Steven A. Leibel

Stanford University, Palo Alto, California, United States

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Publications (301)1615.8 Total impact

  • No preview · Article · Sep 2007
  • J.L. Meyer · S. Leibel · M. Roach · S. Vijayakumar

    No preview · Article · Jul 2007 · Frontiers of radiation therapy and oncology
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    ABSTRACT: The major goal for prostate cancer imaging in the next decade is more accurate disease characterization through the synthesis of anatomic, functional, and molecular imaging information. No consensus exists regarding the use of imaging for evaluating primary prostate cancers. Ultrasonography is mainly used for biopsy guidance and brachytherapy seed placement. Endorectal magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is helpful for evaluating local tumor extent, and MR spectroscopic imaging can improve this evaluation while providing information about tumor aggressiveness. MR imaging with superparamagnetic nanoparticles has high sensitivity and specificity in depicting lymph node metastases, but guidelines have not yet been developed for its use, which remains restricted to the research setting. Computed tomography (CT) is reserved for the evaluation of advanced disease. The use of combined positron emission tomography/CT is limited in the assessment of primary disease but is gaining acceptance in prostate cancer treatment follow-up. Evidence-based guidelines for the use of imaging in assessing the risk of distant spread of prostate cancer are available. Radionuclide bone scanning and CT supplement clinical and biochemical evaluation (prostate-specific antigen [PSA], prostatic acid phosphate) for suspected metastasis to bones and lymph nodes. Guidelines for the use of bone scanning (in patients with PSA level > 10 ng/mL) and CT (in patients with PSA level > 20 ng/mL) have been published and are in clinical use. Nevertheless, changes in practice patterns have been slow. This review presents a multidisciplinary perspective on the optimal role of modern imaging in prostate cancer detection, staging, treatment planning, and follow-up.
    Preview · Article · Apr 2007 · Radiology
  • J L Meyer · S Leibel · M Roach · S Vijayakumar

