- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Uridine-diphospho-N-acetylglucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc) is a precursor of the bacterial and fungal cell wall. It is also used in a component of N-linked glycosylation and the glycosylphosphoinositol anchor of eukaryotic proteins. It is synthesized from N-acetylglucosamine-1-phosphate (GlcNAc-1-P) and uridine-5′-triphosphate (UTP) by UDP-GlcNAc pyrophosphorylase (UAP). This is an SN2 reaction; the non-esterified oxygen atom of the GlcNAc-1-P phosphate group attacks the α-phosphate group of UTP. We determined crystal structures of UAP from Candida albicans (CaUAP1) without any ligands and also complexed with its substrate or with its product. The series of structures in different forms shows the induced fit movements of CaUAP1. Three loops approaching the ligand molecule close the active site when ligand is bound. In addition, Lys-421, instead of the metal ion in prokaryotic UAPs, is coordinated by both phosphate groups of UDP-Glc-NAc and acts as a cofactor. However, a magnesium ion enhances the enzymatic activity of CaUAP1, and thus we propose that the magnesium ion increases the affinity between UTP and the enzyme by coordinating to the α- and γ-phosphate group of UTP.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: UDP-N-acetylglucosamine pyrophosphorylase (UAP) is an essential enzyme in the synthesis of UDP-N-acetylglucosamine. UAP from Candida albicans was purified and crystallized by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals of the substrate and product complexes both diffract X-rays to beyond 2.3 A resolution using synchrotron radiation. The crystals of the substrate complex belong to the triclinic space group P1, with unit-cell parameters a = 47.77, b = 62.89, c = 90.60 A, alpha = 90.01, beta = 97.72, gamma = 92.88 degrees, whereas those of the product complex belong to the orthorhombic space group P2(1)2(1)2(1), with unit-cell parameters a = 61.95, b = 90.87, c = 94.88 A.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: N-acetylglucosamine-phosphate mutase (AGM1) is an essential enzyme in the synthetic process of UDP-N-acetylglucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc). UDP-GlcNAc is a UDP sugar that serves as a biosynthetic precursor of glycoproteins, mucopolysaccharides, and the cell wall of bacteria. Thus, a specific inhibitor of AGM1 from pathogenetic fungi could be a new candidate for an antifungal reagent that inhibits cell wall synthesis. AGM1 catalyzes the conversion of N-acetylglucosamine 6-phosphate (GlcNAc-6-P) into N-acetylglucosamine 1-phosphate (GlcNAc-1-P). This enzyme is a member of the alpha-D-phosphohexomutase superfamily, which catalyzes the intramolecular phosphoryl transfer of sugar substrates. Here we report the crystal structures of AGM1 from Candida albicans for the first time, both in the apoform and in the complex forms with the substrate and the product, and discuss its catalytic mechanism. The structure of AGM1 consists of four domains, of which three domains have essentially the same fold. The overall structure is similar to those of phosphohexomutases; however, there are two additional beta-strands in domain 4, and a circular permutation occurs in domain 1. The catalytic cleft is formed by four loops from each domain. The N-acetyl group of the substrate is recognized by Val-370 and Asn-389 in domain 3, from which the substrate specificity arises. By comparing the substrate and product complexes, it is suggested that the substrate rotates about 180 degrees on the axis linking C-4 and the midpoint of the C-5-O-5 bond in the reaction.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: N-acetylglucosamine-phosphate mutase (AGM1) is an essential enzyme in the synthesis of UDP-N-acetylglucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc) in eukaryotes and belongs to the alpha-D-phosphohexomutase superfamily. AGM1 from Candida albicans (CaAGM1) was purified and crystallized by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals obtained belong to the primitive monoclinic space group P2(1), with unit-cell parameters a = 60.2, b = 130.2, c = 78.0 angstroms, beta = 106.7 degrees. The crystals diffract X-rays to beyond 1.8 angstroms resolution using synchrotron radiation.