[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Indian subcontinent harbours both the human mtDNA macrohaplogroups M and N, of which M is the most prevalent. In this study, we discuss the overall distribution of the various haplogroups and sub-haplogroups of M among the different castes and tribes to understand their diverse pattern with respect to geographical location and linguistic affiliation of the populations. An overview of about 170 studied populations, belonging to four distinct linguistic families and inhabiting different geographic zones, revealed wide diversity of about 22 major haplogroups of M. The tribal populations belonging to the same linguistic family but inhabiting different geographical regions (Dravidian and Austro-Asiatic speakers) exhibited differences in their haplogroup diversity. The northern and southern region castes showed greater diversity than the castes of other regions.
Full-text · Article · May 2009 · Journal of Genetics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Indian populations show mitochondrial DNA macrohaplogroups M and N. Among the various haplogroups of N, haplogroup R and its sub-haplogroup U are predominant among the diverse populations. An overview of about 130 studied populations reveals wide diversity of haplogroup R and its sub-haplogroup U among varied ethnic status and different linguistic families. The various lineages of macrohaplogroup N observed in India shows least affiliation with respect to language, geography or ethnicity. However, between the regions, there is a wide variation of subhaplogroups of R and U; western region among the castes and southern region among the tribes show higher haplogroup diversity than the other regions.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2008 · International Journal of Human Genetics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tibeto-Burman populations of India provide an insight into the peopling of India and aid in understanding their genetic relationship with populations of East, South and Southeast Asia. The study investigates the genetic status of one such Tibeto-Burman group, Adi of Arunachal Pradesh based on 15 autosomal microsatellite markers. Further the study examines, based on 9 common microsatellite loci, the genetic relationship of Adi with 16 other Tibeto-Burman speakers of India and 28 neighboring populations of East and Southeast Asia. Overall, the results support the recent formation of the Adi sub-tribes from a putative ancestral group and reveal that geographic contiguity is a major influencing factor of the genetic affinity among the Tibeto-Burman populations of India.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Surnames are a unique bio-cultural trait, which provide a convenient means of investigating microevolution in hu-man populations. The patrilineal mode of inheritance of surnames mimics highly polymorphic genes on the Y-chro-mosome; the non-biological nature of its dispersal is ex-pected to be independent of fertility and mortality differentials and therefore satisfies the expectations of the neutral theory of evolution (Kimura, 1980), which has been described by Karlin and MacGregor (1967) as the theoretical distribution of different mutant forms that are maintained in a population under the equilibrium between random genetic drift, mutation, and migration. The occur-rence of different surnames in human populations also conforms to Fisher's logarithmic (Chakraborty et al, 1981) and Pareto's discrete (Fox 1983) distributions. The earliest application of theoretical models to the sur-name distribution has been considered among the parishes in the Parma valley (Yasuda et al, 1974) and in island populations of Sardinia (Zei et al, 1983a, b). Since then, there has been progress in the use of isonymy studies to investigate the genetic structure among a wide variety of populations, particularly in Europe and Latin American countries (Barrai et al, 1987; Barrai et al, 2003; Colanto-nio et al, 2003). These studies have shown that the ____________________________________________________________
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We studied the distribution of ABO blood group frequencies of the Galo and Mishing subtribes of the Adi tribal cluster in East Siang District, Arunachal Pradesh, India, in order to investigate the intertribal and temporal allelic variation. Blood groups O and AB showed higher frequencies (28.4%, 27.4%) in the Galo, whereas group O (45%) was predominant in the Mishing. Allele r is significantly different in the Galo (44.6%) and Mishing (60.3%). The chi-square test indicated significant deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Adi tribes show high heterogeneity and indicate significant temporal variation in ABO genotype frequencies in the Galo, Mishing, and Padam, whereas the Panggi, a small isolated subtribe of Adi, show similar and stable frequencies.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Isolated tribes in remote areas are important for genetic studies, and one such little known subtribe of the Adi tribe, namely, the Adi Panggi (Pangi) of the Upper Siang District of Arunachal Pradesh, India, was studied for surname distribution to deduce the deviation from random mating and genetic kinship between villages. The estimates of homonymy (homozygosity) vary between villages; husbands show wider variation (0.009 to 0.23) than wives (0.005 to 0.054). The remote villages of Sumsing and Sibum and Geku Town show lower entropy among husbands' surnames than among Panggi wives. The highest equivalent surname number was found among Sibum husbands (9.9), Panggi wives (12.6), and Panggi and non-Panggi wives (13.5). The estimates of unbiased random isonymy among husbands and wives together show the smallest values in Sibum (0.05) and the highest values in Sumsing and Ramku (0.16). The random and nonrandom components of the inbreeding coefficient show avoidance of inbreeding among the Panggi villages (-0.012 to -0.27) except in Sibum (0.012). Genetic kinship between villages based on the Mij distance shows different clusters of villages among husbands and wives. Both the Panggi wives and the Panggi and non-Panggi wives show a similar pattern of clustering between villages. The wide homonymy variation between villages among the patrilocal Adi Panggi indicates differential genetic kinetics among husbands and wives, avoidance of inbreeding, and female-oriented differential gene flow with little effect on the overall intervillage genetic kinship.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The study examines the regional genetic diversity among 23 Arunachal Pradesh tribes based on 2 loci (ABO and PTC). The results show wide variation in allele frequencies. The 'r' allele shows higher frequency (than 'p' and 'q') and show geographical variation. The results of NJ tree and PCA plot show separation of tribal groups that fairly corresponds to their geographical locations and ethno-historical backgrounds. The Harpending and Jenkins regression plot suggests that these tribes are getting differentiated primarily due to genetic drift and genetic isolation, where gene flow plays a significant role in a few tribes. Also, the affinity among the regional groups based on their ethno-historical origin and migration and genetic diversity was considered by a model-based approach especially by Rao's hierarchical analysis. The results of the study thus support ethno-historical accounts of their antiquity and possible common origin.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We studied the distribution of ABO blood groups among three little known subtribes of the Adi tribe, namely, the Panggi, Komkar, and Padam, of the East and Upper Siang districts of Arunachal Pradesh, India. Blood group O was the predominant group in the Komkar and Padam, whereas group A was the predominant group in the Panggi. Blood group AB was found to be the least frequent group in all three studied populations. The populations showed significant differences in blood groups A (43% in Panggi, 23% in Komkar, and 18% in Padam) and O (33% in Panggi, 54% in Komkar, and 61% in Padam). The chi-square test indicated significant deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, suggesting high heterogeneity among the tribes.