    No preview · Article · Feb 2007 · Frontiers of radiation therapy and oncology
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to analyze prognostic factors for patients with newly diagnosed primary CNS lymphoma (PCNSL) in order to establish a predictive model that could be applied to the care of patients and the design of prospective clinical trials. Three hundred thirty-eight consecutive patients with newly diagnosed PCNSL seen at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC; New York, NY) between 1983 and 2003 were analyzed. Standard univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. In addition, a formal cut point analysis was used to determine the most statistically significant cut point for age. Recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) was used to create independent prognostic classes. An external validation set obtained from three prospective Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) PCNSL clinical trials was used to test the RPA classification. Age and performance status were the only variables identified on standard multivariate analysis. Cut point analysis of age determined that patients age < or = 50 years had significantly improved outcome compared with older patients. RPA of 282 patients identified three distinct prognostic classes: class 1 (patients < 50 years), class 2 (patients > or =50; Karnofsky performance score [KPS] > or = 70) and class 3 (patients > or = 50; KPS < 70). These three classes significantly distinguished outcome with regard to both overall and failure-free survival. Analysis of the RTOG data set confirmed the validity of this classification. CONCLUSION The MSKCC prognostic score is a simple, statistically powerful model with universal applicability to patients with newly diagnosed PCNSL. We recommend that it be adopted for the management of newly diagnosed patients and incorporated into the design of prospective clinical trials.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2006 · Journal of Clinical Oncology
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    ABSTRACT: To report preliminary clinical and dosimetric data from intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for malignant gliomas. Fifty-eight consecutive high-grade gliomas were treated between January 2001 and December 2003 with dynamic multileaf collimator IMRT, planned with the inverse approach. A dose of 59.4-60 Gy at 1.8-2.0 Gy per fraction was delivered. A total of three to five noncoplanar beams were used to cover at least 95% of the target volume with the prescription isodose line. Glioblastoma accounted for 70% of the cases, and anaplastic oligodendroglioma histology (pure or mixed) was seen in 15% of the cases. Surgery consisted of biopsy only in 26% of the patients, and 80% received adjuvant chemotherapy. With a median follow-up of 24 months, 85% of the patients have relapsed. The median progression-free survival time for anaplastic astrocytoma and glioblastoma histology was 5.6 and 2.5 months, respectively. The overall survival time for anaplastic glioma and glioblastoma was 36 and 9 months, respectively. Ninety-six percent of the recurrences were local. No Grade IV/V late neurologic toxicities were noted. A comparative dosimetric analysis revealed that regardless of tumor location, IMRT did not significantly improve target coverage compared with three-dimensional planning. However, IMRT resulted in a decreased maximum dose to the spinal cord, optic nerves, and eye by 16%, 7%, and 15%, respectively, owing to its improved dose conformality. The mean brainstem dose also decreased by 7%. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy delivered with a limited number of beams did not result in an increased dose to the normal brain. It is unlikely that IMRT will improve local control in high-grade gliomas without further dose escalation compared with conventional radiotherapy. However, it might result in decreased late toxicities associated with radiotherapy.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2006 · International Journal of Radiation OncologyBiologyPhysics
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    ABSTRACT: To determine dosimetric factors for lung, lung subregions, and heart that correlate with radiation pneumonitis (Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Grade 3 or more) in the 78 evaluable patients from a Phase I dose escalation study (1991-2003) of three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) of non-small-cell lung cancer. There were 10 > or = Grade 3 pneumonitis cases within 6 months after treatment. Dose-volume factors analyzed for univariate correlation with > or = Grade 3 pneumonitis were mean dose (MD), effective uniform dose (d(eff)), normal tissue complication probability (NTCP), parallel model f(dam) and V(D) for 5 < or = D < or = 60 Gy for whole, ipsilateral, contralateral, upper and lower halves of the lungs and heart D05, and mean and maximum doses. The most significant variables (0.005 < p < 0.006) were ipsilateral lung V(D) for D < 20 Gy. Also significant (p < 0.05) for ipsilateral lung were V(D) for D < 50 Gy, MD, f(dam) and d(eff); for total lung V(D) (D < 50 Gy), MD, f(dam), d(eff) and NTCP; for lower lung V(D) (D < 60 Gy), MD, f(dam) and d(eff). All variables for upper and contralateral lung were insignificant, as were heart variables. Previously reported correlations between severe pneumonitis and whole lung V13 and with other dose-volume factors of total lung and lower lung are confirmed. The most significant correlations were for (V05-V13) in ipsilateral lung.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2005 · International Journal of Radiation OncologyBiologyPhysics
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the correlations between observed clinical morbidity and dosimetric parameters for whole pelvic radiotherapy (WPRT) for prostate cancer using either three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) or intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Between December 1996 and January 2002, 27 patients with prostate adenocarcinoma were treated with conformal WPRT as part of their definitive treatment. WPRT was delivered with 3D-CRT in 14 patients and with IMRT in 13 patients. For each of the patients treated with IMRT, optimized conventional two-dimensional (2D) and 3D-CRT plans were retrospectively generated for the whole pelvic phase of the treatment. Dose-volume histograms for the bowel, bladder, and rectum were compared for the three techniques. Acute toxicities were evaluated for all 27 patients, and late toxicities were evaluated for 25 patients with sufficient follow-up. Toxicities were scored according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group morbidity grading scales. Median follow-up was 30 months. Three-dimensional-CRT resulted in a 40% relative reduction (p < 0.001) in the volume of bowel receiving 45 Gy compared with 2D, and IMRT provided a further 60% reduction relative to 3D-CRT (p < 0.001). Compared with either 2D or 3D-CRT, IMRT reduced the volume of rectum receiving 45 Gy by 90% (p < 0.001). Overall, 9 patients (33%) experienced acute Grade 2 gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity, and only 1 of these patients was treated with IMRT. Antidiarrhea medication was required for 6 patients (22%). However, 5 of these 6 patients also received chemotherapy, and none were treated with IMRT. No Grade 3 or higher acute or late GI toxicities were observed. No cases of late radiation enteritis were observed. Acute and late genitourinary toxicity did not appear significantly increased by the addition of conformal WPRT. Compared to conventional 2D planning, conformal planning for WPRT resulted in significant reductions in the doses delivered to the bowel, rectum, and bladder. IMRT was superior to 3D-CRT in limiting the volume of bowel and rectum within high-dose regions. These dosimetric findings correlated with low rates of acute and late GI morbidity.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2005 · International Journal of Radiation OncologyBiologyPhysics
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    ABSTRACT: Treatment with the protein kinase C activator 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 12-acetate (TPA) enables radiation-resistant LNCaP human prostate cancer cells to undergo radiation-induced apoptosis, mediated via activation of the enzyme ceramide synthase (CS) and de novo synthesis of the sphingolipid ceramide (Garzotto, M., Haimovitz-Friedman, A., Liao, W. C., White-Jones, M., Huryk, R., Heston, D. W. W., Cardon-Cardo, C., Kolesnick, R., and Fuks, Z. (1999) Cancer Res. 59, 5194-5201). Here, we show that TPA functions to decrease the cellular level of the ATM (ataxia telangiectasia mutated) protein, known to repress CS activation (Liao, W.-C., Haimovitz-Friedman, A., Persaud, R., McLoughlin, M., Ehleiter, D., Zhang, N., Gatei, M., Lavin, M., Kolesnick, R., and Fuks, Z. (1999) J. Biol. Chem. 274, 17908-17917). Gel shift analysis in LNCaP and CWR22-Rv1 cells demonstrated a significant reduction in DNA binding of the Sp1 transcription factor to the ATM promoter, and quantitative reverse transcription-PCR showed a 50% reduction of ATM mRNA between 8 and 16 h of TPA treatment, indicating that TPA inhibits ATM transcription. Furthermore, treatment of LNCaP, CWR22-Rv1, PC-3, and DU-145 human prostate cells with antisense-ATM oligonucleotides, which markedly reduced cellular ATM levels, significantly enhanced radiation-induced CS activation and apoptosis, leading to apoptosis at doses as a low as 1 gray. These data suggest that the CS pathway initiates a generic mode of radiation-induced apoptosis in human prostate cancer cells, regulated by a suppressive function of ATM, and that ATM might represent a potential target for pharmacologic inactivation with potential clinical applications in human prostate cancer.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2005 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
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    ABSTRACT: The use of image-guided and stereotactic intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) techniques have made the delivery of high-dose radiation to lesions within close proximity to the spinal cord feasible. This report presents clinical and physical data regarding the use of IMRT coupled with noninvasive body frames (stereotactic and image-guided) for multifractionated radiotherapy. The Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (Memorial) stereotactic body frame (MSBF) and Memorial body cradle (MBC) have been developed as noninvasive immobilizing devices for paraspinal IMRT using stereotactic (MSBF) and image-guided (MBC) techniques. Patients were either previously irradiated or prescribed doses beyond spinal cord tolerance (54 Gy in standard fractionation) and had unresectable gross disease involving the spinal canal. The planning target volume (PTV) was the gross tumor volume with a 1 cm margin. The PTV was not allowed to include the spinal cord contour. All treatment planning was performed using software developed within the institution. Isocenter verification was performed with an in-room computed tomography scan (MSBF) or electronic portal imaging devices, or both. Patients were followed up with serial magnetic resonance imaging every 3-4 months, and no patients were lost to follow-up. Kaplan-Meier statistics were used for analysis of clinical data. Both the MSBF and MBC were able to provide setup accuracy within 2 mm. With a median follow-up of 11 months, 35 patients (14 primary and 21 secondary malignancies) underwent treatment. The median dose previously received was 3000 cGy in 10 fractions. The median dose prescribed for these patients was 2000 cGy/5 fractions (2000-3000 cGy), which provided a median PTV V100 of 88%. In previously unirradiated patients, the median prescribed dose was 7000 cGy (5940-7000 cGy) with a median PTV V100 of 90%. The median Dmax to the cord was 34% and 68% for previously irradiated and never irradiated patients, respectively. More than 90% of patients experienced palliation from pain, weakness, or paresthesia; 75% and 81% of secondary and primary lesions, respectively, exhibited local control at the time of last follow-up. No cases of radiation-induced myelopathy or radiculopathy have thus far been encountered. Precision stereotactic and image-guided paraspinal IMRT allows the delivery of high doses of radiation in multiple fractions to tumors within close proximity to the spinal cord while respecting cord tolerance. Although preliminary, the clinical results are encouraging.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2005 · International Journal of Radiation OncologyBiologyPhysics
