[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The leading cause of drug-induced liver injury in the developed world is overdose with N-acetyl-p-aminophenol (APAP). A comparative metabonomic approach was applied to the study of both xenobiotic and endogenous metabolic profiles reflective of in vivo exposure to APAP (300 mg/kg) and its structural isomer N-acetyl-m-aminophenol (AMAP; 300 mg/kg) in C57BL/6J mice, which was anchored with histopathology. Liver and urine samples were collected at 1 h, 3 h and 6 h post-treatment and analyzed by (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (liver only). Histopathology revealed the presence of centrilobular necrosis from 3 h post-APAP treatment, while an AMAP-mediated necrotic endpoint was not observed within the timescale of this study, yet two of five treated mice showed minimal centrilobular eosinophilia. The (1)H-NMR xenobiotic metabolic profile of APAP-treated animals comprised of mercapturate (urine and liver) and glutathionyl (liver) conjugates detected at 1 h post-treatment. This finding corroborated the hepatic endogenous metabolic profile which showed depletion of glutathione from 1 h onwards. In contrast, AMAP glutathionyl conjugates were not detected, nor was AMAP-induced depletion of hepatic glutathione observed. APAP administration induced significant endogenous hepatic metabolic perturbations, primarily linked to oxidative and energetic stress, and perturbation of amino acid metabolism. Early depletion of glutathione was followed by depletion of additional sulfur-containing metabolites, while altered levels of mitochondrial and glycolytic metabolites indicated a disruption of energy homeostasis. In contrast, AMAP administration caused minimal, transient, distinct metabolic perturbations and by 6 h the metabolic profiles of AMAP-treated mice were indistinguishable from those of controls.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2016 · Archive für Toxikologie
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The use of sentinel species for population and ecosystem health assessments has been advocated as part of a One Health perspective. The Arctic is experiencing rapid change including climate and environmental shifts as well as increased resource development, which will alter exposure of biota to environmental agents of disease. Arctic canid species have wide geographic ranges and feeding ecologies and are often exposed to high concentrations of both terrestrial and marine-based contaminants. The domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris) has been used in biomedical research for a number of years, and has been advocated as a sentinel for human health due to its proximity to humans and, in some instances, similar diet. Exploiting the potential of molecular tools for describing the toxicogenomics of Arctic canids is critical for their development as biomedical models as well as environmental sentinels. Here we present three approaches analyzing toxicogenomics of Arctic contaminants in both domestic and free-ranging canids. We describe a number of confounding variables that must be addressed when conducting toxicogenomics studies in canid and other mammalian models. The ability for canids to act as models for Arctic molecular toxicology research is unique and significant for advancing our understanding, and expanding the tool box for assessing the changing landscape of environmental agents of disease in the Arctic.
No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Environmental Science & Technology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Quantum dots (QDs) are engineered semiconductor nanoparticles with unique physicochemical properties that make them potentially useful in clinical, research and industrial settings. However, a growing body of evidence indicates that like other engineered nanomaterials, QDs have the potential to be respiratory hazards, especially in the context of the manufacture of QDs and products containing them, as well as exposures to consumers using these products. The overall goal of this study was to investigate the role of mouse strain in determining susceptibility to QD-induced pulmonary inflammation and toxicity. Male mice from 8 genetically diverse inbred strains (the Collaborative Cross founder strains) were exposed to CdSe-ZnS core-shell QDs stabilized with an amphiphilic polymer. QD treatment resulted in significant increases in the percentage of neutrophils and levels of cytokines present in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) obtained from NOD/ShiLtJ and NZO/HlLtJ mice relative to their saline (Sal) treated controls. Cadmium measurements in lung tissue indicated strain-dependent differences in disposition of QDs in the lung. Total glutathione levels in lung tissue were significantly correlated with percent neutrophils in BALF as well as with lung tissue Cd levels. Our findings indicate that QD-induced acute lung inflammation is mouse strain dependent, that it is heritable, and that the choice of mouse strain is an important consideration in planning QD toxicity studies. These data also suggest that formal genetic analyses using additional strains or recombinant inbred strains from these mice could be useful for discovering potential QD-induced inflammation susceptibility loci.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Epidemiologic studies have linked diesel exhaust (DE) to cardiovascular and respiratory morbidity and mortality, as well as lung cancer. DE composition is known to vary with many factors, although it is unclear how this influences toxicity. We generated eight DE atmospheres by applying a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial design and altering three parameters in a controlled exposure facility: (1) engine load (27 vs 82 %), (2) particle aging (residence time ~5 s vs ~5 min prior to particle collection), and (3) oxidation (with or without ozonation during dilution). Selected exposure concentrations of both diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) and DE gases, DEP oxidative reactivity via DTT activity, and in vitro DEP toxicity in murine endothelial cells were measured for each DE atmosphere. Cell toxicity was assessed via measurement of cell proliferation (colony formation assay), cell viability (MTT assay), and wound healing (scratch assay). Differences in DE composition were observed as a function of engine load. The mean 1-nitropyrene concentration was 15 times higher and oxidative reactivity was two times higher for low engine load versus high load. There were no substantial differences in measured toxicity among the three DE exposure parameters. These results indicate that alteration of applied engine load shifts the composition and can modify the biological reactivity of DE. While engine conditions did not affect the selected in vitro toxicity measures, the change in oxidative reactivity suggests that toxicological studies with DE need to take into account engine conditions in characterizing biological effects.
