Paul K Commean

Washington University in St. Louis, San Luis, Missouri, United States

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Publications (68)112.9 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Background: Diabetic forefoot joint deformities are a known risk factor for skin breakdown and amputation, but the causes of deformity are not well understood. The purposes of this study were to determine the effects of intrinsic foot muscle deterioration and limited ankle joint mobility on the severity of metatarsophalangeal joint (MTPJ) deformity, and determine the relationships between these potential contributing factors and indicators of diabetic complications (peripheral neuropathy and advanced glycation end products). Methods: A total of 34 participants with diabetic neuropathy (average age, 59 years; range 41-73) were studied. MTPJ angle and intrinsic foot muscle deterioration were measured with computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, respectively. Maximum ankle dorsiflexion was measured using kinematics. Skin intrinsic fluorescence served as a proxy measure for advanced glycation end product accumulation. Results: Total forefoot lean muscle volume (r = -0.52, P < .01) and maximum ankle dorsiflexion (r = -0.42, P < .05) were correlated with severity of MTPJ deformity. Together they explained 35% of the variance of MTPJ angle. Neuropathy was correlated with forefoot muscle deterioration (ρ = 0.53, P < .01). Skin intrinsic fluorescence was correlated to severity of neuropathy (r = 0.50, P < .01) but not maximum ankle dorsiflexion, or forefoot deterioration when controlling for neuropathy. Conclusion: These results suggest that the interplay of intrinsic foot muscle deterioration and limited ankle mobility may be the primary contributor to the development of MTPJ deformity. Identifying these muscle and ankle motion impairments as risk factors for MTPJ deformity supports the need for targeted interventions early in the disease process to slow, or possibly stop the progression of deformity over time and reduce the risk of amputation. Level of evidence: Level IV, case series.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Diabetes mellitus related medial column foot deformity is a major contributor to ulceration and amputation. However, little is known about the relationship between medial column alignment and function and the integrity of the soft tissues that support and move the medial column. The purposes of this study were to determine the predictors of medial column alignment and function in people with diabetes and peripheral neuropathy. Methods: 23 participants with diabetes and neuropathy had radiographs, heel rise kinematics, magnetic resonance imaging and isokinetic muscle testing to measure: 1) medial column alignment (Meary's angle - the angle between the 1st metatarsal longitudinal axis and the talar head and neck), 2) medial column function (forefoot relative to hindfoot plantarflexion during heel rise), 3) intrinsic foot muscle and fat volume, ratio of posterior tibialis to flexor digitorum tendon volume, 4) plantar fascia function (Meary's angle change from toes flat to extended) and 5) plantarflexor peak torque. Predictors of medial column alignment and function were determined using simultaneous entry multiple regression. Findings: Posterior tibialis to flexor digitorum tendon volume ratio and intrinsic foot muscle volume were significant predictors of medial column alignment (P<.05), accounting for 44% of the variance. Intrinsic foot fat volume and plantarflexor peak torque were significant predictors of medial column function (P<.05), accounting for 37% of the variance. Interpretation: Deterioration of medial column supporting structures predicted alignment and function. Prospective research is required to monitor alignment, structure, and function over time to inform early intervention strategies to prevent deformity, ulceration, and amputation.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · Clinical biomechanics (Bristol, Avon)
