in the villus (small intestine)/ surface cells (colon) than the crypt. NHE2 but not NHE3 is present in the brush border of rabbit descending colon surface cells and in small amounts in crypt cells. NHE2 and NHE3 are both human and rabbit small intestinal and colonic epithelial cell brush-border Na+/H+ exchanger isoforms that colocalize in all intestinal segments except rabbit descending colon, which lacks NHE3.
No preview · Article · Feb 1996 · The American journal of physiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Na+/H+ exchangers are integral plasma membrane proteins that exchange extracellular Na+ for intracellular H+ with a stoichiometry of one for one. They are inhibitable by the diuretic amiloride and have multiple cellular functions, including intracellular pH homeostasis, cell volume control, and electroneutral NaCl absorption in epithelia. The presence of multiple forms of the exchangers was demonstrated by the recent cloning of four mammalian Na+/H+ exchangers, NHE1, NHE2, NHE3, and NHE4. All of these cloned Na+/H+ exchangers have 10-12 putative transmembrane helixes and a long cytoplasmic carboxyl domain. Despite the structural similarity, these Na+/H+ exchanger isoforms differ in their tissue distribution, kinetic characteristics, and response to external stimuli. The present review deals with the recent developments in the molecular identification of the Na+/H+ exchanger gene family, the functional characteristics, and the short-term regulation of Na+/H+ exchange at molecular and cellular levels.
No preview · Article · Aug 1995 · The American journal of physiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: NHE3, a cloned intestinal and renal brush border Na+/H+ exchanger, has previously been shown to be both stimulated and inhibited by different protein kinases/growth factors. For instance, NHE3 is stimulated by serum and fibroblast growth factor (FGF) and inhibited by protein kinase C. In the present study, we used a series of NHE3 C terminus truncation mutants to identify separate regions of the C-terminal cytoplasmic tail responsible for stimulation and inhibition by protein kinases/growth factors. Five NHE3 C terminus truncation mutant stable cell lines were generated by stably transfecting NHE3 deletion cDNAs into PS120 fibroblasts, which lack any endogenous Na+/H+ exchanger. Using fluorometric techniques, the effects of the calcium/calmodulin (CaM) inhibitor W13, calcium/CaM kinase inhibitor KN-62, phorbol myristate acetate, okadaic acid, FGF, and fetal bovine serum on Na+/H+ exchange were studied in these transfected cells. Inhibition of basal activity of full-length NHE3 is mediated by CaM at a site C-terminal to amino acid 756; this CaM effect occurs through both kinase dependent and independent mechanisms. There is another independent inhibitory domain for protein kinase C between amino acids 585 and 689. In addition, there are at least three stimulatory regions in the C-terminal domain of NHE3, corresponding to amino acids 509-543 for okadaic acid, 475-509 for FGF, and a region N-terminal to amino acid 475 for fetal bovine serum. We conclude that separate regions of the C terminus of NHE3 are involved with stimulation or inhibition of Na+/H+ exchange activity, with both stimulatory and inhibitory domains having several discrete subdomains. A conservative model to explain the way these multiple domains in the C terminus of NHE3 regulate Na+/H+ exchange is via an effect on associated regulatory proteins.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A polyclonal antibody (Ab597) was produced in rabbit against a fusion protein of glutathione-S-transferase and the last 87 amino acids of the Na+/H+ exchanger isoform, NHE2. By Western blotting, Ab597 recognized proteins of 75 and 85 kDa in PS120/NHE2 membranes (PS120 cells stably transfected with NHE2), and this antibody did not cross-react with NHE1 and NHE3. When Ab597 was used to immunocytochemically stain PS120/NHE2 cells, permeabilization of the cells was required for staining, confirming the putative membrane topology of NHE2 that the C-terminus is cytoplasmic. NHE1 is N-glycosylated. NHE2 was predicted to be N-glycosylated as it contains one potential N-linked glycosylation site (N350VS), which is conserved among NHE1, NHE3, and NHE4. However, NHE2 was resistant to peptide:N-glycosidase F (PNGase F) and endoglycosidase H (Endo H) digestion, suggesting that NHE2 is not N-glycosylated. In contrast, neuraminidase shifted the mobility of the 85 kDa NHE2 protein in PS120/NHE2 membranes into an 81 kDa band, and O-glycanase further shifted the mobility of the neuraminidase-treated 81 kDa protein to 75 kDa. Incubation of PS120/NHE2 cells with benzyl N-acetyl-alpha-D-galactosaminide (Bz alpha GalNAc), an O-glycosylation inhibitor, decreased the size of the 85 kDa protein to 81 kDa. This treatment had no effect on the initial rate of Na+/H+ exchange of PS120/NHE2 cells. The 75 kDa protein was not affected by the glycosidase treatment of PS120/NHE2 membranes or the Bz alpha GalNAc treatment of PS120/NHE2 cells.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The kinetics and second messenger regulation of three cloned mammalian intestinal Na+/H+ exchangers were studied using fluorometric techniques. These exchangers, NHE1, NHE2, and NHE3, were stably expressed in PS120 fibroblasts, which lack an endogenous Na+/H+ exchanger. H+ kinetic data indicated cooperativity by internal protons, with Hill coefficients of approximately 2 for all three isoforms. In contrast, Na+ kinetic data fit Michaelis-Menten kinetics, with Km (Na+) 15-18 mM and a Hill coefficient of approximately 1. The exchangers were all activated by growth factors and thrombin; in NHE1 these agonists increased the apparent affinity for intracellular H+, but did not change Vmax, while for NHE2 and NHE3 the effect was on Vmax alone. Phorbol ester stimulated NHE1 and NHE2, but inhibited NHE3 with a decrease in Vmax. ATP-depletion decreased Vmax and the apparent affinity for H+ for all three isoforms, and reduced the Hill coefficient to approximately 1, suggesting that a basal level of phosphorylation was required for the cooperativity. The differences in kinetics and second messenger regulation suggest that the NHE isoforms may serve different cellular functions. The up- and down-regulation of NHE3 by kinases indicates that this isoform may be involved in a specialized function such as Na+ absorption.
