V Spencer

St Louis University Hospital, San Luis, Missouri, United States

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Publications (11)75.47 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the clinical value of growth factors (GFs) with peripheral-blood stem cells (PBSC) collected following mobilization with GFs, we randomized patients to receive or not to receive GFs following transplant. Thirty-seven patients were apheresed after receiving the combination of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) with granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) at doses of 10 micrograms/kg/d and 5 micrograms/kg/d, respectively, for 6 days before apheresis and during a median of 4 days of collections. One day after the infusion of autologous marrow and PBSC, patients were randomly assigned to receive no GFs or a combination of G-CSF (7.5 micrograms/kg/d) and GM-CSF (2.5 micrograms/kg/d), both as a 2-hour intravenous (i.v.) infusion twice per day until the neutrophil count was greater than 1,500/microL. The median days to recovery to an absolute neutrophil count (ANC) of 100/microL (9 v 11.5, P = .0005), 500/microL (10 v 16, P = .0004), or 1,000/microL (12 v 21, P = .0008) was shortened with the use of GFs, post-PBSC infusion. In addition, the duration of hospitalization was shorter (19 v 21 days, P = .0112) in the arm receiving GFs post-PBSC infusion. There was no significant difference between the two study arms in the duration of fever, documented septic episodes, or RBC or platelet transfusion requirements. Despite faster neutrophil recovery and shortened duration of hospitalization with GFs administered after PBSC transplantation, the measured clinical variables of febrile days, septic episodes, and transfusion requirements were similar between the study arms. The use of GFs post-PBSC transfusion is associated with a modest clinical benefit.
    No preview · Article · May 1994 · Journal of Clinical Oncology
  • G Spitzer · D Adkins · F Dunphy · P Petruska · V Spencer · W Velasquez
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    ABSTRACT: We have evaluated tandem cycles of a tri-drug combination, termed CVP (cyclophosphamide, etoposide [VP-16], and cisplatin [Platinol]), at four levels in more than 300 patients with various types of tumors. Tandem CVP appears to be at least therapeutically equivalent to alternatives. A second potentially non-cross-resistant combination of mitoxantrone and thiotepa (MT), with or without etoposide, has been used in sequence following CVP to improve long-term, disease-free survival in patients who have multiple metastatic sites, who relapse shortly after adjuvant therapy, or who show other unfavorable clinical features. A combination of MT and etoposide (MVT) achieved an overall response rate of 61% in 32 patients with metastatic or refractory breast cancer. The etoposide was then eliminated to decrease the major toxicities of this regimen. MT was subsequently given to 37 evaluable patients prior to bone marrow infusion. The overall response rate was 48.5% Thirty patients with metastatic breast cancer were then treated with induction therapy, a cycle of CVP, and then a cycle of MT. Given the low complete remission (CR) rate to induction therapy in these patients, the CR rate achieved with CVP-MT was encouraging. Further studies are ongoing.
    No preview · Article · Feb 1993 · Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
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    ABSTRACT: Forty-three patients received etoposide, cyclophosphamide, and fractionated total body irradiation before allogeneic marrow transplantation. Fifteen patients had chronic myelogenous leukemia in chronic phase or acute leukemia in first remission (standard risk) and twenty-eight patients with more advanced disease (high risk). All patients received etoposide 1,500 mg/m2 intravenously on day -8, cyclophosphamide 60 mg/kg/day intravenously on days -7 and -6, and total body irradiation at 170 cGy twice a day on days -3, -2, and -1. During the first 100 days 12 high risk patients (43%) died from causes unrelated to relapse while none of the standard risk patients died. Renal and hepatic dysfunction were also significantly increased during the first 14 days in the high risk group. The addition of 1,500 mg/m2 of etoposide to the cyclophosphamide and total body irradiation was well tolerated for patients with standard risk. However, the regimen was poorly tolerated with high mortality in patients with more advanced disease.
    No preview · Article · Sep 1992 · American Journal of Hematology
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    ABSTRACT: Peripheral blood cells (PBC) can hasten hematopoietic recovery after high-dose chemotherapy. To determine if PBC apheresed after mobilization further enhance hematopoietic recovery over that achieved with autologous bone marrow (ABM) and recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (rhGM-CSF), 14 patients with metastatic solid tumors were supported by ABM and rhGM-CSF during the first course of high doses of cyclophosphamide, etoposide, and cisplatin (CVP) and 11 of these 14 patients by mobilized PBC with ABM and rhGM-CSF during the second CVP. Each patient served as his or her own control. Identical doses of CVP were administered in both courses: cyclophosphamide 5.25 g/m2, etoposide 1,200 mg/m2, and cisplatin 165 to 180 mg/m2. PBC were collected on day 10 after mobilization with cyclophosphamide (3 g/m2) intravenously (IV) on day 1, doxorubicin (50 mg/m2) as a continuous IV infusion over 48 hours starting day 2, and rhGM-CSF as a daily 4-hour IV infusion starting day 4 at 0.6 mg/m2 for 14 days. Comparing recovery in the 11 patients to receive two cycles of therapy, the median days to an absolute neutrophil count of 0.1 x 10(9)/L and 0.5 x 10(9)/L were not statistically significant between the two courses; neither was there a difference in the incidence of fever and bacteremia. The median number of days to platelet count of 0.02 x 10(12)/L unmaintained by platelet transfusion was 20 from marrow infusion for course 1 and 16 for course 2 (P = .059). The median number of days to a platelet count of 0.05 x 10(12)/L was significantly shortened: 24 and 19 days for courses 1 and 2, respectively (P = .045). Patients who received PBC required fewer number of platelet transfusions. Extramedullary toxicities were not different between the groups. Our finding of enhanced early recovery of platelets and reduced platelet transfusion requirement is in concordance with other studies.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 1992 · Blood