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    ABSTRACT: The National Cancer Institute (NCI), in conjunction with blinded university, provides a mechanism to enable public access to the study data, CT radiology images, and pathology images from the National Lung Screening Trial (NLST). Access to the data and images is through the NCI-sponsored, blinded university-hosted The Cancer Imaging Archive (TCIA), a repository of more than 40 study collections of cancer images. Once access to the NLST data has been granted by NCI, a Query Tool within TCIA is used to access the NLST data and images. The Query Tool is a simple-to-use menu-driven database application designed to quickly pose queries and retrieve/save results (from 53,452 NLST participants), download CT images (~20 million available), and view pathology images (~1200 available). NLST study data are contained in 17 Query Tool tables with ~370 variables to query. This paper describes Query Tool design, functionality, and usefulness for researchers, clinicians, and software developers to query data, save query results, and download/view images.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2015 · Journal of Digital Imaging
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    ABSTRACT: To determine leg intermuscular (IMAT) and subcutaneous (SQAT) adipose tissue and their relationships with muscle performance and function in obese adults with and without type 2 diabetes and peripheral neuropathy (T2DMPN). Seventy-nine age-matched obese adults were studied, 13 T2DM, 54 T2DMPN, and 24 obese controls. Leg fat (%IMAT, %SQAT) volumes were quantified using MRI. Ankle plantar flexion (PF) torque and power were assessed with isokinetic dynamometry. Physical function was assessed with 9-item Physical Performance Test (PPT), 6-minute walk distance, single-limb balance, and time to ascend 10 stairs. One-way ANOVAs determined group differences, and multiple regression predicted PPT score from disease status, % IMAT, and PF power. T2DMPN participants had 37% greater IMAT volumes and 15% lower SQAT volumes than controls (p =. 01). T2DMPN and T2DM showed reduced PF torque and power compared to controls. T2DMPN participants had lower PPT score, 6-minute walk, single-limb balance, and stair climbing than controls (all p<.05). %IMAT volume correlated inversely, and %SQAT correlated directly, with PPT. Leg %IMAT and disease status predicted 49% of PPT score. T2DMPN may represent a shift in adipose tissue accumulation from SQAT to IMAT depots, which is inversely associated with muscle performance and physical function. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2014 · Journal of Diabetes and its Complications
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    ABSTRACT: To develop comprehensive and reliable radiation-free methods to quantify femoral and acetabular morphology using MRI. 32 hips (16 subjects, 6 with intra-articular hip disorder (IAHD); 10 controls) were included. A 1.5T magnetic resonance system was used to obtain 3D fat suppressed gradient echo images at the pelvis and distal femora. After acquisition, pelvic images were post-processed to correct for coronal, axial and sagittal rotation. Measurements performed included acetabular version (AV), femoral version (FV), lateral center edge angle (LCEA), femoral neck angle (FNA) and alpha angle (AA) at 3, 2, 1 and 12 o'clock. Two experienced raters, a musculoskeletal radiologist and an orthopaedic physical therapist, and a novice rater, a research assistant, completed reliability testing. Raters measured all hips twice with minimum 2 weeks between sessions. Intraclass Correlation Coefficients were used to determine rater reliability; standard error of measurements was reported to estimate the reasonable limits of the expected error in the different raters' scores. Interrater reliability was good to excellent for all raters for AV, FV, FNA, and LCEA (ICCs: 0.82-0.98); good to excellent between experienced raters (ICCs: 0.78-0.86) and poor to good between novice and experienced raters (ICCs: 0.23-0.78) for AA. Intrarater reliability was good to excellent for all raters for AV, FV and FNA (ICCs: 0.93-0.99); for one experienced and novice rater for LCEA (ICCs: 0.84-0.89); moderate to excellent for the experienced raters for AA (ICCs: 0.72-0.89). Intrarater reliability was poor for the second experienced rater for LCEA (ICC: 0.56), due to a single measurement error and for the novice rater for AA (ICCs: 0.17-0.38). We described MRI methods to comprehensively assess femoral and acetabular morphology. Measurements such as AV, FV and FNA and the LCEA can be made reliably by both experienced and novice raters, however the AA measurement was reliable only among experienced raters.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2014
