[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The development of targeted anti-cancer therapies through the study of cancer genomes is intended to increase survival rates and decrease treatment-related toxicity. We treated a transposon-driven, functional genomic mouse model of medulloblastoma with 'humanized' in vivo therapy (microneurosurgical tumour resection followed by multi-fractionated, image-guided radiotherapy). Genetic events in recurrent murine medulloblastoma exhibit a very poor overlap with those in matched murine diagnostic samples (<5%). Whole-genome sequencing of 33 pairs of human diagnostic and post-therapy medulloblastomas demonstrated substantial genetic divergence of the dominant clone after therapy (<12% diagnostic events were retained at recurrence). In both mice and humans, the dominant clone at recurrence arose through clonal selection of a pre-existing minor clone present at diagnosis. Targeted therapy is unlikely to be effective in the absence of the target, therefore our results offer a simple, proximal, and remediable explanation for the failure of prior clinical trials of targeted therapy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
(1)H-MR spectroscopy (MRS) and (18)F-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) PET are noninvasive imaging techniques able to assess metabolic features of brain tumors. The aim of this study was to compare diagnostic and prognostic information gathered by (18)F-DOPA PET and (1)H-MRS in children with supratentorial infiltrative gliomas or nonneoplastic brain lesions suspected to be gliomas.
We retrospectively analyzed 27 pediatric patients with supratentorial infiltrative brain lesions on conventional MRI (21 gliomas and 6 nonneoplastic lesions) who underwent (18)F-DOPA PET and (1)H-MRS within 2 weeks of each other. (1)H-MRS data (choline/N-acetylaspartate, choline-to-creatine ratios, and presence of lactate) and (18)F-DOPA uptake parameters (lesion-to-normal tissue and lesion-to-striatum ratios) were compared and correlated with histology, WHO tumor grade, and patient outcome.
(1)H-MRS and (18)F-DOPA PET data were positively correlated. Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy in distinguishing gliomas from nonneoplastic lesions were 95%, 83%, and 93% for (1)H-MRS and 76%, 83%, and 78% for (18)F-DOPA PET, respectively. No statistically significant differences were found between the 2 techniques (P > .05). Significant differences regarding (18)F-DOPA uptake and (1)H-MRS ratios were found between low-grade and high-grade gliomas (P≤.001 and P≤.04, respectively). On multivariate analysis, (18)F-DOPA uptake independently correlated with progression-free survival (P≤.05) and overall survival (P = .04), whereas (1)H-MRS did not show significant association with outcome.
(1)H-MRS and (18)F-DOPA PET provide useful complementary information for evaluating the metabolism of pediatric brain lesions. (1)H-MRS represents the method of first choice for differentiating brain gliomas from nonneoplastic lesions.(18)F-DOPA uptake better discriminates low-grade from high-grade gliomas and is an independent predictor of outcome.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (ATRT) is a rare embryonal tumor of the central nervous system with preponderance in very young children, the majority of whom are younger than 3 years of age at diagnosis. Historically, outcomes of this aggressive disease, even with extensive multimodal therapy, have been dismal. Recent improvements have come from therapies directed exclusively towards ATRT, but misdiagnosis or delays in the correct diagnosis lead to significantly worse survival rates. ATRTs most commonly occur supratentorially but have been described in virtually all central nervous system locations, including the cerebellopontine angle cistern, meninges, and spinal canal, and extradural locations. ATRTs originating from cranial nerves are rare. Here, we describe three cases of solitary ATRT arising from the 3rd cranial nerve (CN III) or close to its origin in the midbrain, all of which presented in patients within 6 months of birth, with isolated unilateral oculomotor nerve palsy and strikingly similar magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features. These MRI features include IV contrast enhancement, relative T2 hyposignal, and restricted water diffusion on apparent diffusion coefficient images, findings which are consistent with angiogenesis and high cellularity, and hence, suggestive of malignancy. We conclude that ATRT should be placed high on the differential diagnosis list when encountering a young infant presenting with isolated, unilateral 3rd nerve palsy and a small, solitary tumor arising from CN III that demonstrates malignant conventional and diffusion-weighted imaging features on MRI.
No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · Journal of Neuro-Oncology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report the finding of late persistent increased putaminal F-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) uptake following resection of a high-grade glioma involving the lateral portion of the ipsilateral precentral gyrus. Brain MRI findings were consistent with secondary putaminal degeneration. This F-DOPA PET phenomenon possibly represents elevated presynaptic dopamine function secondary to upregulation of the amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) activity, as a compensatory mechanism in response to cortical injury. In the setting of brain tumor surveillance, focal increased striatal F-DOPA uptake should be carefully interpreted in light of MRI findings and pathological changes related to corticostriatal connections.