  • Gary Spitzer · William Velasquez · Frank R. Dunphy · Verneeda Spencer
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    ABSTRACT: Recent studies in autologous bone marrow or peripheral blood transplantation in solid tumors are discussed. The toxicity and activity of high-dose cisplatin or carboplatin combined with etoposide and other drugs are described. The results of trials in nonseminomatous germ cell tumors, neuroblastoma, ovarian cancer, and brain tumors are detailed and discussed. The impressive antitumor activities noted in certain subgroups should lead to an early application of these strategies before drug resistance becomes prevalent.
    No preview · Article · May 1992 · Current Opinion in Oncology
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    ABSTRACT: To determine if peripheral blood cells (PBC) apheresed following mobilization with chemotherapy and recombinant growth factor further enhances hematopoietic recovery over that achieved with autologous bone marrow (ABM) and recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) ÷ 14 patients with metastatic solid tumors were supported by ABM and GM-CSF during the first course of high doses of cyclophosphamide, etoposide, and cisplatin (CVP) and by mobilized PBC with ABM and GM-CSF during the second course. Each patient served as his or her own control. Identical doses of CVP were given in both courses: cyclophosphamide 5.25 g/m2, etoposide 1200 mg/m2, and cisplatin 165–180 mg/m2. PBC were collected on day 10 after mobilization with cyclophosphamide intravenously (IV) and doxorubicin and GM-CSF as a daily four-hour IV infusion at 0.6 mg/m2 for 14 days. The duration of absolute neutropenia under 0.1 × 109/L was not statistically significant between cycles but platelet recovery to both 0.02 × 1012/L and 0.05 × 1012/L was enhanced. Additional studies on different approaches to further enhance the reconstitutive powers of peripheral blood with lesser toxicity include studies with G-CSF administration and combination GM-CSF and G-CSF for six days prior to apheresis. These approaches were equivalent to chemotherapy and growth factors but were less toxic.
    No preview · Article · Jan 1992 · Stem Cells
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    ABSTRACT: Cyclosporine and methotrexate at standard doses (15 mg/m2 on day 1 and 10 mg/m2 on days 3, 6, and 11, total 45 mg/m2) are effective in the prophylaxis of acute graft-vs.-host disease. However, the combination has significant early toxicities with delayed engraftment, increased mucositis, and hepatotoxicity. We modified the combination by adding single-dose methylprednisolone and lowered the total dose of methotrexate to 35 mg/m2 (5 mg/m2 on days 1, 3, and 6, and then 10 mg/m2 on days 11 and 18) and then to 20 mg/m2 (5 mg/m2 on days 1, 3, 6, and 11) in an attempt to decrease these side effects in two sequential consecutive groups of patients. We demonstrated that the modified regimens maintained the efficacy with reduced toxicities. The rate of engraftment was comparable to cyclosporine alone and the hepatotoxicity was reduced with reduced doses of methotrexate. Factors such as early immunosuppression of the host, intravenous immunoglobulin, the timing of steroid administration, nucleotide free diet and germ free environment may contribute to the effectiveness of the combination and permit reduction of methotrexate dose.
    No preview · Article · Dec 1991 · American Journal of Hematology
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    ABSTRACT: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is one of the most common causes of morbidity and mortality after allogeneic marrow transplantation. We studied 14 consecutive CMV-seropositive patients adding ganciclovir (2.5 mg/kg i.v. every 8 hours for 7 days prior to transplant and 6 mg/kg three times a week after neutrophils became greater than 0.5 x 10(9)/l and the patients were platelet transfusion-independent until d 70) to our previous prophylaxis regimen which consisted of intravenous immunoglobulin and acyclovir. The result was compared with 30 consecutive patients whom we studied with our previous regimen. The addition of ganciclovir did not cause any extra toxicities. The incidence of interstitial pneumonitis and cumulative probability of CMV excretion in the first 100 d post-transplantation was significantly reduced (p = 0.038 and p = 0.035 respectively). The result shows that addition of ganciclovir significantly decreased the incidence of CMV infection in the early post-transplantation period.
    No preview · Article · Dec 1991 · European Journal Of Haematology
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    ABSTRACT: Because of potential tumor contamination and inadequacy of current purging technique of bone marrow in patients with solid tumors, we investigated an alternative approach to high-dose therapy without autologous bone marrow (ABM) infusion. Three levels of nonmyeloablative doses of cyclophosphamide 4.5 to 5.25 g/m2, etoposide 750 to 1,200 mg/m2, and cisplatin 120 to 165 mg/m2 (CVP) were administered to patients with metastatic solid tumors. Patients were randomized to ABM (n = 46) or no-ABM (NABM) (n = 46) infusion after CVP to study the impact of ABM on hematopoietic recovery, morbidity, and mortality. All patients had ABM harvested, underwent conventional chemotherapy, and then received CVP. Seventy-three patients received two courses of similar doses. The following were the median days to absolute neutrophil count (ANC) of 0.1 x 10(9)/L: for the ABM arm, 19, 21, and 19 and for the NABM arm, 23, 20, and 21 at levels 1, 2, and 3, respectively, during course 1 (P = .01, .80, and .01, respectively). During course 2, ANCs to 0.1 x 10(9)/L and 0.5 x 10(9)/L were attained significantly faster at levels 1 and 3 in the ABM arm. ANC to 1.0 x 10(9)/L was comparable in both arms. Incidence of infection and duration of fever were similar in both arms. Although mortality and the incidence of delayed hematopoietic recovery were more frequent in the NABM arm, this was not statistically significant. Platelet recovery was consistently prolonged in course 2 in both arms, with demonstrable benefit of ABM in course 2 when dose levels were collectively considered. We conclude that (1) ABM enhanced recovery of ANC to 0.1 x 10(9)/L; (2) ABM did not decrease the incidence of infections and the duration of fever; and (3) CVP can be safely given without ABM to carefully selected patients.
    No preview · Article · Oct 1991 · Journal of Clinical Oncology