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    ABSTRACT: Clubfoot treatment commonly fails and often results in impaired quality of life. An understanding of the soft-tissue abnormalities associated with both treatment-responsive and treatment-resistant clubfoot is important to improving the diagnosis of clubfoot, the prognosis for patients, and treatment.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2014 · The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: To describe a semi-automated program that will segment subcutaneous fat, muscle, and adipose tissue in the foot using MR imaging, determine the reliability of the program between and within raters, and determine the validity of the program using MR phantoms. Materials and methods: MR images were acquired from 19 subjects with and without diabetes and peripheral neuropathy. Two raters segmented and measured volumes from single MR slices at the forefoot, midfoot, and hindfoot at two different times. Intra- and inter-rater correlation coefficients were determined. Muscle and fat MR phantoms of known volumes were measured by the program. Results: Most ICC reliability values were over 0.950. Validity estimates comparing MR estimates and known volumes resulted in r(2) values above 0.970 for all phantoms. The root mean square error was less than 5% for all phantoms. Conclusion: Subcutaneous fat, lean muscle, and adipose tissue volumes in the foot can be quantified in a reliable and valid way. This program can be applied in future studies investigating the relationship of these foot structures to functions in important pathologies, including the neuropathic foot or other musculoskeletal problems.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2013 · Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging
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    ABSTRACT: Metatarsophalangeal joint deformity is associated with skin breakdown and amputation. The aims of this study were to compare intrinsic foot muscle deterioration ratios (ratio of adipose to muscle volume), and physical performance in subjects with diabetic neuropathy to controls, and determine their associations with 1) metatarsophalangeal joint angle and 2) history of foot ulcer. 23 diabetic, neuropathic subjects [59 (SD 10) years] and 12 age-matched controls [57 (SD 14) years] were studied. Radiographs and MRI were used to measure metatarsophalangeal joint angle and intrinsic foot muscle deterioration through tissue segmentation by image signal intensity. The Foot and Ankle Ability Measure evaluated physical performance. The diabetic, neuropathic group had a higher muscle deterioration ratio [1.6 (SD 1.2) vs. 0.3 (SD 0.2), P<0.001], and lower Foot and Ankle Ability Measure scores [65.1 (SD 24.4) vs. 98.3 (SD 3.3) %, P<0.01]. The correlation between muscle deterioration ratio and metatarsophalangeal joint angle was r=-0.51 (P=0.01) for all diabetic, neuropathic subjects, but increased to r=-0.81 (P<0.01) when only subjects with muscle deterioration ratios >1.0 were included. Muscle deterioration ratios in individuals with diabetic neuropathy were higher for those with a history of ulcers. Individuals with diabetic neuropathy had increased intrinsic foot muscle deterioration, which was associated with second metatarsophalangeal joint angle and history of ulceration. Additional research is required to understand how foot muscle deterioration interacts with other impairments leading to forefoot deformity and skin breakdown.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2013 · Clinical biomechanics (Bristol, Avon)
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    ABSTRACT: Reusable, publicly available data is a pillar of open science. The Cancer Imaging Archive (TCIA) is an open image archive service supporting cancer research. TCIA collects, de-identifies, curates and manages rich collections of oncology image data. Image data sets have been contributed by 28 institutions and additional image collections are underway. Since June of 2011, more than 2,000 users have registered to search and access data from this freely available resource. TCIA encourages and supports cancer-related open science communities by hosting and managing the image archive, providing project wiki space and searchable metadata repositories. The success of TCIA is measured by the number of active research projects it enables (>40) and the number of scientific publications and presentations that are produced using data from TCIA collections (39).