No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · Clinical nuclear medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Interferon-γ receptor 1 (IFN-γR1) deficiency is one of the primary immunodeficiencies conferring Mendelian Susceptibility to Mycobacterial Disease (MSMD). Some cases of neoplasms have been recently reported in patients with MSMD, underlying the already known link between immunodeficiency and carcinogenesis. We report the first case of intracranial tumour, i.e. pineal germinoma, in a 11-year-old patient with complete IFN-γR1 deficiency. The first clinical presentation of the genetic immunodeficiency dates back to when the child was aged 2 y and 10 mo, when he presented a multi-focal osteomyelitis caused by Mycobacterium scrofulaceum. The diagnosis of IFN-γR1 deficiency (523delT/523delT in IFNGR1 gene) was subsequently made. The child responded to antibiotic therapy and remained in stable clinical condition until the age of 11 years, when he started complaining of frontal, chronic headache. MRI revealed a solid pineal region mass lesion measuring 20 × 29 × 36 mm. Histological findings revealed a diagnosis of pineal germinoma. The patient received chemotherapy followed by local whole ventricular irradiation with boost on pineal site, experiencing complete remission, and to date he is tumor-free at four years follow-up. Four other cases of tumors have been reported in patients affected by MSMD in our knowledge: a case of Kaposi sarcoma, a case of B-cell lymphoma, a case of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma and a case of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma. In conclusion, in patients with MSMD, not only the surveillance of infectious diseases, but also that of tumors is important.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (AT/RT) of the Central Nervous System and malignant rhabdoid tumor of the kidney (MRTK) may present different response to chemotherapy and outcome.
We describe the case of an infant with multifocal rhabdoid tumor with different behaviour and response to treatment depending on the anatomic site.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: LMD in children with recurrent medulloblastoma and other PNETs carries a poor prognosis and novel therapies are
urgently needed to improve disease control. Somatostatin receptor-2 (SSR-2)is overexpressed in medulloblastoma and other central
PNETs and can serve as a target for radionuclide tagged somatostatin analogues like 177Lu-DOTA-TATE that has shown considerable efficacy in adults with SSR-2 positive neuro-endocrine tumors. As a preliminary step
prior to testing this agent in children with LMD, we performed an efficacy study of i.t. 177Lu-DOTA-TATE in athymic rats bearing LMD from MBL. METHODS: The subarachnoid space was accessed through the animal's cervical
spine and a catheter was threaded along the dorsal aspect of spinal cord to the lumbar region and injected with 1 x 107 D341 human MBL cells and treatment initiated 3 days later. Groups of 10 animals received a single i.t. dose of 2, 3, or 5
mCi of 177Lu- DOTA-TATE or saline control. Animals were followed 300 days for survival. RESULTS: Treatment with 2 mCi resulted in an
increase in median survival of 58.3% compared with saline control (p < 0.001). Treatment with 5.0 mCi of 177Lu-DOTA-TATE increased median survival by 75.0% compared with the saline control group while a single dose of 3.0 mCi 177Lu-DOTA-TATE increased median survival compared with saline controls by 519.4%. Long-term survivors were seen in 0 of 10 animals
treated with saline, 4 of 11 treated with 3 mCi, and 3 of 12 treated with 5.0 mCi. CONCLUSION: Intrathecal 177Lu- DOTA TATE is efficacious in controlling LMD from medulloblastoma in athymic rats. A phase I trial of this agent is being
planned in children with LMD from recurrent MBL and other CNS PNETs.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Radiation treatment of GCT brain, in particular germinomas which are highly radio-sensitive,over the years has
evolved from the cranio-spinal irradiation(CSI) to more conformal treatment like whole ventricle radiation followed by tumor
bed boost (WV + TB), without compromising the results. We report our experience of treatment outcome of patients treated consecutively
over a period of more than ten years with both the methods. METHOD: Twelve consecutive patients registered and treated in
radiotherapy department between 2000 and 2013 after surgery (biopsy/decompression) and chemotherapy, were analysed in December
2013. Total Number (Histo-pathology) 12 (Germinoma- 9, Non-Germinoma-2, No histology-1); Median age (Years) 13 (Range 5-24
years); Gender-M/F (%) 10:2(83:17); Co-morbidities None; Pre-Surgery KPS >90 (92%); Surgery (n) Biopsy/Decompression± VP shunt
(11), No Surgery (1); Sub-site Pineal- 7(58%), Supra-sellar-5(42%). TREATMENT: Ten patients received 3D-CRT, while two received
IMRT. Three received CSI while nine received WV + TB. CSI dose ranged from 23.4 Gy - 36 Gy in 13-20 fractions. For WV the
intended dose was 36Gy/20 fractions followed by 9Gy/5 fractions to TB. Pre-radiation all received combination chemotherapy,
cisplatin or carboplatin ± etoposide ± irinotecan. RESULTS: All the patients tolerated and completed treatment with no serious
