[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Enterobacter sakazakii has recently been recognized as an opportunistic foodborne pathogen, and dry infant formula serves as the mode of transmission. The objectives of this study were to investigate the heat resistance, survival and inactivation under room and refrigeration temperatures storage of dry and reconstituted infant formula milk (IFM). E. sakazakii strains (eight strains) showed a wide variability in heat resistance at different temperatures (55, 60 and 63C). The D-values at 55C ranged from 1.51 to 14.83 min, at 60C from 0.17 to 2.71 min and at 63C from 0.05 to 0.88 min. The calculated z values for the studied E. sakazakii strains ranged from 3.76–10.11C. Microwave oven heating of 60-mL portions of reconstituted IFM for 40–50 s was effective in eradicating inoculated E. sakazakii. Storing powdered IFM for 15 days at 4C resulted in at least a 1-log reduction in E. sakazakii strains, whereas storing reconstituted IFM at 4C for 2 weeks resulted in more than a 2-log reduction in E. sakazakii.PRACTICAL APPLICATIONSThis study shows that E. sakazakii strains differ widely in their heat resistance. No differences were observed between biofilm formers and nonformers in terms of heat-resistance in thermal inactivation kinetics experiments. Conventional high temperature short-time pasteurization processes are considered sufficient to inactivate all E. sakazakii strains, and a household microwave oven (40–50 s for 60-mL portions) can be used to inactivate E. sakazakii if present in reconstituted infant formula milk (IFM). Growth of E. sakazakii can be inhibited in powdered and reconstituted IFM by refrigeration. Also, it is recommended that reconstituted IFM be discarded or refrigerated if not immediately consumed. The probiotic L. acidophilus ATCC 4356 was not effective in inhibiting E. sakazakii in powdered or reconstituted IFM.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy (4000 to 600 cm(-1)) was utilized to detect sublethally heat-injured microorganisms: Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium ATCC 14028, a Gram-negative bacterium, and Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 19113, a Gram-positive bacterium. A range of heat treatments (N= 2) at 60 degrees C were evaluated: 0D (control), 2D, 4D, 6D, and 8D using a D(60 degrees C) (S. enterica serotype Typhimurium ATCC 14028 = 0.30 min, L. monocytogenes ATCC 19113 = 0.43 min). The mechanism of cell injury appeared to be different for Gram-negative and Gram-positive microbes as observed from differences in the 2nd derivative transformations and loadings plot of bacterial spectra following heat treatment. The loadings for PC1 and PC2 confirmed that the amide I and amide II bands were the major contribution to spectral variation, with relatively small contributions from C-H deformations, the antisymmetric P==O stretching modes of the phosphodiester nucleic acid backbone, and the C-O-C stretching modes of polysaccharides. Using soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA), the extent of injury could be predicted correctly at least 83% of the time. Partial least squares (PLS) calibration analysis was constructed using 5 latent variables for predicting the bacterial counts for survivors of the different heat treatments and yielded a high correlation coefficient (R= 0.97 [S. enterica serotype Typhimurium] and 0.98 [L. monocytogenes]) and a standard error of prediction (SEP= 0.51 [S. enterica serotype Typhimurium] and 0.39 log(10) CFU/mL [L. monocytogenes]), indicating that the degree of heat injury could be predicted.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Visible and short wavelength near-infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (600 to 1,100 nm) was evaluated as a technique for detecting and monitoring spoilage of pasteurized skim milk at 3 storage temperatures (6, 21, and 37 degrees C) over 3 to 30 h (control, t = 0 h; n = 3). Spectra, total aerobic plate count, and pH were obtained, with a total of 60 spectra acquired per sample. Multivariate statistical procedures, including principal component analysis, soft independent modeling of class analogy, and partial least squares calibration models were developed for predicting the degree of milk spoilage. Principal component analysis showed apparent clustering and segregation of milk samples that were stored at different time intervals. Milk samples that were stored for 30 h or less at different temperatures were noticeably separated from control and distinctly clustered. Soft independent modeling of class analogy analysis could correctly classify 88 to 93% of spectra of incubated samples from control at 30 h. A partial least squares model with 5 latent variables correlating spectral features with bacterial counts and pH yielded a correlation coefficient (R = 0.99 and 0.99) and a standard error of prediction (0.34 log(10) cfu/mL and 0.031 pH unit), respectively. It may be feasible to use short wavelength near-infrared spectroscopy to detect and monitor milk spoilage rapidly and noninvasively by correlating changes in spectral features with the level of bacterial proliferation and milk spoilage.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effect of nisin or citric acid or combinations of these two inhibitors on the inactivation of a cocktail of three Listeria innocua strains was investigated in a model brain heart infusion (BHI) broth and hummus (chickpea dip). In BHI broth, citric acid had a limited ability to inhibit L. innocua growth. Nisin initially reduced L. innocua concentrations by about 3 log cycles; however, L. innocua reached concentrations similar to those of the control after 5 days at 22 degrees C. In combination, the effects of 500 IU/ml nisin and 0.2% citric acid were synergistic and resulted in complete elimination of L. innocua in the BHI broth. The inhibition of L. innocua by nisin (500 or 1,000 IU/g), citric acid (0.1, 0.2, or 0.3%), or their combinations also was evaluated in hummus. Citric acid alone did not affect L. innocua growth or the aerobic bacterial plate count. A combination of 1,000 IU/g nisin and 0.3% citric acid was somewhat effective (approximately 1.5-log reduction) in controlling the concentration of L. innocua and the aerobic plate count for up to 6 days. This combination also may be useful, in addition to proper hygienic practices, for minimizing the growth of the pathogen Listeria monocytogenes in hummus.