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2013 · Conference proceedings: ... Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. Conference
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    Full-text · Dataset · Jul 2013
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    ABSTRACT: To examine the effect of long-term lower extremity functional electrical stimulation (FES) cycling on the physical integrity and functional recovery in people with chronic spinal cord injury (SCI). Retrospective cohort, mean follow-up 29.1 months, and cross-sectional evaluation. Washington University Spinal Cord Injury Neurorehabilitation Center, referral center. Twenty-five people with chronic SCI who received FES during cycling were matched by age, gender, injury level, and severity, and duration of injury to 20 people with SCI who received range of motion and stretching. Lower extremity FES during cycling as part of an activity-based restorative treatment regimen. Change in neurological function: motor, sensory, and combined motor-sensory scores (CMSS) assessed by the American Spinal Injury Association Impairment scale. Response was defined as ≥1 point improvement. FES was associated with an 80% CMSS responder rate compared to 40% in controls. An average 9.6 CMSS point loss among controls was offset by an average 20-point gain among FES subjects. Quadriceps muscle mass was on average 36% higher and intra/inter-muscular fat 44% lower, in the FES group. Hamstring and quadriceps muscle strength was 30 and 35% greater, respectively, in the FES group. Quality of life and daily function measures were significantly higher in FES group. FES during cycling in chronic SCI may provide substantial physical integrity benefits, including enhanced neurological and functional performance, increased muscle size and force-generation potential, reduced spasticity, and improved quality of life.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2013 · The journal of spinal cord medicine
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    ABSTRACT: We investigated the capacity of bone quantity and bone geometric strength indices to predict ultimate force in the human second metatarsal (Met2) and third metatarsal (Met3). Intact lower extremity cadaver samples were measured using clinical, volumetric quantitative computed tomography (vQCT) with positioning and parameters applicable to in vivo scanning. During processing, raw voxel data (0.4mm isotropic voxels) were converted from Hounsfield units to apparent bone mineral density (BMD) using hydroxyapatite calibration phantoms to allow direct volumetric assessment of whole-bone and subregional metatarsal BMD. Voxel data were realigned to produce cross-sectional slices perpendicular to the longitudinal axes of the metatarsals. Average mid-diaphyseal BMD, bone thickness, and buckling ratio were measured using an optimized threshold to distinguish bone from non-bone material. Minimum and maximum moments of inertia and section moduli were measured in the mid-diaphysis region using both a binary threshold for areal, unit-density measures and a novel technique for density-weighted measures. BMD and geometric strength indices were strongly correlated to ultimate force measured by ex vivo 3-point bending. Geometric indices were more highly correlated to ultimate force than was BMD; bone thickness and density-weighted minimum section modulus had the highest individual correlations to ultimate force. Density-weighted geometric indices explained more variance than their binary analogs. Multiple regression analyses defined models that predicted 85-89% of variance in ultimate force in Met2 and Met3 using bone thickness and minimum section modulus in the mid-diaphysis. These results have implications for future in vivo imaging to non-invasively assess bone strength and metatarsal fracture risk.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2012 · Journal of Biomechanics
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    ABSTRACT: Charcot neuroarthropathy (CN), an inflammatory condition characterized by rapid and progressive destruction of pedal bones and joints, often leads to deformity and ulceration in individuals with diabetes mellitus (DM) and peripheral neuropathy (PN). Repetitive, unperceived joint trauma may trigger initial CN damage, causing a proinflammatory cascade that can result in osteolysis and contribute to subsequent neuropathic fracture. We aimed to characterize osteolytic changes related to development and progression of CN by measuring bone mineral density (BMD) and geometric strength indices using volumetric quantitative computed tomography. Twenty individuals with DM+PN were compared to twenty age-, sex-, and race-matched individuals with DM+PN and acute CN. We hypothesized that individuals with acute CN would have decreased BMD and decreased total area, cortical area, minimum section modulus, and cortical thickness in the diaphysis of the second and fifth metatarsals. Results