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A site-directed mutagenesis of the GFA1 gene encoding Candida albicans glucosamine-6-phosphate (GlcN-6-P) synthase afforded its GFA1S208A version. A product of the modified gene, lacking the putative phosphorylation site for protein kinase A (PKA), exhibited all the basic properties identical to those of the wild-type enzyme but was no longer a substrate for PKA. Comparison of the C. albicans Deltagfa1/GFA1 and Deltagfa1/GFA1S208A cells, grown under conditions stimulating yeast-to-mycelia transformation, revealed that the latter demonstrated lower GlcN-6-P synthase specific activity, decreased chitin content and formed much fewer mycelial forms. All these findings, as well as the observed effects of specific inhibitors of protein kinases, suggest that a loss of the possibility of GlcN-6-P synthase phosphorylation by PKA strongly reduces but not completely eliminates the germinative response of C. albicans cells.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Like bacteria and many fungi, the pathogenic fungus Candida albicans can utilize GlcNAc as a carbon source for growth. A cluster of six genes was identified in the C. albicans genome. One of the genes in the cluster was CaNAG1, which is responsible for GlcN6P deaminase and is therefore essential for GlcNAc-dependent growth. The other five genes were designated CaNAG2, CaNAG3, CaNAG4, CaNAG5 and CaNAG6. The mRNA levels of CaNAG1, CaNAG2 and CaNAG5 were significantly induced by GlcNAc, whereas those of CaNAG3, CaNAG4 and CaNAG6 were not. Neither CaNAG2 nor CaNAG5 was essential for growth, but disruption of CaNAG2 or CaNAG5 greatly retarded the growth of cells using GlcNAc as the sole carbon source. Although no homolog of CaNAG2 or CaNAG5 was found in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome, CaNag2p displayed sequence similarities to Escherichia coli nagA, and CaNag5p is homologous to a wide variety of hexose kinases. When expressed as a fusion protein with glutathione S-transferase (GST), CaNag5p produced GlcNAc-P from GlcNAc in the presence of ATP, whereas GST alone did not. Furthermore, the recombinant GST-CaNag2p fusion protein converted GlcNAcP, which was produced by CaNag5p, into GlcNP. These results clearly demonstrate that CaNAG2 and CaNAG5 encode GlcNAcP deacetylase and GlcNAc kinase, respectively. CaNag5p recognized glucose and mannose as substrates, whereas the recently identified human GlcNAc kinase was specific to GlcNAc. Deletion of CaNAG2 or CaNAG5 markedly, and that of CaNAG1 moderately, attenuated the virulence of C. albicans in a mouse systemic infection model. Thus, it appears that GlcNAc metabolism of C. albicans is closely associated with its virulence.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Conventional tools for elucidating gene function are relatively scarce in Candida albicans, the most prevalent human fungal pathogen. To this end, we developed a convenient system to control gene expression in C. albicans by the tetracycline-regulatable (TR) promoters. When the sea pansy Renilla reniformisluciferase gene (RLUC1) was placed under the control of this system, doxycycline (DOX) inhibited the luciferase activity almost completely. In the absence of DOX, the RLUC1 gene was induced to express luciferase at a level 400- to 1,000-fold higher than that in the presence of DOX. The same results were obtained in hypha-forming cells. The replacement ofN-myristoyltransferase or translation elongation factor 3 promoters with TR promoters conferred a DOX-dependent growth defect in culture media. Furthermore, all the mice infected with these mutants, which are still virulent, survived following DOX administration. Consistently, we observed that the number of these mutant cells recovered from the mouse kidneys was significantly reduced following DOX administration. Thus, this system is useful for investigating gene functions, since this system is able to function in both in vitro and in vivo settings.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The yeast GNA1 gene encodes glucosamine-6-phosphate acetyltransferase which catalyses the reaction of glucosamine 6-phosphate with acetyl-CoA to form N-acetylglucosamine 6-phosphate, a fundamental precursor in UDP-N-acetylglucosamine biosynthesis. Candida albicans mutants lacking GNA1 were viable in the presence of N-acetylglucosamine. To confirm the physiological importance of C. albicans GNA1, the virulence of a C. albicans gna1Delta null mutant was examined in a mouse model of candidiasis. When injected intravenously into mice, the virulence of the C. albicans gna1Delta null mutant was significantly attenuated. The reduced virulence appeared to be the result of rapid clearance from host tissue. These data suggest that C. albicans GNA1 is required for survival of the fungus in host animals, probably because an insufficient level of N-acetylglucosamine is available from the host tissues.
