[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A new triterpene, lancamarolide (1), and seven known triterpenes, oleanonic acid (2), lantadene A (3), 11α-hydroxy-3-oxours-12-en-28-oic acid (4), betulinic acid (5), lantadene B (6), and lantaninilic acid (7) were isolated from the aerial parts of Lantana camara in the course of bioassay-guided isolation, and their nematicidal activities against Meloidogyne incognita, the root knot nematode, were carried out. Oleanonic acid was found to be the most active compound and exhibited 80% mortality after 72 h at 0.0625% concentration, which is comparable with that of the standard furadan.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: isolation, structure elucidation and leishmanicidal activity of two new triterpenes, lantaninilic acid (I) and lantoic acid (II) along with six known triterpenes
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The antibacterial and antifungal activity of methanolic extract, its different fractions and pure compounds oleanolic acid (1) and 3, 4, 3′-tri-O-methylellagic acid (2) was evaluated against various Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria and fungi. The methanolic extract, its ether soluble and ethyl acetate soluble fractions exhibited strong activity against Bacillus subtilis with MIC = 62.5 µg/disc. Ethyl acetate soluble fraction also showed strong activity against Micrococcus luteus ATCC 9341 with MIC=62.5 µg/disc. Acetone soluble fraction demonstrated activity against Shigella dysenteriae (MIC= 62.5 µg/disc). The petroleum ether soluble fraction was found to be active against fungi Aspergullus flavus, Aspergullus niger and Trichophyton rubrum with MIC 250 µg/disc. Compounds 1 and 2 were found inactive against the microorganisms tested.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2014 · Journal- Chemical Society of Pakistan
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction
Cassia alata (Synonym; Senna alata) belonging to the family leguminosae and subfamily of Fabaceae, commonly known as seven golden candlesticks, and ringworm senna (U.Quattroch et al 2012). This plant is native to the West Indies, tropical America, found wild almost throughout India and Pakistan (C.P. Khare, 2007 C. alata with golden blooms is a summer bloomer and a striking spring that last for several weeks but prefer cooler month for flowering (A.B. Ray et al, 2010, K. S. Krishnan Marg1992). This shrub may grow up to 3 meters tall with irregular, angled, glabrous branches. Flowers have bright yellow colour. It has long, membranous, dehiscent pods with 25 or more seeds per pod. (Ivan A. Ross 2003, Supriya Kumar Bhattacharjee 2004).
Cassia alata is widely used as traditional medicine in India and Southeast Asia (Omar et al., 2002). This plant is reported to possess insecticidal, anti-inflammatory, hydragogue, sudorific, diuretic, Pescicidal properties. Fresh leaves juice is used for ring worm, snakebite, scorpion bite, Favus,skin diseases, impetigo, syphilis sores, itching, mycosis (washerman’s itch), herpes and eczema. Also useful for the skin diseases by rubbing fresh leaves on skin. The leaves have laxative properties and can be effective as such. Leaves in decoction is considered as antibacterial, antifungal, febrifuge, astringent, expectorant, antitumor, purgative and for skin problems in livestock. Roots have anti-inflammatory, expectorant, antibacterial antitumor, antifungal, laxative, purgative, and astringent properties and also useful for urinary tract problems /conditions. (U. Quattrochi, F.L.S., 2012).
Flower and leaves decoction also used internally in asthma, bronchitis and constipation and for washing of eczematous patches and skin diseases (Schankar Gopal Jushi, 2000). The ethyl acetate extract of C. allata leaves possess hypoglycamic activity (A.B. Ray et al, 2010). Dried leaves infusion is taken orally as a blood purifier for diarrhea, worms. Leaves decoction is taken orally to hasten delivery. Hot water extract of this plant is taken orally as a purgative, anthelmintic and to relieve fever. (Ivan A. Ross 2003).
