Menno Poot

Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut, United States

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Publications (44)301.99 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: We describe a micromachining process to allow the coupling of an array of single-mode telecommunication fibers to individual superconducting nanowire single photon detectors (SNSPDs). As proof of principle, we show the integration of four detectors on the same silicon chip, including two standard single-section nanowire detectors and two superconducting nanowire avalanche photodetectors (SNAPs) with modified series structure without external inductor, and their performances are compared. The SNAP shows saturated system detection efficiency of 16% while the dark count rate is less than 20 Hz, without the use of photon-recycling reflectors. The SNAP also demonstrates doubled signal-to-noise ratio, reduced reset time (~ 4.9 ns decay time) and improved timing jitter (62 ps FWHM) compared to standard SNSPDs.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016
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    ABSTRACT: Quantum information processing holds great promise for communicating and computing data efficiently. However, scaling current photonic implementation approaches to larger system size remains an outstanding challenge for realizing disruptive quantum technology. Two main ingredients of quantum information processors are quantum interference and single-photon detectors. Here we develop a hybrid superconducting-photonic circuit system to show how these elements can be combined in a scalable fashion on a silicon chip. We demonstrate the suitability of this approach for integrated quantum optics by interfering and detecting photon pairs directly on the chip with waveguide-coupled single-photon detectors. Using a directional coupler implemented with silicon nitride nanophotonic waveguides, we observe 97% interference visibility when measuring photon statistics with two monolithically integrated superconducting single photon detectors. The photonic circuit and detector fabrication processes are compatible with standard semiconductor thin-film technology, making it possible to implement more complex and larger scale quantum photonic circuits on silicon chips.
    Preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Nature Communications
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    Hojoong Jung · Menno Poot · Hong X. Tang
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    ABSTRACT: We propose and demonstrate a dispersion control technique by combination of different waveguide cross sections in an aluminum nitride micro-ring resonator. Narrow and wide waveguides with normal and anomalous dispersion, respectively, are linked with tapering waveguides and enclosed in a ring resonator to produce a total dispersion near zero. The mode-coupling in multimoded waveguides is also effectively suppressed. This technique provides new degrees of freedom and enhanced flexibility in engineering the dispersion of microcomb resonators.
    Preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Optics Express
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    ABSTRACT: We demonstrate broadband, low loss optical waveguiding in single crystalline GaN grown epitaxially on c-plane sapphire wafers through a buffered metal-organic chemical vapor phase deposition process. High Q optical microring resonators are realized in near infrared, infrared, and near visible regimes with intrinsic quality factors exceeding 50 000 at all the wavelengths we studied. TEM analysis of etched waveguide reveals growth and etch-induced defects. Reduction of these defects through improved material and device processing could lead to even lower optical losses and enable a wideband photonic platform based on GaN-on-sapphire material system.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · Applied Physics Letters
  • M Poot · K Y Fong · H X Tang
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    ABSTRACT: Using a stabilizing quadrature-feedback scheme the thermal motion of an on-chip opto-electromechanical resonator is squeezed far beyond the limit of classical parametric squeezing. It is shown that feedback on the Y quadrature by itself can already squeeze the thermal motion of the resonator, but the maximum achievable squeezing level is limited by the imprecision noise. By combining the feedback and parametric pumping a record of 15.1 dB of classical noise squeezing is demonstrated. This not only largely exceeds the 3 dB limit for regular squeezing, but is also deeper than ever can be achieved with feedback cooling. The detector-resonator interaction is analyzed within the semi-classical framework and it is shown that using this feedback-stabilized parametric pumping technique true quantum-squeezed states can be prepared when the resonator starts off close to its ground state, and that the ultimate amount of squeezing depends on the minimum detuning that can be achieved.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · New Journal of Physics
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    King Yan Fong · Menno Poot · Hong X Tang
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    ABSTRACT: Operation of nanomechanical devices in water environment has been challenging due to the strong viscous damping that greatly impedes the mechanical motion. Here we demonstrate an optomechanical micro-wheel resonator integrated in microfluidic system that supports low-loss optical resonances at near-visible wavelength with quality factor up to 1.5 million. The device can be operated in self-oscillation mode in air with low threshold power of 45 uW. The very high optical Q allows the observation of the thermal Brownian motion of the mechanical mode in both air and water environment with high signal-to-background ratio. A numerical model is developed to calculate the hydrodynamic effect on the device due to the surrounding water, which agrees well with the experimental results. With its very high resonance frequency (170 MHz) and small loaded mass (75 pg), the present device is estimated to have mass sensitivity of attogram level in liquid environment with bandwidth of 1 Hz.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015 · Nano Letters