Article: Functional cloning and mutational analysis of the human cDNA for phosphoacetylglucosamine mutase: identification of the amino acid residues essential for the catalysis 1 1 The GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ accession numbers for the nucleotide sequences of HsAGM1, and CaAGM1 are AB032081 and AB032082, respectively[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, phosphoacetylglucosamine mutase is encoded by an essential gene called AGM1. The human AGM1 cDNA (HsAGM1) and the Candida albicans AGM1 gene (CaAGM1) were functionally cloned and characterized by using an S. cerevisiae strain in which the endogenous phosphoacetylglucosamine mutase was depleted. When expressed in Escherichia coli as fusion proteins with glutathione S-transferase, both HsAgm1 and CaAgm1 proteins displayed phosphoacetylglucosamine mutase activities, demonstrating that they indeed specify phosphoacetylglucosamine mutase. Sequence comparison of HsAgm1p with several hexose-phosphate mutases yielded three domains that are highly conserved among phosphoacetylglucosamine mutases and phosphoglucomutases of divergent organisms. Mutations of the conserved amino acids found in these domains, which were designated region I, II, and III, respectively, demonstrated that alanine substitutions for Ser64 and His65 in region I, and for Asp276, Asp278, and Arg281 in region II of HsAgm1p severely diminished the enzyme activity and the ability to rescue the S. cerevisiae agm1Δ null mutant. Conservative mutations of His65 and Asp276 restored detectable activities, whereas those of Ser64, Asp278, and Arg281 did not. These results indicate that Ser64, Asp278, and Arg281 of HsAgm1p are residues essential for the catalysis. Because Ser64 corresponds to the phosphorylating serine in the E. coli phosphoglucosamine mutase, it is likely that the activation of HsAgm1p also requires phosphorylation on Ser64. Furthermore, alanine substitution for Arg496 in region III significantly increased the Km value for N-acetylglucosamine-6-phosphate, demonstrating that Arg496 serves as a binding site for N-acetylglucosamine-6-phosphate.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The pathogenic fungus Candida albicans harbors three histidine kinase genes called CaSLN1, CaNIK1, and CaHK1. The disruption of any one of these three genes impaired the hyphal formation and attenuated the virulence of C. albicans in a mouse systemic candidiasis model. The effects of the disruption on hyphal formation and virulence were most severe in the cahk1Delta null mutants. Although the double disruption of CaSLN1 and CaNIK1 was impossible, further deletion of CaSLN1 or CaNIK1 in the cahk1Delta null mutants partially restored the serum-induced hypha-forming ability and virulence. When incubated with radiolabelled ATP, the recombinant CaSln1 and CaNik1 proteins, which contained their own kinase and response regulator domains, were autophosphorylated, whereas CaHk1p was not. These results imply that in C. albicans, CaSLN1 and CaNIK1 function upstream of CaHK1 but are in distinct signal transmission pathways.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The 5'-cap structure of eukaryotic mRNA is methylated at the terminal guanosine by RNA (guanine-N7-)-methyltransferase (cap MTase). Saccharomyces cerevisiae ABD1 (ScABD1) and human hMet (also called CMT1) genes are responsible for this enzyme. The ABD1 homologue was cloned from the pathogenic fungus Candida albicans and named C. albicans ABD1 (CaABD1). When expressed as a fusion with glutathione S-transferase (GST), CaAbd1p displayed cap MTase activity in vitro and rescued S. cerevisiae abd1delta null mutants, indicating that CaABD1 specifies an active cap MTase. Although the human cap MTase binds to the human capping enzyme (Hce1p), which possesses both mRNA guanylyltransferase (mRNA GTase) and mRNA 5'-triphosphatase (mRNA TPase) activities, yeast two-hybrid analysis demonstrated that in yeast neither mRNA GTase nor mRNA TPase physically interacted with the Abd1 protein. Comparison of the amino acid sequences of known and putative cap MTases revealed a highly conserved amino acid sequence motif, Phe/Val-Leu-Asp/Glu-Leu/Met-Xaa-Cys-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Asp-Leu-Xaa-Lys, which