  • No preview · Article · Feb 1990 · Haematology and blood transfusion
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    ABSTRACT: Several proto-oncogenes have been reported to be expressed in normal and malignant hematopoietic cells. Since these studies have been done almost exclusively by Northern and dot-blot analyses using mixed populations of cells, any conclusions concerning quantitative changes in gene expression are difficult to document. We have developed a rapid and sensitive RNA-in situ hybridization technique permitting detection of as few as 5 copies of mRNA per individual cell. Using this technique we have studied the expression levels of several oncogenes including MYC, SIS, FMS, p53, FOS and RAF in both normal hematopoietic cells and bone marrow (BM) cells obtained from acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) patients at presentation, at relapse and in complete remission (CR). Two of these oncogenes, MYC and SIS, are expressed at levels at least 2-5-fold higher in hematopoietic cells obtained from leukemia patients than in any normal hematopoietic cell examined, including cells obtained from regenerating bone marrow. The proportion of abnormal cells correlated well with the percentage of blast cells determined by morphological examination. In 7 out of 10 AML patients in morphological remission, a subpopulation of cells is detectable with abnormally high levels of MYC and/or SIS mRNA. These high levels of MYC expression are similar to those found in BM cells obtained from AML patients at presentation or relapse, but the percentage of cells with this abnormality is generally much lower. Continued follow-up of these patients has shown that 5 of them relapsed within 8 months. At this time, none of the 3 patients which were negative for MYC overexpression has relapsed.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
    No preview · Article · Feb 1989 · Bone Marrow Transplantation

Publication Stats

222 Citations
75.47 Total Impact Points


  • 1992-1993
    • St Louis University Hospital
      San Luis, Missouri, United States
    • Ottawa Regional Cancer Foundation
      Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
  • 1991-1992
    • University of Missouri - St. Louis
      Saint Louis, Michigan, United States
  • 1989-1991
    • University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center
      Houston, Texas, United States