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    Linran Fan · King Y. Fong · Menno Poot · Hong X. Tang
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    ABSTRACT: Electromagnetically induced transparency has great theoretical and experimental importance in many physics subjects, such as atomic physics, quantum optics, and more recent cavity optomechanics. Optical delay is the most prominent feature of electromagnetically induced transparency, and in cavity optomechanics optical delay is limited by mechanical dissipation rate of sideband-resolved mechanical modes. Here we demonstrate a cascaded optical transparency scheme by leveraging the parametric phonon-phonon coupling in a multimode optomechanical system, where a low damping mechanical mode in the unresolved-sideband regime is made to couple to an intermediate, high frequency mechanical mode in the resolved-sideband regime of an optical cavity. Extended optical delay and higher transmission, as well as optical advancing are demonstrated. These results provide a route to realize ultra-long optical delay, indicating a significant step toward integrated classical and quantum information storage devices.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2014 · Nature Communications
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    Menno Poot · King Y. Fong · Hong X. Tang
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    ABSTRACT: We demonstrate squeezing of a strongly interacting opto-electromechanical system using a parametric drive. By employing real-time feedback on the phase of the pump at twice the resonance frequency the thermo-mechanical noise is squeezed beyond the 3 dB instability limit. Surprisingly, this method can also be used to generate highly nonlinear states. We show that using the parametric drive with feedback on, classical number-like and cat-like states can be prepared. This presents a valuable electro-optomechanical state-preparation protocol that is extendable to the quantum regime.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2014 · Physical Review A
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    King Yan Fong · Menno Poot · Xu Han · Hong X. Tang
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    ABSTRACT: In this paper we present a theory that predicts the phase noise characteristics of self-sustained optomechanical oscillators. By treating the cavity optomechanical system as a feedback loop consisting of an optical cavity and a mechanical resonator, we analytically derive the transfer functions relating the amplitude/phase noise of all the relevant dynamical quantities from the quantum Langevin equations, and obtain a closed-form expressions for the phase noise spectral densities contributed from thermomechanical noise, photon shot noise, and low-frequency technical laser noise. We numerically calculate the phase noise for various situations and perform a sample calculation for an experimentally demonstrated system. We also show that the presented model reduces to the well-known Leeson's phase noise model when the amplitude noise and the amplitude/phase noise inter-transfers are ignored.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2014 · Physical Review A
  • M. Poot · H.X. Tang
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    ABSTRACT: We demonstrate an optomechanical phase shifter. By electrostatically deflecting the nanofabricated mechanical structure, the effective index of a nearby waveguide is changed and the resulting phase shift is measured using an integrated Mach-Zehnder interferometer. Comparing to thermo-optical phase shifters, our device does not consume power in static operation and also it can operate over large frequency, wavelength, and power ranges. Operation in the MHz range and sub-μs pulses is demonstrated.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2014 · Applied Physics Letters
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    Menno Poot · Hong. X. Tang
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    ABSTRACT: We demonstrate an optomechanical phase shifter. By electrostatically deflecting the nanofabricated mechanical structure, the effective index of a nearby waveguide is changed and the resulting phase shift is measured using an integrated Mach-Zehnder interferometer. Comparing to thermo-optical phase shifters, our device does not consume power in static operation and also it can operate over large frequency, wavelength, and power ranges. Operation in the MHz range and sub-$\mu$s pulses are demonstrated.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2013
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    ABSTRACT: Synchronization in oscillatory systems is a frequent natural phenomenon and is becoming an important concept in modern physics. Nanomechanical resonators are ideal systems for studying synchronization due to their controllable oscillation properties and engineerable nonlinearities. Here we demonstrate synchronization of two nanomechanical oscillators via a photonic resonator, enabling optomechanical synchronization between mechanically isolated nanomechanical resonators. Optical backaction gives rise to both reactive and dissipative coupling of the mechanical resonators, leading to coherent oscillation and mutual locking of resonators with dynamics beyond the widely accepted phase oscillator (Kuramoto) model. In addition to the phase difference between the oscillators, also their amplitudes are coupled, resulting in the emergence of sidebands around the synchronized carrier signal.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2013 · Physical Review Letters
  • Menno Poot · Hong X. Tang
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    ABSTRACT: A nanoelectromechanical resonator is used as an on-chip phase shifter. Unprecedentedly strong electrostatic effects are observed and using real-time parametric feedback the thermal motion of the resonator is squeezed below 3dB.