No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Air Quality Atmosphere & Health
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Glutathione (GSH) is the one of the most abundant intracellular antioxidants. Mice lacking the modifier subunit of glutamate cysteine ligase (Gclm), the rate-limiting enzyme in GSH synthesis, have decreased GSH. Our prior work showed that GSH plays antiapoptotic roles in ovarian follicles. We hypothesized that Gclm-/- mice have accelerated ovarian aging due to ovarian oxidative stress. We found significantly decreased ovarian GSH concentrations and oxidized GSH/GSSG redox potential in Gclm-/- versus Gclm+/+ ovaries. Prepubertal Gclm-/- and Gclm+/+ mice had similar numbers of ovarian follicles, and as expected, the total number of ovarian follicles declined with age in both genotypes. However, the rate of decline in follicles was significantly more rapid in Gclm-/- mice, and this was driven by accelerated declines in primordial follicles, which constitute the ovarian reserve. We found significantly increased 4-hydroxynonenal immunostaining (oxidative lipid damage marker) and significantly increased nitrotyrosine immunostaining (oxidative protein damage marker) in prepubertal and adult Gclm-/- ovaries compared to controls. The percentage of small ovarian follicles with increased granulosa cell proliferation was significantly higher in prepubertal and 2 month old Gclm-/- versus Gclm+/+ ovaries, indicating accelerated recruitment of primordial follicles into the growing pool. The percentages of growing follicles with apoptotic granulosa cells were increased in young adult ovaries. Our results demonstrate increased ovarian oxidative stress and oxidative damage in young Gclm-/- mice, associated with an accelerated decline in ovarian follicles that appears to be mediated by increased recruitment of follicles into the growing pool, followed by apoptosis at later stages of follicular development.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The goal of the present study was to compare hepatic toxicogenomic signatures across in vitro and in vivo mouse models following exposure to acetaminophen (APAP) or its relatively nontoxic regioisomer 3'-hydroxyacetanilide (AMAP). Two different Affymetrix microarray platforms and one Agilent Oligonucleotide microarray were utilized. APAP and AMAP treatments resulted in significant and large changes in gene expression that were quite disparate, and likely related to their different toxicologic profiles. Ten transcripts, all of which have been implicated in p53 signaling, were identified as differentially regulated at all time-points following APAP and AMAP treatments across multiple microarray platforms. Protein-level quantification of p53 activity aligned with results from the transcriptomic analysis, thus supporting the implicated mechanism of APAP-induced toxicity. Therefore, the results of this study provide good evidence that APAP-induced p53 phosphorylation and an altered p53-driven transcriptional response are fundamental steps in APAP-induced toxicity.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2015 · Gene regulation and systems biology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The rapid development and acceptance of PDots for biological applications depends on an in depth understanding of their cytotoxicity. In this paper, we performed a comprehensive study of PDot cytotoxicity at both the gross cell effect level (such as cell viability, proliferation and necrosis) and more subtle effects (such as redox stress) on RAW264.7 cells, a murine macrophage cell line with high relevance to in vivo nanoparticle disposition. The redox stress measurements assessed were inner mitochondrial membrane lipid peroxidation (nonyl-acridine orange, NAO), total thiol level (monobromobimane, MBB), and pyridine nucleotide redox status (NAD(P)H autofluorescence). Because of the extensive work already performed with QDots on nanotoxicity and also because of their comparable size, QDots were chosen as a comparison/reference nanoparticle for this study. The results showed that PDots exhibit cytotoxic effects to a much lesser degree than their inorganic analogue (QDots) and are much brighter, allowing for much lower concentrations to be used in various biological applications. In addition, at lower dose levels (2.5 nM to 10 nM) PDot treatment resulted in higher total thiol level than those found with QDots. At higher dose levels (20 nM to 40 nM) QDots caused significantly higher thiol levels in RAW264.7 cells, than was seen with PDots, suggesting that QDots elicit compensation to oxidative stress by upregulating GSH synthesis. At the higher concentrations of QDots, NAD(P)H levels showed an initial depletion, then repletion to a level that was greater than vehicle controls. PDots showed a similar trend but this was not statistically significant. Because PDots elicit less oxidative stress and cytotoxicity at low concentrations than QDots, and because they exhibit superior fluorescence at these low concentrations, PDots are predicted to have enhanced utility in biomedical applications.