Preview · Article · Jan 1994 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We previously cloned an isoform Na+/H+ exchanger (NHE3), which was expressed only in intestine, kidney, and stomach. We show here the functional characteristics of NHE3 as a Na+/H+ exchanger by stably transfecting NHE3 cDNA into PS120 cells, a fibroblast cell line that lacks endogenous Na+/H+ exchangers. NHE3 was 39- and 160-fold more resistant to inhibition by amiloride and ethylisopropyl amiloride, respectively, than NHE1, the housekeeping Na+/H+ exchanger isoform. Although both exchangers were stimulated by serum, NHE3 was inhibited by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), which stimulated NHE1. Mechanistically, serum and PMA stimulated NHE1 by an increase in the apparent affinity of the exchanger for intracellular H+. In contrast, serum stimulated and PMA inhibited NHE3 by a Vmax change. When NHE3 was stably expressed in Caco-2 cells, an intestinal epithelial cell line, NHE3 was functionally expressed in the apical membrane. Thus, NHE3 is a good candidate to be an epithelial brush border Na+/H+ exchanger. Furthermore, Na+/H+ exchangers can be rapidly regulated by mechanisms that change either the Vmax or the affinity for intracellular H+, depending on the Na+/H+ exchanger subtype.
Full-text · Article · Nov 1993 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A family of Na+/H+ exchanger isoforms (called NHE1, NHE2, and NHE3) which exhibits a wide range of amiloride sensitivity has recently been cloned and characterized. A part of the domain, which determines amiloride sensitivity in the epithelial Na+/H+ exchanger isoform, NHE2, was identified by site-directed mutagenesis and functional studies using cDNAs stably expressed in a fibroblast cell line. It has previously been reported that AR300, an amiloride resistant mutant of the ubiquitous Na+/H+ exchanger isoform, NHE1, is 30-fold more resistant to methylpropyl amiloride (MPA) compared to NHE1 and contains a single amino acid substitution of L167F in the fourth putative transmembrane helix, which corresponds to L143 in NHE2. Therefore, in the present study point mutational substitutions were introduced into the equivalent of this fourth transmembrane helix of rabbit NHE2 (including Y144F; L143F; L143F and Y144F) to mimic the corresponding amino acids in NHE1, NHE3 (another epithelial isoform) and AR300, respectively. NHE2/L143F (mimicking NHE3) increased the IC50 for amiloride by 5-fold and for ethylisopropyl amiloride (EIPA) by 20-fold. Similarly, NHE2/L143F and Y144F (mimicking AR300) increased the resistance to both amiloride and EIPA by 10-fold. On the other hand, NHE2/Y144F (mimicking NHE1) did not affect the sensitivity to amiloride or EIPA, and this mutant, like wild type NHE2, is partially resistant to EIPA. Thus, amino acid 143 of NHE2 is critical for, but is not the only amino acid responsible for, amiloride and EIPA inhibition of Na+/H+ exchange. That none of the mutations studied altered the Na+ affinity of these Na+/H+ exchangers further suggests that amiloride binding and Na+ transport sites are not identical.