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    ABSTRACT: To compare tumor volume delineation using registered positron emission tomography (PET)/CT vs. side-by-side image sets. A total of 19 patients with non-small-cell lung cancer had 18-fluorine-deoxyglucose (FDG)-PET scans registered with planning CT scans. The disease was Stage I-II in 26%, IIIA in 42%, and IIIB in 32%. Two radiation oncologists contoured 9 tumor volumes using registered images (registered) and 10 using separate FDG-PET images as a guide (nonregistered). A third physician, who had done the treatment planning for these patients a median of 40 months before using registered images, repeated all contours: 10 on registered images (registered/registered) and 9 without registration (registered/nonregistered). Each pair of volumes (A and B) was compared. Quantitative comparison used the concordance index, (A intersection B)/(A union or logical sum B). For qualitative analysis, pairs of volumes were projected onto digitally reconstructed radiographs. The differences were graded as insignificant, minor, moderate, or major. The median interobserver percentage of concordance among nonregistered pairs was 61% vs. 70% in the registered group (p <0.05). On qualitative analysis, in the nonregistered group, the differences were insignificant in 5, minor in 3, and moderate in 2 of 10. The differences in the registered group were insignificant in 7 and minor in 2 of 9. The median intraobserver percentage of concordance in the registered/nonregistered group was 58% vs. 71% in the registered/registered group (p = 0.10). On qualitative analysis, the intraobserver differences in the registered/nonregistered group were insignificant in 2, minor in 2, moderate in 0, and major in 5 of 9. In the registered/registered group, the differences were insignificant in 2, minor in 6, moderate in 2, and major in 0 of 10. Registration of FDG-PET and planning CT images results in greater consistency in tumor volume delineation.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2005 · International Journal of Radiation OncologyBiologyPhysics
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to report the results of a Phase I dose-escalation study using three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) for the treatment of patients with nonsmall cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). Between 1991 and 2003, 104 patients were enrolled for 3D-CRT at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center. The median patient age was 69 years. Twenty-eight percent of patients had Stage I-II NSCLC, 33% of patients had Stage IIIA NSCLC, 32% of patients had Stage IIIB NSCLC, and 6% of patients had recurrent NSCLC. Induction chemotherapy was received by 16% of patients. Radiation was delivered in daily fractions of 1.8 grays (Gy) for doses < or = 81.0 Gy and in daily fractions of 2.0 Gy for higher doses. Accrual at a dose level was complete when 10 patients received the intended dose without unacceptable acute morbidity. After an incident of fatal acute radiation pneumonitis at the starting dose of 70.2 Gy, the protocol was modified to limit normal tissue complication probabilities (NTCP) to < 25%. The dose was then escalated from 70.2 Gy, to 75.6 Gy, 81.0 Gy, and 84.0 Gy, with at least 10 patients treated at each dose level. Unacceptable pulmonary toxicity occurred at 90.0 Gy. Subsequently, another 10 patients were accrued at the 84.0 Gy level with acceptable toxicity. Thus, 84.0 Gy was the maximum tolerated dose (MTD). The crude late pulmonary toxicity rate was 7%, the 2-year local control rate was 52%, the disease-free survival rate was 33%, and the overall survival rate was 40%. The median survival was 21.1 months. Overall survival was improved significantly in patients who received > or = 80.0 Gy. The MTD of 3D-CRT for NSCLC with an NTCP constraint of 25% was 84.0 Gy in the current study. There was a suggestion of improved survival in patients who received 80.0 Gy.
    Full-text · Article · May 2005 · Cancer
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    ABSTRACT: To identify predictors of distant metastases (DM) among patients who develop an isolated prostate-specific antigen (PSA) relapse after definitive external-beam radiotherapy for clinically localized prostate cancer. A total of 1,650 patients with clinical stage T1 to T3 prostate cancer were treated with high-dose three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy. Of these, 381 patients subsequently developed three consecutive increasing PSA values and were characterized as having a biochemical relapse. The median follow-up time was 92 months from the completion of radiotherapy. The 5-year incidence of DM after an established PSA relapse was 29%. In a multivariate analysis, PSA doubling time (PSA-DT; P < .001), the clinical T stage (P < .001), and Gleason score (P = .007) were independent variables predicting for DM after established biochemical failure. The PSA-DT for favorable-, intermediate-, and unfavorable-risk patients who developed a biochemical failure was 20.0, 13.2, and 8.2 months, respectively (P < .001). The 3-year incidence of DM for patients with PSA-DT of 0 to 3, 3 to 6, 6 to 12, and more than 12 months was 49%, 41%, 20%, and 7%, respectively (P < .001). Patients with PSA-DT of 0 to 3 and 3 to 6 months demonstrated a 7.0 and 6.6 increased hazard of developing DM or death, respectively, compared with patients with a DT more than 12 months. In addition to clinical stage and Gleason score, PSA-DT was a powerful predictor of DM among patients who develop an isolated PSA relapse after external-beam radiotherapy for prostate cancer. Patients who develop biochemical relapse with PSA-DT < or = 6 months should be considered for systemic therapy or experimental protocols because of the high propensity for rapid DM development.
    Preview · Article · Mar 2005 · Journal of Clinical Oncology
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    ABSTRACT: Tumor motion due to respiration during radiation therapy for non-small cell lung cancer is a significant problem. This article reports on two techniques used to control tumor motion: respiratory gating and the deep inspiration breath hold technique. This technique was implemented in 40 patients without significant difficulties and there are encouraging clinical outcomes.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2005 · Cancer Investigation
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    ABSTRACT: It has been suggested that larger tumor volume is associated with poor survival in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We investigated whether high-dose radiation improved local control in patients with large-volume Stage III NSCLC. Seventy-two patients with Stage III NSCLC and gross tumor volumes (GTV) of greater than 100 cc were treated with three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT). Patients were divided into two groups: those treated to less than 64 Gy (37 patients) and those treated to 64 Gy or higher (35 patients). The 1-year and 2-year local failure rates were 27% and 47%, respectively, for Stage III patients treated to 64 Gy or higher, and 61% and 76%, respectively, for those treated to less than 64 Gy (p = 0.024). The median survival time for patients treated to 64 Gy or higher was 20 months vs. 15 months for those treated to less than 64 Gy (p = 0.068). Multivariate analysis revealed that dose and GTV are predictors of local failure-free survival. A 10 Gy increase in dose resulted in a 36.4% decreased risk of local failure. Our data suggest that administration of higher doses using 3D-CRT improves local control in Stage III NSCLC patients with large GTVs.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2004 · International Journal of Radiation OncologyBiologyPhysics