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Arsenic exposure is postulated to modify microRNA (miRNA) expression, leading to changes of gene expression and toxicities, but studies relating the responses of miRNAs to arsenic exposure are lacking, especially with respect to in vivo studies. We utilized high-throughput sequencing technology and generated miRNA expression profiles of liver tissues from Sprague Dawley (SD) rats exposed to various concentrations of sodium arsenite (0, 0.1, 1, 10 and 100 mg/L) for 60 days. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering analysis of the miRNA expression profiles clustered the SD rats into different groups based on the arsenic exposure status, indicating a highly significant association between arsenic exposure and cluster membership (P-value of 0.0012). Multiple miRNA expressions were altered by arsenic in an exposure concentration-dependent manner. Among the identified arsenic-responsive miRNAs, several are predicted to target Nfe2l2-regulated antioxidant genes, including glutamate-cysteine ligase (GCL) catalytic subunit (GCLC) and modifier subunit (GCLM) which are involved in glutathione (GSH) synthesis. Exposure to low concentrations of arsenic increased mRNA expression for Gclc and Gclm, while high concentrations significantly reduced their expression, which were correlated to changes in hepatic GCL activity and GSH level. Moreover, our data suggested that other mechanisms, e.g. miRNAs, rather than Nfe2l2-signaling pathway, could be involved in the regulation of mRNA expression of Gclc and Gclm post arsenic exposure in vivo. Together, our findings show that arsenic exposure disrupts the genome-wide expression of miRNAs in vivo, which could lead to the biological consequence, such as an altered balance of antioxidant defense and oxidative stress.
No preview · Article · Jan 2015 · Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Doxorubicin is highly effective at inducing DNA double-strand breaks in rapidly dividing cells, which has led to it being a widely used cancer chemotherapeutic. However, clinical administration of doxorubicin is limited by off-target cardiotoxicity, which is thought to be mediated by doxorubicinol, the primary alcohol metabolite of doxorubicin. Carbonyl reductase 1 (CBR1), a well-characterized monomeric enzyme present at high basal levels in the liver, is known to exhibit activity toward doxorubicin. Little is known about a closely related enzyme, carbonyl reductase 3 (CBR3), which is present in the liver at low basal levels but is highly inducible by the transcription factor Nrf2. Genetic polymorphisms in CBR3, but not CBR1, are associated with differential cardiac outcomes in doxorubicin treated pediatric patients. Cbr3 mRNA and CBR3 protein are highly expressed in the livers of Gclm−/− mice (a mouse model of glutathione deficiency) relative to wild type mice. In the present study, we first investigated the ability of CBR3 to metabolize doxorubicin. Incubations of doxorubicin and purified recombinant murine CBR3 (mCBR3) were analyzed for doxorubicinol formation using HPLC, revealing for the first time that doxorubicin is a substrate of mCBR3. Moreover, hepatocytes from Gclm−/− mice produced more doxorubicinol than Gclm+/+ hepatocytes. In addition, differentiated rat myoblasts (C2C12 cells) co-cultured with primary Gclm−/− murine hepatocytes were more sensitive to doxorubicin-induced cytostasis/cytotoxicity than incubations with Gclm+/+ hepatocytes. Our results indicate a potentially important role for CBR3 in doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity. Because there is likely to be variability in hepatic CBR3 activity in humans (due to either genetic or epigenetic influences on its expression), these data also suggest that inhibition of CBR3 may provide protection from doxorubicinol cardiotoxicity.