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of nisin in combination with heat or antimicrobial chemical treatments (such as lactic acid, chlorous acid, and sodium hypochlorite) on the inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes and total mesophiles in sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) caviar. The effects of nisin (250, 500, 750, and 1,000 IU/ml), lactic acid (1, 2, and 3%), chlorous acid (134 and 268 ppm), sodium hypochlorite (150 and 300 ppm), and heat at 60 degrees C for 3 min were evaluated for a five-strain mixture of L. monocytogenes and total mesophiles in sturgeon caviar containing 3.5% salt. Selected combinations of these antimicrobial treatments were also tested. Injured and viable L. monocytogenes cells were recovered using an overlay method. Treating caviar with > or =500 IU/ml nisin initially reduced L. monocytogenes by 2 to 2.5 log units. Chlorous acid (268 ppm) reduced L. monocytogenes from 7.7 log units to undetectable (<0.48 log units) after 4 days of storage at 4 degrees C. However, there were no synergistic effects observed for combinations of nisin (500 or 750 IU/ml) plus either lactic acid or chlorous acid. Lactic acid caused a slight reduction (approximately 1 log unit) in the microbial load during a 6-day period at 4 degrees C. Sodium hypochlorite was ineffective at the levels tested. Mild heating (60 degrees C for 3 min) with nisin synergistically reduced viable counts of L. monocytogenes and total mesophiles. No L. monocytogenes cells (<0.48 log units) were recovered from caviar treated with heat and nisin (750 IU/ml) after a storage period of 28 days at 4 degrees C.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent regulatory concerns about the presence of the pathogen Listeria monocytogenes in ready-to-eat aquatic foods such as caviar has prompted the development of postpackaging pasteurization processes. However, caviar is heat labile, and conventional pasteurization processes affect the texture, color, and flavor of these foods negatively. In this study, chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta, 2.5% total salt) caviar or ikura and sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus, 3.5% total salt) caviar were inoculated with three strains of Listeria innocua in stationary phase at a level of more than 10(7) CFU/g. L innocua strains were used because they exhibit an equivalent response to L monocytogenes for many physicochemical processing treatments, including heat treatment. The products were treated by immersion in 500 IU/ml nisin solution and heat processed (an 8-D process without nisin or a 4-D process with 500 IU/ml nisin) in a newly developed radio frequency (RF; 27 MHz) heating method at 60, 63, and 65 degrees C. RF heating along with nisin acted synergistically to inactivate L. innocua cells and total mesophilic microorganisms. In the RF-nisin treatment at 65 degrees C, no surviving L. innocua microbes were recovered in sturgeon caviar or ikura. The come-up times in the RF-heated product were significantly lower compared with the water bath-heated caviar at all treatment temperatures. The visual quality of the caviar products treated by RF with or without nisin was comparable to the untreated control.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2004 · Journal of food protection
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the feasibility of visible and short-wavelength near-infrared (SW-NIR) diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (600-1100 nm) to quantify the microbial loads in chicken meat and to develop a rapid methodology for monitoring the onset of spoilage.
Twenty-four prepackaged fresh chicken breast muscle samples were prepared and stored at 21 degrees C for 24 h. Visible and SW-NIR was used to detect and quantify the microbial loads in chicken breast muscle at time intervals of 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12 and 24 h. Spectra were collected in the diffuse reflectance mode (600-1100 nm). Total aerobic plate count (APC) of each sample was determined by the spread plate method at 32 degrees C for 48 h. Principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares (PLS) based prediction models were developed. PCA analysis showed clear segregation of samples held 8 h or longer compared with 0-h control. An optimum PLS model required eight latent variables for chicken muscle (R = 0.91, SEP = 0.48 log CFU g(-1)).
Visible and SW-NIR combined with PCA is capable of perceiving the change of the microbial loads in chicken muscle once the APC increases slightly above 1 log cycle. Accurate quantification of the bacterial loads in chicken muscle can be calculated from the PLS-based prediction method. SIGNIFICANCE AND THE IMPACT OF THE STUDY: Visible and SW-NIR spectroscopy is a technique with a considerable potential for monitoring food safety and food spoilage. Visible and SW-NIR can acquire a metabolic snapshot and quantify the microbial loads of food samples rapidly, accurately, and noninvasively. This method would allow for more expeditious applications of quality control in food industries.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2004 · Letters in Applied Microbiology