encompasses the sequence motif characteristic of divergent methyltransferases. Mutations in CaAbd1p of leucine at the second and the twelfth positions (so far uncharacterized) to alanine severely diminished the enzyme activity and the functionality in vivo, whereas those of leucine at the fourth, cysteine at the sixth, lysine at the eighth, and glycine at the tenth positions did not. Furthermore, valine substitution for the twelfth, but not for the second, leucine in that motif abolished the activity and functionality of CaAbd1p. Thus, it appears that leucine at the second and the twelfth positions in the motif, together with a previously identified acidic residue in the third, glycine at the sixth and glutamic acid at the eleventh positions, play important roles in the catalysis, and that side chain length is crucial for the activity at the twelfth position in the motif.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene,YFL017C, for a putative acetyltransferase was characterized. Disruption of YFL017C was lethal, leading to a morphology similar to those caused by the depletion ofAGM1 or UAP1, the genes encoding phospho-N-acetylglucosamine mutase and UDP-N-acetylglucosamine pyrophosphorylase, respectively. This implies the involvement of YFL017C in UDP-N-acetylglucosamine synthesis. The recombinant protein for YFL017C displayed phosphoglucosamine acetyltransferase activities in vitro and utilized glucosamine 6-phosphate as the substrate. When incubated with Agm1p and Uap1p, the Yfl017c protein produced UDP-N-acetylglucosamine from glucosamine 6-phosphate. These results indicate that YFL017C specifies glucosamine-6-phosphate acetyltransferase; therefore, the gene was designated GNA1(glucosamine-6-phosphateacetyltransferase). In addition, whereas bacterial phosphoglucosamine acetyltransferase and UDP-N-acetylglucosamine pyrophosphorylase activities are intrinsic in a single polypeptide, they are encoded by distinct essential genes in yeast. When the sequence of ScGna1p was compared with those of other acetyltransferases, Ile97, Glu98, Val102, Gly112, Leu115, Ile116, Phe142, Tyr143, and Gly147 were found to be highly conserved. When alanine was substituted for these amino acids, the enzyme activity for the substituted Phe142 or Tyr143 enzymes was severely diminished. Although the activity of Y143A was too low to perform kinetics, F142A displayed a significantly increased K m value for acetyl-CoA, suggesting that the Phe142 and Tyr143 residues are essential for the catalysis.
Article: Isolation and characterization of the Candida albicans gene for mRNA 5′-triphosphatase: association of mRNA 5′-triphosphatase and mRNA 5′-guanylyltransferase activities is essential for the function of mRNA 5′-capping enzyme in vivo1The GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ accession number for the nucleotide sequence of CaCET1 is AB016242.1[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The amino acid sequence of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae mRNA 5'-triphosphatase (TPase) diverges from those of higher eukaryotes. In order to confirm the sequence divergence of TPases in lower and higher eukaryotes, the Candida albicans gene for TPase was identified and characterized. This gene designated CaCET1 (C. albicans mRNA 5'-capping enzyme triphosphatase 1) has an open reading frame of 1.5 kb, which can encode a 59-kDa protein. Although the N-terminal one-fifth of S. cerevisiae TPase (ScCet1p) is missing in CaCet1p, CaCet1p shares significant sequence similarity with ScCet1p over the entire region of the protein; the recombinant CaCet1p, which was expressed as a fusion protein with glutathione S-transferase (GST), displayed TPase activity in vitro. CaCET1 rescued CET1-deficient S. cerevisiae cells when expressed under the control of the ADH1 promoter, whereas the human capping enzyme derivatives that are active for TPase activity but defective in mRNA 5'-guanylyltransferase (GTase) activity did not. Yeast two-hybrid analysis revealed that C. albicans Cet1p can bind to the S. cerevisiae GTase in addition to its own partner, the C. albicans GTase. In contrast, neither the full-length human capping enzyme nor its TPase domain interacted with the yeast GTase. These results indicate that the failure of the human TPase activity to complement an S. cerevisiae cet1delta null mutation is attributable, at least in part, to the inability of the human capping enzyme to associate with the yeast GTase, and that the physical association of GTase and TPase is essential for the function of the capping enzyme in vivo.