The methanolic extract of the plant showed antioxidant activity (P.Panichayupakaranant 2003). This plant has hepatoprotective property. The main constituents of C.alata are flavonoids, alkaloids, anthraquinone derivatives, tannins, sterols and triterpenes (VS Neharkar, KG Gaikward 2011). In the present paper we are reporting the isolation and characterization of stigmasteril (1), -sitosterol (2), kaempferil (3) and luteolin (4). Herein we are also presenting the antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the methanolic extract of leaves, stem and beans of this plant. All the extract showed significant antibacterial and antifungal activities. (Table 1) and weak antioxidant activity (Table 2).
Instruments and chemicals
Vaccum liquid chromatography. Thin layer chromatography (TLC) was performed on pre-coated silica gel F-254. (Merck). The mass spectra were scanned on Jeol-JMS HX-110 mass spectrormeter. The 1H- and 13C-NMR spectra were recorded on a Brukr spectrometer operating 500, 300 and 75 MHz. the chemical shift values are reported in d (ppm) relagive to siMe4 (TMS) as on internal standard. The coupling constant (J) are given in Hz.
The Cassia alata was collected from Karachi in Singh province and identified by Mr. Ghulam Rasool. A voucher specimen (86464) has been deposited in the herbarerium at Department of Botany, Faculty of Science University of Karachi, sindh Pakistan.
Extraction and Isolation:
The air dried beans of this plant (3 kg) were extracted repeatedly with methanol at room temperature. The solvent was evaporated under vacuum to obtain 750 g beans crude extract. The resultant dark greenish brown gummy crude extracted (discard) and n-butanol fractions. Each fraction was concentrated in vacuum to have 15 g ethyl acetate, 15 g n-butanol soluble fractions. The ethyl acetate soluble fractions was further partitioned with n-bexane to obtained 14 g n-heane soluble fraction and 1 g n-hexane insoluble fractions. The n-hexane soluble fraction (14 g) was subjected to vaccum liquid chromatography (VLC) (n-hexane; n-hexane ethyl acetate in order of increasing polarity) which furnished 22 fractions (Fr-1-Fr-22). The fr-11 eluted with n-hexane:EtOAc (9.5:0.5) gave a white crystalline solid which showed single spot on TLC using n-hexane:EtOAc (9:1) as a solvent system was identified as sigmasterol (1) (100 mg). The F-12 eluted with n-hexane:EtOAc (9:1) showed single spot on TLC n-hexane:EtOAc (9:1) appeared as white crystalline solid and was identified as b-sitosterol (2) (100 g). The VLC Fr-15 was subjected to reverse-phase chromatography using sephadex column LH-20 which yielded 12 fractions (Fr-15-1 Fr-15-12). The Fr-15-9 was further subjected to reverse phase chromatography using sephadex column LH-20 furnished 18 fractions (Fr-9-1-Fr-9-18). The Fr-9-10 eluted with n-heane:CHCl3:MeOH(0.5:3:1.5) gave yellow amorphous powder which showed single spot on TLC using CHCl3: MeOH (9.2:0.8) as a solvent system was identified as kaempferil (3) (37 g). The Fr-9-9 was further subjected to reverse-phase chromatography using sephadex column LH-20 which yielded 13 fractions (Fr-9-9-1 to Fr-9-9-13). The Fr-9-9-3 eluted with n-hexane:CHCl3: MeOH (0.5:3:1.5) showed single spot on TLC using CHCl3:MeOH (9.2:0./8) as a solvent system appeared as yellowish powder was identified as luteoli (4) 27 mg).
Yellow amorphous powder. 1H-NMR (300 MHz, MeOD) 8.09 (2H, d, J = 8.7 Hz, H-2’, 6’), 6.91 (2, d, J = 8.7 Hz, H-3’, 5’), 6.43 (1H, d, J = 1.8 Hz, H-8), 6.19 (1H, d, J = 1.8 Hz, H-6). All data were identical with that of kaempferol.
Yellow powder. 1H- NMR (300 MHz, MeOD). 7.39 (1H, dd, J = 9, 1.8 Hz, H-6’) 7.36 (1H, d, J = 1.8 Hz, H-2’) 6.88 (1H, d, J = 9 Hz, H-5’) 6..53 (1H, and H-3), 6.43 (1H, d, J = 1.8 Hz, H-8 6.19 (1H, d, J = 1.8 Hz, H-6).