No preview · Article · Nov 2014 · Chemico-Biological Interactions
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Advances in nanotechnology have produced a new class of fluorescent nanoparticles known as quantum dots (Qdots). Compared with organic dyes and fluorescent proteins, Qdots offer several unique advantages in terms of spectral range, brightness, and photostability. Relative to other imaging modalities, optical imaging with Qdots is highly sensitive, quantitative, and capable of multiplexing. Thus, Qdots are being developed for a wide range of applications, including biomedical imaging. Qdot production has also emerged in a number of industrial applications, such as optoelectronic devices and photovoltaic cells. This widespread development and use of Qdots has outpaced research progress on their potential cytotoxicity, engendering major concerns surrounding occupational, environmental, and diagnostic exposures. Given the extensive physicochemical heterogeneity of Qdots (size, charge, chemical composition, solubility, etc.), high-throughput in vitro cytotoxicity assays represent a feasible means of determining effects of multiple variables and can inform design of lower-throughput in vivo cytotoxicity studies. Here, we describe the application of two commonly used assays, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium (MTS), for detection of Qdot-induced cytotoxicity.
No preview · Article · Aug 2014 · Methods in Molecular Biology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The small size and heavy metal composition of quantum dots (QDs) combined with their growing consumer product and biomedical research applications have generated concern over their safety. In an occupational setting where QD-enabled products are being manufactured, inhalation is a likely route of exposure. Since current research indicates that QDs could cause inflammation and toxicity in the respiratory tract, it is important that a variety of methods be available to further characterize this potential respiratory hazard. This chapter focuses primarily on in vivo methods for modeling the inhalation and assessing the pulmonary toxicity of QDs.
No preview · Article · Aug 2014 · Methods in Molecular Biology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract Quantum dots (Qdots) are semiconductor nanoparticles with size-tunable fluorescence capabilities with diverse applications. Qdots typically contain cadmium or other heavy metals, hence raising concerns of their potential toxicity, especially in occupational settings where inhalation of nanomaterials may increase the risk of lung disease. Accordingly, we assessed the effects of tri-n-octylphosphine oxide, poly(maleic anhydride-alt-1-tetradecene) (TOPO-PMAT) coated CdSe/ZnS Qdots on mouse lung epithelial cells and macrophages. Mouse tracheal epithelial cells (MTEC), grown as organotypic cultures, bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM), and primary alveolar macrophages (AM) were derived from C57BL/6J or A/J mice and treated with TOPO-PMAT CdSe/ZnS Qdots (10-160 nM) for up to 24 h. Cadmium analysis showed that Qdots remained in the apical compartment of MTEC cultures, whereas they were avidly internalized by AM and BMDM, which did not differ between strains. In MTEC, Qdots selectively induced expression (mRNA and protein) of neutrophil chemokines CXCL1 and CXCL2 but only low to no detectable levels of other factors assessed. In contrast, 4 h exposure to Qdots markedly increased expression of CXCL1, IL6, IL12, and other pro-inflammatory factors in BMDM. Higher inflammatory response was seen in C57BL/6J than in A/J BMDM. Similar expression responses were observed in AM, although overall levels were less robust than in BMDM. MTEC from A/J mice were more sensitive to Qdot pro-inflammatory effects while macrophages from C57BL/6J mice were more sensitive. These findings suggest that patterns of Qdot-induced pulmonary inflammation are likely to be cell-type specific and genetic background dependent.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The mechanism by which acetaminophen (APAP) causes liver damage evokes many aspects drug metabolism, oxidative chemistry, and genetic-predisposition. In this study, we leverage the relative resistance of female C57BL/6 mice to APAP-induced liver damage (AILD) compared to male C57BL/6 mice in order to identify the cause(s) of sensitivity. Furthermore, we use mice that are either heterozygous (HZ) or null (KO) for glutamate cysteine ligase modifier subunit (Gclm), in order to titrate the toxicity relative to wild-type (WT) mice. Gclm is important for efficient de novo synthesis of glutathione (GSH). APAP (300 mg/kg, ip) or saline was administered and mice were collected at 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 6, 