adverse effects. Follow-up was done with serial tumor markers, hormonal, visual, auditory assessment and MRI. Two patients,both
non-germinomas treated with CSI progressed and died with-in one year of treatment. Ten patients (9-germinomas, 1-no histology)
till date are doing fine,without any loco-regional or distant failures. Ten year overall survival is around 80%.Two patients
have developed hormonal imbalance and are on treatment,while one of them developed progressive bilateral optic atrophy which
was present prior to radiotherapy. CONCLUSION:Our results are comparable with the reported literature.The overall survival
in Germinomas is 100%,Treatment related effects are minimal as a result of reduced dose and limited treatment volume,contributing
possibly to better outcome along with various other reasons.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report on a 9-years-old patient with mild intellectual disability, facial dimorphisms, bilateral semicircular canal dysplasia, periventricular nodular heterotopias, bilateral hippocampal malrotation and abnormal cerebellar foliation, who developed mild motor impairment and gait disorder due to a pilocytic astrocytoma of the spinal cord. Array-CGH analysis revealed two paternal inherited chromosomal events: a 484.3 Kb duplication on chromosome 15q26.3 and a 247 Kb deletion on 22q11.23. Further, a second de novo 1.5 Mb deletion on 22q11.21 occurred. Chromosome 22 at q11.2 and chromosome 15 at q24q26 are considered unstable regions subjected to copy number variations, i.e. structural alterations of genome, mediated by low copy repeat sequences or segmental duplications. The link between some structural CNVs, which compromise fundamental processes controlling DNA stability, and genomic disorders suggest a plausible scenario for cancer predisposition.
Evaluation of the genes at the breakpoints cannot account simultaneously for the phenotype and tumour development in this patient. The two paternal inherited CNVs arguably are not pathogenic and do not contribute to the clinical manifestations. Similarly, although the de novo large deletion at 22q11.21 overlaps with the Di George (DGS) critical region and results in haploinsufficiency of genes compromising critical processes for DNA stability, this case lacks several hallmarks of DGS.
Full-text · Article · May 2014 · Molecular Cytogenetics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Infiltrative astrocytomas (IAs) represent a group of astrocytic gliomas ranging from low-grade to highly malignant, characterized by diffuse invasion of the brain parenchyma. When compared with their adult counterpart, pediatric IAs may be considered biologically distinct entities; nevertheless, similarly to those in adults they represent a complex oncologic challenge. The aim of this study was to investigate the diagnostic role, clinical contribution, and prognostic value of fused (18)F-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine ((18)F-DOPA) PET/MR images in pediatric supratentorial IAs.
Pediatric patients with supratentorial IAs involving at least 2 cerebral lobes, either newly diagnosed or with suspected disease progression, prospectively underwent (18)F-DOPA PET and conventional MR imaging, performed within 10 d of each other. (18)F-DOPA PET data were interpreted qualitatively and semiquantitatively, fusing images with MR images. PET scans were classified as positive if tumors identified on MR imaging exhibited tracer uptake above the level of the corresponding contralateral normal brain. Maximum standardized uptake values, tumor-to-normal contralateral tissue ratios, and tumor-to-normal striatum ratios were calculated for all tumors. Correlations between the degree and extent of (18)F-DOPA uptake, MR imaging tumor characteristics, and histologic results were investigated. The contribution of (18)F-DOPA PET/MR image fusion was considered relevant if it enabled one to select the most appropriate biopsy site, discriminate between disease progression and treatment-related changes, or influence treatment strategy. The patient's outcome was finally correlated with (18)F-DOPA uptake.
Thirteen patients (8 boys and 5 girls) were included (5 diffuse astrocytomas, 2 anaplastic astrocytomas, 5 gliomatosis cerebri, and 1 glioblastoma multiforme). The (18)F-DOPA uptake pattern was heterogeneous in all positive scans (9/13), revealing metabolic heterogeneities within each tumor. Significant differences in terms of (18)F-DOPA uptake were found between low- and high-grade lesions (P < 0.05). The diagnostic and therapeutic contribution of (18)F-DOPA PET/MR image fusion was relevant in 9 of 13 patients (69%). (18)F-DOPA uptake correlated significantly with progression-free survival (P = 0.004).
Our results indicate that (18)F-DOPA PET/MR image fusion may be a reliable imaging biomarker of pediatric IAs. Information gathered by this combined imaging approach can be readily transferred to the everyday practice and may help clinicians to better stratify patients with IAs, especially diffuse astrocytomas and gliomatosis cerebri, for diagnostic, therapeutic, and prognostic purposes.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2014 · Journal of Nuclear Medicine