Full-text · Article · Jul 1993 · Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A unique Na+/H+ exchanger isoform, NHE-2, was cloned and characterized. NHE-2 is a protein of 809 amino acids with a calculated size of 90,787. It exhibits overall amino acid identity of 50, 44, and 60% with other cloned mammalian Na+/H+ exchangers NHE-1, NHE-3, and NHE-4, respectively. Northern blot analysis of poly(A+) RNA isolated from rabbit ileum, kidney cortex, and kidney medulla using NHE-2 cDNA as a probe revealed messages of 5.2, 4.2, and 3.2 kilobases with relative abundance (in descending order) kidney medulla > kidney cortex > ileum. More detailed tissue distribution of message was performed by ribonuclease protection assay. NHE-2 was predominantly expressed in kidney, intestine, and adrenal gland with a small amount in skeletal muscle and trachea. Stable expression of NHE-2 in PS120 fibroblasts confirmed that NHE-2 is a functional Na+/H+ exchanger which is defined by amiloride-sensitive Na+-dependent alkalinization of acid-loaded cells. NHE-2 has the same Ki for amiloride inhibition as NHE-1 (1 microM) but is 25-fold more resistant to ethylisopropylamiloride inhibition than is NHE-1 (500 versus 20 nM). Like NHE-1, NHE-2 can be activated by serum. Expression of NHE-2 in a polarized human intestinal epithelial cell line, Caco-2 cells, results in functional expression of NHE-2 in the apical membrane. Thus, we conclude that NHE-2 is a candidate to be an apical membrane Na+/H+ exchanger in intestinal and renal epithelial cells.
Full-text · Article · Jun 1993 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Methylprednisolone stimulates rabbit ileal neutral NaCl absorption; and aminoglutethimide, which decreases glucocorticoid levels, decreases NaCl absorption. Studies were carried out to determine the mechanism of these effects and to determine which members of the gene family of mammalian Na+/H+ exchangers were involved. Rabbits were treated subcutaneously with methylprednisolone (40 mg daily for 24 or 72 h), aminoglutethimide (100 mg twice daily for 72 h), or saline as a control. Ileal brush border membranes were prepared by magnesium precipitation, and brush border Na+/H+ exchange was determined by 22Na+ uptake over 3-8 s. The 22Na+ uptake experiments were performed in the presence of a voltage clamp using either valinomycin/potassium or tetramethylammonium/nitrate to eliminate potential contributions by other electrogenic transport processes. Methylprednisolone treatment approximately doubled ileal brush border Na+/H+ exchange, whereas aminoglutethimide led to a 50% decrease in Na+/H+ exchange. These effects were specifically on Na+ uptake with an acid inside pH gradient, whereas diffusive Na+ uptake (no pH gradient), glucose-dependent Na+ uptake, and glucose and Na+ equilibrium volumes were not affected. To determine if the increase in Na+/H+ exchange was associated with an increase in message expression, mRNA levels were measured by ribonuclease protection assay. Methylprednisolone stimulated the NHE-3 mRNA level by 4-6-fold at 24 h, which remained increased at 72 h. In contrast, messages for NHE-1 and NHE-2 were not affected by methylprednisolone. In summary, 1) methylprednisolone stimulation of rabbit ileal Na+ absorption is due to stimulation of ileal villus cell brush border Na+/H+ exchange; 2) basal ileal brush border Na+/H+ exchange is dependent on glucocorticoid levels; and 3) an increase in NHE-3 message, but not in NHE-1 or NHE-2 message, correlates with the stimulation of ileal brush border Na+/H+ exchange. It is likely that NHE-3 is an Na+/H+ exchanger that is involved in ileal Na+ absorption.
Full-text · Article · Feb 1993 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: STa, the heat-stable enterotoxin of Escherichia coli, is a specific activator of membrane-bound guanylyl cyclase and stimulates secretion of Cl- in a human colonic carcinoma cell line (T84). We investigated the effect of the cholinergic agent carbachol on the secretory response to STa. T84 cell monolayers were studied under voltage-clamped conditions in modified Ussing chambers. Simultaneous addition of STa and carbachol resulted in a biphasic synergistic response characterized by a brief peak in short-circuit current (Isc) followed by a prolonged plateau phase lasting up to 90 min. A synergistic response was also seen with sequential addition of the agonists, and was altered by the order and timing of agonist addition. Pretreatment with STa enhanced the synergistic response to carbachol, while the reverse order of additions produced synergy only when STa was added during or immediately after the Isc response to carbachol. Synergy occurred only with a concentration of STa sufficient to produce an Isc response alone. However, a concentration of carbachol that caused neither an increase in Isc nor intracellular Ca2+ mobilization was sufficient to evoke a synergistic response. Addition of 8-bromoguanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate also produced a synergistic Isc response with carbachol, although maximal synergism was seen with simultaneous addition. Augmentation of the intracellular Ca2+ response to carbachol by STa is not the mechanism of synergy. Although the mechanism of synergy is not understood, these studies suggest that STa-induced cGMP interacts with other second messengers to produce the synergistic response, and that multiple intracellular mediators may influence the ability of STa to cause disease.
No preview · Article · Nov 1991 · The American journal of physiology