12, and 24 h. Male mice showed marked elevation in serum alanine aminotransferase by 6 h. In contrast, female WT and HZ mice showed minimal toxicity at all time points. Female KO mice, however, showed AILD comparable to male mice. Genotype-matched male and female mice showed comparable APAP-protein adducts, with Gclm KO mice sustaining significantly greater adducts. ATP was depleted in mice showing toxicity, suggesting impaired mitochondria function. Indeed, peroxiredoxin-6, a GSH-dependent peroxiredoxin, was preferentially adducted by APAP in mitochondria of male mice but rarely adducted in female mice. These results support parallel mechanisms of toxicity where APAP adduction of peroxiredoxin-6 and sustained GSH depletion results in the collapse of mitochondria function and hepatocyte death. We conclude that adduction of peroxiredoxin-6 sensitizes male C57BL/6 mice to toxicity by acetaminophen.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract Context: Inhalation of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is associated with acute pulmonary inflammation and impairments in cardiovascular function. In many regions, PM2.5 is largely derived from diesel exhaust (DE), and these pathophysiological effects may be due in part to oxidative stress resulting from DE inhalation. The antioxidant glutathione (GSH) is important in limiting oxidative stress-induced vascular dysfunction. The rate-limiting enzyme in GSH synthesis is glutamate cysteine ligase and polymorphisms in its catalytic and modifier subunits (GCLC and GCLM) have been shown to influence vascular function and risk of myocardial infarction in humans. Objective: We hypothesized that compromised de novo synthesis of GSH in Gclm(-)(/+) mice would result in increased sensitivity to DE-induced lung inflammation and vascular effects. Materials and methods: WT and Gclm(-)(/+) mice were exposed to DE via inhalation (300 μg/m(3)) for 6 h. Neutrophil influx into the lungs, plasma GSH redox potential, vascular reactivity of aortic rings and aortic nitric oxide (NO•) were measured. Results: DE inhalation resulted in mild bronchoalveolar neutrophil influx in both genotypes. DE-induced effects on plasma GSH oxidation and acetylcholine (ACh)-relaxation of aortic rings were only observed in Gclm(-)(/+) mice. Contrary to our hypothesis, DE exposure enhanced ACh-induced relaxation of aortic rings in Gclm(-)(/+) mice. Discussion and conclusion: These data support the hypothesis that genetic determinants of antioxidant capacity influence the biological effects of acute inhalation of DE. However, the acute effects of DE on the vasculature may be dependent on the location and types of vessels involved. Polymorphisms in GSH synthesis genes are common in humans and further investigations into these potential gene-environment interactions are warranted.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Erythrocytes endure constant exposure to oxidative stress. The major oxidative stress scavenger in erythrocytes is glutathione. The rate-limiting enzyme for glutathione synthesis is glutamate-cysteine ligase, which consists of a catalytic subunit (GCLC) and a modifier subunit (GCLM). Here, we examined erythrocyte survival in GCLM-deficient (gclm -/-) mice. Erythrocytes from gclm -/- mice showed greatly reduced intracellular glutathione. Prolonged incubation resulted in complete lysis of gclm -/- erythrocytes, which could be reversed by exogenous delivery of the antioxidant Trolox. To test the importance of GCLM in vivo, mice were treated with phenylhydrazine (PHZ; 0.07 mg/g b.w.) to induce oxidative stress. Gclm -/- mice showed dramatically increased hemolysis compared with gclm +/+ controls. In addition, PHZ-treated gclm -/- mice displayed markedly larger accumulations of injured erythrocytes in the spleen than gclm +/+ mice within 24 h of treatment. Iron staining indicated precipitations of the erythrocyte-derived pigment hemosiderin in kidney tubules of gclm -/- mice and none in gclm +/+ controls. In fact, 24 h after treatment, kidney function began to diminish in gclm -/- mice as evident from increased serum creatinine and urea. Consequently, while all PHZ-treated gclm +/+ mice survived, 90% of PHZ-treated gclm -/- mice died within 5 days of treatment. In vitro, upon incubation in the absence or presence of additional oxidative stress, gclm -/- erythrocytes exposed significantly more phosphatidylserine, a cell death marker, than gclm +/+ erythrocytes, an effect at least partially due to increased cytosolic Ca 2+ concentration. Under resting conditions, gclm -/- mice exhibited reticulocytosis, indicating that the enhanced erythrocyte death was offset by accelerated erythrocyte generation. GCLM is thus indispensable for erythrocyte survival, in vitro and in vivo, during oxidative stress.