showed BMD was lower in both involved and uninvolved feet of CN participants compared to DM+PN participants, with greater reductions in involved CN feet compared to uninvolved CN feet. There was a non-significant increase in total area and cortical area in the CN metatarsals, which helps explain the finding of similar minimum section modulus in DM+PN and CN subjects despite the CN group's significantly lower BMD. Larger cortical area and section modulus are typically considered signs of greater bone strength due to higher resistance to compressive and bending loads, respectively. In CN metatarsals, however, these findings may reflect periosteal woven bone apposition, i.e., a hypertrophic response to injury rather than increased fracture resistance. Future research using these techniques will aid further understanding of the inflammation-mediated bony changes associated with development and progression of CN and other diseases.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2012 · Bone
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    ABSTRACT: We present an atlas-based registration method for bones segmented from quantitative computed tomography (QCT) scans, with the goal of mapping their interior bone mineral densities (BMDs) volumetrically. We introduce a new type of deformable atlas, called subdivision-embedded atlas, which consists of a control grid represented as a tetrahedral subdivision mesh and a template bone surface embedded within the grid. Compared to a typical lattice-based deformation grid, the subdivision control grid possesses a relatively small degree of freedom tailored to the shape of the bone, which allows efficient fitting onto subjects. Compared with previous subdivision atlases, the novelty of our atlas lies in the addition of the embedded template surface, which further increases the accuracy of the fitting. Using this new atlas representation, we developed an efficient and fully automated pipeline for registering atlases of 12 tarsal and metatarsal bones to a segmented QCT scan of a human foot. Our evaluation shows that the mapping of BMD enabled by the registration is consistent for bones in repeated scans, and the regional BMD automatically computed from the mapping is not significantly different from expert annotations. The results suggest that our improved subdivision-based registration method is a reliable, efficient way to replace manual labor for measuring regional BMD in foot bones in QCT scans.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2012 · Journal of Digital Imaging
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    ABSTRACT: Few studies exist for bone densitometry of the whole foot. A phantom study demonstrated the sources of error and necessary controls for accurate quantitative computed tomography of the foot. A loss in bone mineral density (BMD) in the small foot bones may be an early indicator of diabetic foot complications. Volumetric quantitative computed tomography (vQCT) facilitates the assessment of pedal bone osteopenia, which, in the presence of peripheral neuropathy, may well be an early sign of diabetic foot deformity. To date, sources and magnitudes of error in foot vQCT measurements have not been reported. Foot phantoms were scanned using a 64-slice CT scanner. Energy (in kilovoltage peak), table height, phantom size and orientation, location of "bone" inserts, insert material, location of calibration phantom, and reconstruction kernel were systematically varied during scan acquisition. Energy (in kilovoltage peak) and distance from the isocenter (table height) resulted in relative attenuation changes from -5% to 22% and -5% to 0%, respectively, and average BMD changes from -0.9% to 0.0% and -1.1% to 0.3%, respectively, compared to a baseline 120-kVp scan performed at the isocenter. BMD compared to manufacturer-specified values ranged, on average, from -2.2% to 0.9%. Phantom size and location of bone-equivalent material inserts resulted in relative attenuation changes of -1.2% to 1.4% compared to the medium-sized phantom. This study demonstrated that variations in kilovoltage peak and table height can be controlled using a calibration phantom scanned at the same energy and height as a foot phantom; however, error due to soft tissue thickness and location of bones within a foot cannot be controlled using a calibration phantom alone.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2011 · Osteoporosis International