  • No preview · Article · Oct 2004 · International Journal of Radiation OncologyBiologyPhysics
  • MJ Zelefsky · HM Chan · Z FUKS · V REUTER · SA Leibel

    No preview · Article · Sep 2004 · International Journal of Radiation OncologyBiologyPhysics
  • HM Chan · MJ Zelefsky · Z FUKS · M HUNT · C LING · SA Leibel

    No preview · Article · Sep 2004 · International Journal of Radiation OncologyBiologyPhysics

  • No preview · Article · Sep 2004 · International Journal of Radiation OncologyBiologyPhysics
  • Y. Yamada · M. Lovelock · M. Bilsky · M. Hunt · J. Zatcky · S. Leibel

    No preview · Article · Sep 2004 · International Journal of Radiation OncologyBiologyPhysics

Publication Stats

17k Citations
1,615.80 Total Impact Points


  • 2006
    • Stanford University
      Palo Alto, California, United States
  • 1989-2005
    • Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center
      • • Department of Medical Physics
      • • Department of Radiation Oncology
      • • Department of Pediatrics
      New York City, New York, United States
    • Wayne State University
      Detroit, Michigan, United States
  • 2003
    • Duke University Medical Center
      • Department of Radiation Oncology
      Durham, North Carolina, United States
  • 2000
    • University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center
      Houston, Texas, United States
    • Washington University in St. Louis
      San Luis, Missouri, United States
    • University of Colorado
      Denver, Colorado, United States
    • Massachusetts General Hospital
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 1999
    • Harvard University
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
    • St. Jude Children's Research Hospital
      • Division of Radiation Oncology
      Memphis, TN, United States
  • 1995
    • St. Luke's Hospital, Rathgar
      Dublin, Leinster, Ireland
  • 1975-1991
    • University of California, San Francisco
      • • Division of Hospital Medicine
      • • Department of Radiation Oncology
      • • Department of Neurological Surgery
      San Francisco, California, United States
  • 1981-1989
    • Johns Hopkins University
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
  • 1979-1980
    • Johns Hopkins Medicine
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States