Preview · Article · Jun 2013 · Cell death and differentiation
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Quantum dots (QDs) are unique semi-conductor fluorescent nanoparticles with potential uses in a variety of biomedical applications. However, concerns exist regarding their potential toxicity, specifically their capacity to induce oxidative stress and inflammation. In this study we synthesized CdSe/ZnS core/shell QDs with a tri-n-octylphosphine oxide, poly(maleic anhydride-alt-1-tetradecene) (TOPO-PMAT) coating and assessed their effects on lung inflammation in mice. Previously published in vitro data demonstrated these TOPO-PMAT QDs cause oxidative stress resulting in increased expression of antioxidant proteins, including heme oxygenase, and the glutathione (GSH) synthesis enzyme glutamate cysteine ligase (GCL). We therefore investigated the effects of these QDs in vivo in mice deficient in GSH synthesis (Gclm +/- and Gclm -/- mice). When mice were exposed via nasal instillation to a TOPO-PMAT QD dose of 6 µg cadmium (Cd) equivalents/kg body weight, neutrophil counts in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) increased in both Gclm wild-type (+/+) and Gclm heterozygous (+/-) mice, whereas Gclm null (-/-) mice exhibited no such increase. Levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines KC and TNFα increased in BALF from Gclm +/+ and +/- mice, but not from Gclm -/- mice. Analysis of lung Cd levels suggested that QDs were cleared more readily from the lungs of Gclm -/- mice. There was no change in matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity in any of the mice. However, there was a decrease in whole lung myeloperoxidase (MPO) content in Gclm -/- mice, regardless of treatment, relative to untreated Gclm +/+ mice. We conclude that in mice TOPO-PMAT QDs have in vivo pro-inflammatory properties, and the inflammatory response is dependent on GSH synthesis status. Because there is a common polymorphism in humans that influences GCLM expression, these findings imply that humans with reduced GSH synthesis capabilities may be more susceptible to the pro-inflammatory effects of QDs.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Depletion of glutathione has been shown to occur in autopsied brains of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) as well as in animal models of PD. The goal of this study was to determine if chronic GSH deficiency per se resulted in complex I inhibition and/or dopamine depletion and whether these indices were further potentiated by aging or administration of paraquat, a redox-cycling herbicide that produces a PD-like neurodegeneration model in rodents (Brooks et al. 1999; McCormack et al. 2002). Deletion of the rate-limiting GSH synthesis gene, glutamate-cysteine ligase modifier subunit (Gclm) leads to significantly lower GSH concentrations in all tissues including brain. Gclm null (Gclm(-/-)) mice provide a model of prolonged GSH depletion to explore the relationship between GSH, complex I inhibition and dopamine loss in vivo. Despite ~60% depletion of brain GSH in Gclm(-/-) mice of ages 3-5 or 14-16 months, striatal complex I activity, dopamine levels, 3-nitrotyroine/tyrosine ratios, aconitase activity and CoASH remained unchanged. Administration of paraquat (10 mg/kg, twice/week, 3 weeks) to 3-5 month old Gclm(-/-) mice resulted in significantly decreased aconitase activity, complex I activity and dopamine levels but not in 3-5 month old Gclm(+/+) mice. Furthermore, paraquat-induced inhibition of complex I and aconitase activities in Gclm(-/-) mice was observed in the striatum but not cortex. The results suggest that chronic deficiency of GSH in Gclm(-/-) mice was not sufficient to result in complex I inhibition or dopamine depletion perhaps due to homeostatic mechanisms but required an additional oxidative stress insult as shown with paraquat exposure.
Full-text · Article · May 2013 · Toxicological Sciences