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    ABSTRACT: To describe a new semiautomated method for segmenting and measuring the volume of the muscle, bone, and adipose (subcutaneous and intermuscular) tissue in calf muscle compartments using magnetic resonance (MR) images and determine the intrarater and interrater reproducibility of the measures. Proton-density weighted MR images were acquired from the right calf of 21 subjects. Three raters segmented and measured the volumes of bones, adipose tissue, and five individual muscle compartments. Two raters repeated the segmentations. The intra- and interrater reproducibility of the measures (intraclass correlation coefficients; ICC) were determined using generalizability theory. All ICC values were greater than 0.96. The average standard error of the mean (SEM) of all measures was 1.21 cm(3) and none were greater than 2.3 cm(3) . Essentially all variation (≥97% for all measures) was due to subject differences, indicating low error in the measurements. The volumetric measurements for the bones, adipose tissue, and muscle in each of the compartments using MRI were highly reproducible. MRI can provide quantitative, reproducible volumetric measures of bone, adipose tissue, and individual muscle compartments in the calf. We believe these methods can be used to quantify specific muscle or adipose volumetric measures for other clinical or research purposes.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2011 · Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging
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    ABSTRACT: PURPOSE Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common primary malignant neoplasm of the adult brain. The permeative nature of GBM makes tumor margin delineation challenging, at times limiting the efficacy of surgical resection. An improved method of assessing the geographic extent of GBM is therefore warranted. The authors hypothesize that a machine learning algorithm (MLA) can be trained to accurately segment a GBM patient’s MRI examination once it has been trained using a radiologist’s segmentations. METHOD AND MATERIALS Data were chosen from the COmprehensive Neuro-oncology Data Repository (CONDR) at Washington University in St. Louis and Swedish Neuroscience Institute. MRI sequences (pre- and post-contrast T1WI, FLAIR, DWI, ADC, FA, SWI, rCBV, rCBF, MTT, TTP, and MPRAGE) were resized to cubic voxels and coregistered. A radiologist segmented the lesion and predicted the presence of malignant tissue on a voxel-by-voxel basis, ranging from high probability to very low probability, using pre- and post-contrast T1WI, ADC, FLAIR, SWI, and rCBV sequences. In a leave one out study design, a random forests MLA was trained using the radiologist’s classifications as truth. RESULTS When the trained classifier was applied on a voxel-by-voxel basis to the 12 MRI sequences of a test subject’s brain, an accurate segmentation prediction resulted. ROC analysis was used to evaluate the accuracy of the MLA to correctly segment the lesion from the brain in test subjects compared to the predictions of a radiologist. The area under the curve (AUC) was used to quantify the high precision of the prediction, and AUC values of 0.95 were achieved. CONCLUSION Given the challenges implicit in the invasive pathophysiology of GBM and poor clinical outcomes of these patients under existing standard of care paradigms, a new approach in the radiologic assessment of GBM is warranted. The MLA is able to accurately segment a GBM lesion, using a radiologist as a truth standard. Future directions include validating the diagnostic accuracy of the MLA with histopathologic analysis of biopsy specimens of the patients included in this study. With such validation, the MLA may serve as a powerful clinical tool in the evaluation and surgical treatment of GBM. CLINICAL RELEVANCE/APPLICATION The MLA provides a way of combining data from multiple MRI sequences to produce a computer-generated composite prediction which may aid in the surgical biopsy and/or resection of GBM.
    No preview · Conference Paper · Dec 2011
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    ABSTRACT: Diabetic foot diseases, such as ulcerations, infections, and neuropathic (Charcot's) arthropathy, are major complications of diabetes mellitus (DM) and peripheral neuropathy (PN) and may cause osteolysis (bone loss) in foot bones. The purposes of our study were to make computed tomography (CT) measurements of foot-bone volumes and densities and to determine measurement precision (percent coefficients of variation for root-mean-square standard deviations) and least significant changes (LSCs) in these percentages that could be considered biologically real with 95% confidence. Volumetric quantitative CT scans were performed and repeated on 10 young healthy subjects and 13 subjects with DM and PN. Two raters used the original- and repeat-scan data sets to make measurements of volumes and bone mineral densities (BMDs) of the tarsal and metatarsal bones of the 2 feet (24 bones). Precisions for the bones ranged from 0.1% to 0.9% for volume measurements and from 0.6% to 1.9% for BMD measurements. The LSCs ranged from 0.4% to 2.5% for volume measurements and from 1.5% to 5.4% for BMD measurements. Volumetric quantitative CT provides precise measurements of volume and BMD for metatarsal and tarsal bones, where diabetic foot diseases commonly occur.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2011 · Journal of Clinical Densitometry