Screening of antibacterial activity: The pathogenic bacteria for the sake were obtained from the Department of Microbiology, Federal Urdu University of Arts, Science and Technology, Karachi-Pakistan. The antibacterial activity ofagainst eleven gram positive and nineteen gram negative bacteria were explored in this study. All the bacterial isolates were checked and identified on the basis of conventional methods for purity and maintained on nutrient agar at 40c in the refrigerator for further work. Antibacterial activity of crude extract against the test organisms were determined by using agar-well method. Autoclaved Muller Hinton broth was used to keep the bacterial culture in log phase for 2 hrs with constant agitation and subsequently wells were dug onto Muller Hinton Agar. Later, 10 microliters of culture were poured into the wells (Perez et al, 1990). All plates were incubated at 28+ 2°C for 24 -48 hours and after incubation diameter of zone of inhibition was measured. Gentamicin antibiotic was used as a control (Vaghasiya et al, 2009).
Table 1.Antibacterial activity of different extracts of Cassia alata zone of inhibition diameter (mm)
bacteria Zone of inhibition in mm (mean+S.D)
Bacillus cereus - - - >15 - - -
Bacillus subtilis 9 - - >15 - - -
Bacillus thereugiensis - - - >15 - - -
Corynebacterium diptheriae 11 - - >15 - - -
Corynebacterium hofmanii - - - >15 - - -
Corynebacterium xerosis - - - >15 - - -
Micrococcus leutus ATCC9341 - - - >15 - - -
Micrococcus leutus - - - >15 - - -
Streptococcus fecalis - - - >15 - - -
Streptococcus pyogenes 11 9 9 >15 - - -
Methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus 10 11 12 >15 - - -
Staphylococcus aureus - - - >15 - - -
Staphylococcus aureus AB188 - 11 14 >15 - - -
Staphylococcus epidermidis 13 13 14 >15 - - -
Enterobacter 15 14 13 >15 500 - -
Escherichia coli ATCC 8739 - - - >15 - - -
Escherichia coli - - - >15 - - -
E. coli multi drug resistance - - - >15 - - -
Klebsiella pneumoniae 17 15 15 >15 250 250 250
Proteus mirabilis - - - >15 - - -
Pseudomonas aeroginosa ATCC 12 14 14 >15 - - -
Salmonella typhi 12 - 13 >15 - - -
Salmonella paratyphi A - - - >15 - - -
Salmonella paratyphi B - - - >15 - - -
Shigella dysenteriae 13 13 14 >15 - - -
Shigella flexeherii - - - >15 - - -
Pseudomonas aeroginosa - - - >15 - - -
CA-L= Cassia alata Leaves, CA-S = Cassia alata Stem, CA-BN = Cassia alata Beans.
Screening of antifungal activity against pathogenic fungi:
Pathogenic fungi tested:
The test organisms for this study were members of the 6 saprophytic fungi Penicillium sp,Aspergilus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Fusarium sp, Rhizopu and Helminthosporum, 5 dermatophytic Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum, Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton tonsurans and 6 yeast including Candida albicans, Candida albicans ATCC 0383,Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida galbrata, Candida tropicalis, Candida kruzei. The fungal isolates were obtained from the Department of Microbiology, Federal Urdu University of Arts, Science and Technology, Karachi-Pakistan. All the fungal isolates were checked for purity and maintained on Sabourd Dextrose agar (SDA) at 40c in the refrigerator until required for use. Antifungal activity of sp-31, sp-33, sp-41 and sp-44 were tested using agar-well method. Autoclaved distilled water was used for the preparation of fungal spore suspension and transferred aseptically into each SDA plates. All plates were incubated at 28+ 2°C for 24 -48 hours and after incubation diameter of zone of inhibition was measured.