    No preview · Conference Paper · Jun 2013
  • Menno Poot · Hong Tang
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    ABSTRACT: Parametric squeezing can reduce the uncertainty in one quadrature of the position of a mechanical resonator, even below the standard quantum limit, and it can improve measurement sensitivity. Here we demonstrate squeezing of the thermal motion of a 570 kHz opto-electromechanical resonator made out of high-stress SiN by modulating its spring constant at twice the resonance frequency. Parametric and direct actuation are achieved by applying a.c. voltages between strongly coupled electrodes on the resonator and a fixed one. It is well know that using this method the motion of one quadrature cannot be decreased more than 3 dB below the undriven case before instabilities kick in. However, by measuring the phase-space trajectory of the resonator and adjusting the phase of the parametric drive in real-time we achieve a stationary reduction in both quadratures that is far beyond this limit. Finally, due to the strong coupling between the drive electrodes, the nonlinearity of the resonator can be tuned all the way from a stiffening spring to a softening one.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2013
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    ABSTRACT: We present the design and experimental comparison of femtogram L3-nanobeam photonic crystal cavities for optomechanical studies. Two symmetric nanobeams are created by placing three air slots in a silicon photonic crystal slab where three holes are removed. The nanobeams' mechanical frequencies are higher than 600 MHz with ultrasmall effective modal masses at approximately 20 femtograms. The optical quality factor (Q) is optimized up to 53,000. The optical and mechanical modes are dispersively coupled with a vacuum optomechanical coupling rate g<sub>0</sub>/2? exceeding 200 kHz. The anchor-loss-limited mechanical Q of the differential beam mode is evaluated to be greater than 10,000 for structures with ideally symmetric beams. The influence of variations on the air slot width and position is also investigated. The devices can be used as ultrasensitive sensors of mass, force, and displacement.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2012 · Optics Express
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    ABSTRACT: The maximum amplitude of mechanical oscillators coupled to optical cavities are studied both analytically and numerically. The optical backaction on the resonator enables self-sustained oscillations whose limit cycle is set by the dynamic range of the cavity. The maximum attainable amplitude and the phonon generation quantum efficiency of the backaction process are studied for both unresolved and resolved cavities. Quantum efficiencies far exceeding one are found in the resolved sideband regime where the amplitude is low. On the other hand the maximum amplitude is found in the unresolved system. Finally, the role of mechanical nonlinearities is addressed.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2012 · Physical Review A
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    ABSTRACT: We develop an all-integrated optoelectromechanical system that operates in the superhigh frequency band. This system is based on an ultrahigh-Q slotted photonic crystal (PhC) nanocavity formed by two PhC membranes, one of which is patterned with electrode and capacitively driven. The strong simultaneous electromechanical and optomechanical interactions yield efficient electrical excitation and sensitive optical transduction of the bulk acoustic modes of the PhC membrane. These modes are identified up to a frequency of 4.20 GHz, with their mechanical Q factors ranging from 240 to 1,730. Directly linking signals in microwave and optical domains, such optoelectromechanical systems will find applications in microwave photonics in addition to those that utilize the electromechanical and optomechanical interactions separately.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2012 · Applied Physics Letters
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    ABSTRACT: We have studied the elastic deformation of freely suspended atomically thin sheets of muscovite mica, a widely used electrical insulator in its bulk form. Using an atomic force microscope, we carried out bending test experiments to determine the Young's modulus and the initial pre-tension of mica nanosheets with thicknesses ranging from 14 layers down to just one bilayer. We found that their Young's modulus is high (190 GPa), in agreement with the bulk value, which indicates that the exfoliation procedure employed to fabricate these nanolayers does not introduce a noticeable amount of defects. Additionally, ultrathin mica shows low pre-strain and can withstand reversible deformations up to tens of nanometers without breaking. The low pre-tension and high Young's modulus and breaking force found in these ultrathin mica layers demonstrates their prospective use as a complement for graphene in applications requiring flexible insulating materials or as reinforcement in nanocomposites.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2012 · Nano Research
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    ABSTRACT: We present the design of a femtogram L3-nanobeam photonic crystal cavity for optomechanical studies. Two symmetric nanobeams are created by placing three air slots in a silicon photonic crystal slab where three holes are removed. The optical quality factor (Q) is optimized up to 52,000. The nanobeams' mechanical frequencies are higher than 600 MHz due to their femtogram effective modal masses. The optical and mechanical modes are dispersively coupled with a vacuum optomechanical coupling rate g0/2pi exceeding 200 kHz. The anchor-loss-limited mechanical Q of the differential beam mode is evaluated to be greater than 10,000 for structures with ideally symmetric beams. The influence of variations on the air slot width and position is also investigated. The devices can be used as ultrasensitive sensors of mass, force, and displacement.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2012
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    ABSTRACT: We fabricate freely suspended nanosheets of molybdenum disulphide (MoS2) which are characterized by quantitative optical microscopy and high-resolution friction force microscopy. We study the elastic deformation of freely suspended nanosheets of MoS2 using an atomic force microscope. The Young's modulus and the initial pre-tension of the nanosheets are determined by performing a nanoscopic version of a bending test experiment. MoS2 sheets show high elasticity and an extremely high Young's modulus (0.30 TPa, 50% larger than steel). These results make them a potential alternative to graphene in applications requiring flexible semiconductor materials. PACS, 73.61.Le, other inorganic semiconductors, 68.65.Ac, multilayers, 62.20.de, elastic moduli, 81.40.Jj, elasticity and anelasticity, stress-strain relations.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2012 · Nanoscale Research Letters