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    O.Y. Kwon · L.J. Tuttle · P.K. Commean · M.J. Mueller
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    ABSTRACT: Measures of second-fourth metatarsophalangeal joint (MTPJ) angle (indicator of hammer toe deformity) and clinical measures of tibial torsion have limited evidence for validity and reliability. The purposes of this study are to determine: (1) reliability of using a 3D digitizer (Metrecom) and computed tomography (CT) to measure MTPJ angle for toes 2-4; (2) reliability of goniometer, 3D digitizer, and CT to measure tibial torsion; (3) validity of MTPJ angle measures for toes 2-4 using goniometry and 3D digitizer compared to CT (gold standard) and (4) validity of tibial torsion measures using goniometry and 3D digitizer (Metrecom) compared to CT (gold standard). Twenty-nine subjects participated in this study. 27 feet with hammer toe deformity and 31 feet without hammer toe deformity were tested using standardized gonimetric, 3D digitizer and CT methods. ICCs (3,1), standard error of the measurement (SEM) values, and difference measures were used to characterize intrarater reliability. Pearson correlation coefficients and an analysis of variance were used to determine associations and differences between the measurement techniques. 3D digitizer and CT measures of MTPJ angle had high test-retest reliability (ICC = 0.95-0.96 and 0.98-0.99, respectively; SEM = 2.64-3.35 degrees and 1.42-1.47 degrees, respectively). Goniometry, 3D digitizer, and CT measures of tibial torsion had good test-retest reliability (ICC = 0.75, 0.85, and 0.98, respectively; SEM = 2.15 degrees, 1.74 degrees, and 0.72 degree, respectively). Both goniometric and 3D digitizer measures of MTPJ angle were highly correlated with CT measures of MTPJ angle (r = 0.84-0.90, r = 0.84-0.88, respectively) and tibial torsion (r = 0.72, r = 0.83). Goniometry, 3D digitizer, and CT measures were all different from each other for measures of hammer toe deformity (p < 0.001). Goniometry measures were different from CT measures and 3D digitizer measures of tibial torsion (p < 0.002). CT measures and 3D digitizer measures of tibial torsion were similar (p = 0.112). These results suggest that 3D digitizer and CT scan measures of MTPJ angle and goniometric, 3D digitizer, and CT scan measures of tibial torsion are reliable. Goniometer and 3D digitizer measures of MTPJ angle and tibial torsion measures are highly correlated with the gold standard CT method indicating good validity of measures, but the measures are not interchangeable.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2009 · The Foot
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    ABSTRACT: Neoadjuvant aromatase inhibitor therapy has been reported to improve surgical outcomes for postmenopausal women with clinical stage II or III hormone receptor-positive breast cancer. A multicenter phase II clinical trial was conducted to investigate the value of this approach for US surgical practice. One hundred fifteen postmenopausal women with >2 cm, estrogen receptor (ER) or progesterone receptor (PgR)-positive breast cancer were enrolled in a trial of 16 to 24 weeks of letrozole 2.5 mg daily before operation. One hundred six patients were eligible for primary analysis, 96 underwent operations, 7 received chemotherapy after progressive disease, and 3 did not undergo an operation. Baseline surgical status was marginal for breast-conserving surgery (BCS) in 48 (45%), 47 were definitely ineligible for BCS (44%), and 11 were inoperable by standard mastectomy (10%). Overall Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors clinical response rate in the breast was 62%, with 12% experiencing progressive disease. Fifty percent underwent BCS, including 30 of 46 (65%) patients who were initially marginal for BCS and 15 of 39 (38%) patients who were initially ineligible for BCS. All 11 inoperable patients successfully underwent operations, including 3 (27%) who had BCS. Nineteen percent of patients undergoing mastectomy had a pathologic T1 tumor, suggesting that some highly responsive tumors were overtreated surgically. Neoadjuvant aromatase inhibitor improves operability and facilitates BCS, but there was considerable variability in responsiveness. Better techniques to predict response, determine residual tumor burden before operation, and greater willingness to attempt BCS in responsive patients could additionally improve the rate of successful BCS.
    No preview · Article · May 2009 · Journal of the American College of Surgeons

Publication Stats

1k Citations
112.90 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1994-2015
    • Washington University in St. Louis
      • • Program in Physical Therapy
      • • Department of Medicine
      San Luis, Missouri, United States
  • 2008
    • University of Washington Seattle
      Seattle, Washington, United States
  • 2000
    • University of Iowa
      • Department of Radiology
      Iowa City, IA, United States