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A search of the yeast data base for a protein homologous to Escherichia coliUDP-N-acetylglucosamine pyrophosphorylase yieldedUAP1 (UDP-N-acetylglucosaminepyrophosphorylase), the Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene for UDP-N-acetylglucosamine pyrophosphorylase. The Candida albicans and human homologs were also cloned by screening a C. albicans genomic library and a human testis cDNA library, respectively. Sequence analysis revealed that the human UAP1 cDNA was identical to previously reported AGX1. A null mutation of the S. cerevisiae UAP1 (ScUAP1) gene was lethal, and when expressed under the control of ScUAP1 promoter, bothC. albicans and Homo sapiens UAP1(CaUAP1 and HsUAP1) rescued theScUAP1-deficient S. cerevisiae cells. All the recombinant ScUap1p, CaUap1p, and HsUap1p possessed UDP-N-acetylglucosamine pyrophosphorylase activitiesin vitro. The yeast Uap1p utilizedN-acetylglucosamine-1-phosphate as the substrate, and together with Agm1p, it produced UDP-N-acetylglucosamine from N-acetylglucosamine-6-phosphate. These results demonstrate that the UAP1 genes indeed specify eukaryotic UDP-GlcNAc pyrophosphorylase and that phosphomutase reaction precedes uridyltransfer. Sequence comparison with other UDP-sugar pyrophosphorylases revealed that amino acid residues, Gly112, Gly114, Thr115, Arg116, Pro122, and Lys123 of ScUap1p are highly conserved in UDP-sugar pyrophosphorylases reported to date. Among these amino acids, alanine substitution for Gly112, Arg116, or Lys123 severely diminished the activity, suggesting that Gly112, Arg116, or Lys123 are possible catalytic residues of the enzyme.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent studies have revealed that fungi possess a mechanism similar to bacterial two-component systems to respond to extracellular changes in osmolarity. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Sln1p contains both histidine kinase and receiver (response regulator) domains and acts as an osmosensor protein that regulates the downstream HOG1 MAP kinase cascade. SLN1 of Candida albicans was functionally cloned using an S. cerevisiae strain in which SLN1 expression was conditionally suppressed. Deletion analysis of the cloned gene demonstrated that the receiver domain of C. albicans Sln1p was not necessary to rescue SLN1-deficient S. cerevisiae strains. Unlike S. cerevisiae, a null mutation of C. albicans SLN1 was viable under regular and high osmotic conditions, but it caused a slight growth retardation at high osmolarity. Southern blotting with C. albicans SLN1 revealed the presence of related genes, one of which is highly homologous to the NIK1 gene of Neurospora crassa. Thus, C. albicans harbours both SLN1- and NIK1-type histidine kinases.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Saccharomyces cerevisiae GSC1 (also called FKS1) and GSC2 (also called FKS2) have been identified as the genes for putative catalytic subunits of beta-1,3-glucan synthase. We have cloned three Candida albicans genes, GSC1, GSL1, and GSL2, that have significant sequence homologies with S. cerevisiae GSC1/FKS1, GSC2/FKS2, and the recently identified FKSA of Aspergillus nidulans at both nucleotide and amino acid levels. Like S. cerevisiae Gsc/Fks proteins, none of the predicted products of C. albicans GSC1, GSL1, or GSL2 displayed obvious signal sequences at their N-terminal ends, but each product possessed 10 to 16 potential transmembrane helices with a relatively long cytoplasmic domain in the middle of the protein. Northern blotting demonstrated that C. albicans GSC1 and GSL1 but not GSL2 mRNAs were expressed in the growing yeast-phase cells. Three copies of GSC1 were found in the diploid genome of C. albicans CAI4. Although we could not establish the null mutation of C. albicans GSC1, disruption of two of the three GSC1 alleles decreased both GSC1 mRNA and cell wall beta-glucan levels by about 50%. The purified C. albicans beta-1,3-glucan synthase was a 210-kDa protein as judged by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and all sequences determined with peptides obtained by lysyl endopeptidase digestion of the 210-kDa protein were found in the deduced amino acid sequence of C. albicans Gsc1p. Furthermore, the monoclonal antibody raised against the purified beta-1,3-glucan synthase specifically reacted with the 210-kDa protein and could immunoprecipitate beta-1,3-glucan synthase activity. These results demonstrate that C. albicans GSC1 is the gene for a subunit of beta-1,3-glucan synthase.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cell wall beta-glucan in a pathogenic fungus, Candida albicans, is highly branched with beta-1,3 and beta-1,6 linkages. We have isolated the C. albicans cDNAs for KRE6 and SKN1, the genes required for beta-1,6-glucan synthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The results of Northern blot analysis revealed that C. albicans KRE6 was expressed at a higher level than SKN1 in the yeast phase, while SKN1 expression was strongly induced upon induction of hyphal formation. In addition, the C. albicans KRE6 and SKN1 mRNAs but not the actin mRNA were shortened during the yeast-hypha transition. Unlike S. cerevisiae, more than 50% of cell wall glucan was beta-1,6 linked in C. albicans. Neither beta-1,3-glucan nor beta-1,6-glucan was affected by the homozygous C. albicans skn1 delta null mutation. Although we never succeeded in generating the homozygous C. albicans kre6 delta null mutant, the hemizygous kre6 delta mutation decreased the KRE6 mRNA level by about 60% and also caused a more than 80% reduction of beta-1,6-glucan without affecting beta-1,3-glucan. The physiological function of KRE6 was further examined by studying gene regulation in C. albicans. When KRE6 transcription was suppressed by using the HEX1 promoter, C. albicans cells exhibited the partial defect in cell separation and increased susceptibility to Calcofluor White. These results demonstrate that KRE6 plays important roles in beta-1,6-glucan synthesis and budding in C. albicans.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The CHS2 and CHS3 genes of Candida albicans were disrupted. The double disruptant was still viable. Assessment of chitin and of calcofluor white resistance shows that CHS1 is responsible for septum formation and CHS3 is responsible for overall chitin synthesis otherwise. There were only small differences in virulence to immunocompromised mice of homozygous chs2 delta amd chs3 delta null mutants.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A canCHS1A gene encoding the chitin synthase of Candida albicans was cloned. DNA sequencing and comparison with another canCHS1 gene described elsewhere indicated that the canCHS1A gene encoded a polypeptide with 775 amino acid residues, a protein with one less amino acid than that encoded by the canCHS1 gene. A six-base alteration was observed between the two genes, suggesting that the canCHS1A gene is a variant gene of the canCHS1. The pH profile/activity relationship of canChs1A in permeabilized cells was identical to that of canChs1. The canChs1A enzyme was competitively inhibited by polyoxin D (5.2 microM) and nikkomycin Z (12 microM). When the cloned gene was expressed in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae chs2 mutant that exhibited aberrant morphology, the normal structure was restored. We conclude that the function of the canCHS1A gene is similar to that of sacCHS2 in S. cerevisiae.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 1,3-beta-D-Glucan synthase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was solubilized and purified up to 700-fold by product entrapment. The specific activity of the partially purified enzyme was around 4 mumol glucose incorporated.min-1.mg protein-1. In SDS/PAGE, enrichment of a 200-kDa protein was clearly observed in parallel with the increase in specific activity. mAbs that could immunoprecipitate the 1,3-beta-D-glucan synthase activity were isolated, and some of them also recognized this 200-kDa protein in the Western blot. Internal amino acid sequences of this 200-kDa protein were determined after lysyl endopeptidase digestion. With the information of these amino acid sequences, we cloned two genes, GSC1 and GSC2 (glucan synthase of S. cerevisiae 1 and 2), which are very similar to each other (88% at the amino acid level); hydropathy profiles of both proteins suggest that these genes encode integral membrane proteins which can be assumed to have approximately 16 transmembrane domains. Disruption of each gene was not lethal, but disruption of both genes was lethal. The 1,3-beta-D-glucan synthase activities of membrane and partially purified enzyme of gsc1::URA3 cells were significantly lower than those of the wild-type and gsc2::LEU2 cells.