Determination of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC):Minimum inhibitory Concentration (MIC) were determined by Micro broth dilution method using 96-well microtitre plate .Stock solution of 100 mg/ml of SP 05,SP 22 and SP 26were prepared in distilled water. Two fold serial dilutions of extracts was made in 100 µl broth and subsequently 10 µl of two hour refreshed culture matched with 0.5 Mac Farland index was added to each well. One well served as antifungal agent control while other served as culture control. Microtitre plate was incubated for 24 hours at 37 ºc. The MIC was read as the well showing no visible growth.
Table 2.In Vitro Antifungal activity zone of inhibition (mm)
YEAST Zone of inhibition in mm
Candida albicans - - - >12
Candida albicans ATCC 0383 - - - >12
Saccharomyces cerevisiae - - - >12
Microsporumcanis - - - >12
Microsporum gypseum - - - >12
Trichophyton rubrum - - - >12
Trichophyton tonsurans - - - >12
Trichophyton mentagrophytes - - - >12
Aspergillus flavus - - - >12
Aspergillus niger - - - >12
Fusarium specie - 13 13 >12
Penicillium sp - - - >12
Rhizopus - - - >12
Helminthosporum - - - >12
Antioxidant activity of the test sample was determined by using the method described by Lee et al. (1998). 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) was prepared in ethanol (300 uM). Briefly, 10 µL of test sample and 90 μL solution of stable radical, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) was added in 96 - well micro titer plates and incubated at 37º C for 30 minutes. Absorbance was measured at 515 nm by using a spectrophotometer. Percent inhibition of radicals by treatment of test sample was determined by comparison with a DMSO treated control group.
% Inhibition = (absorbance of the control-absorbance of the test sample) x 100
Absorbance of the control
Ascorbic acid was used as standard control. The EC 50 value calculated denotes the concentration (in ug/ml) of sample required to scavenge50% of DPPH
Lee, S. K., Zakaria, H., Chuyng, H. L., Kuyengl, L.,Games, E. J. C., Mehta, R. J., Kinghorn, D., and Pezzuto, J. M. (1998). Evaluation of the antioxidant potential of natural products.Combinatorial Chemistry and High Throughput Screening.1: 35-46
Table 3. Antioxidant activity of Methanolic extracts of C.alata
S. NO. SAMPLES % Inhibition EC50 ug / ml
01 CA-L 38.2 -
02 CA-S 40.11 -
03 CA-BN 22.52 -
04 Ascorbic acid 80% -
Table 1.C13-NMR spectral data of Kaempferol (1) and Luteolin (2) in CD3OD,(ppm)
Carbon 1 2
2 146.3 164.3
3 135.2 103.2
4 175.2 181.7
5 160.4 161.5
6 98.4 99.1
7 163.7 164.3
8 93.8 94.2
9 156.7 157.6
10 103.1 104.1
1` 122.1 122.0
2` 129.4 112.8
3` 115.3 146.1
4` 158.7 150.0
5` 115.3 115.3
6` 129.4 119.2
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Seven compounds have been isolated and characterized from Syzygium aromaticum namely oleanolic acid lactone (1), ß-sitosterol (2), nigricin (3), flavaellagic acid (4), 2a- hydroxyoleanolic acid (5), 3ß-hydroxy-11- oxo-olean-12-en-28-oic acid (6) and ß-sitosterol 3-O-ß- D-glucopyranoside (7). Compounds 1, 3, 4 and 6 are reported for the first time from the genus Syzygium whereas compounds 2, 5 and 7 are known constituents from this source.
No preview · Article · Jun 2014 · Journal- Chemical Society of Pakistan
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cassia alata also known as candlebush is a medicinally important plant. In the present investigation we are reporting the isolation and structure elucidation of two flavonoids kaempferol (1) and luteolin (2) isolated from methanolic extract of its beans through bioassay guided fractionation. The structure of isolated compounds were characterized by spectroscopic techniques such as EIMS, 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR. In this article we are also presenting the antibacterial, antifungal and antioxidant activity of the methanolic extract of its leaves (CA-L), stem (CA-S) and beans (CA-BN). All the extracts showed remarkable antibacterial and weak antioxidant activity whereas moderate antifungal activity was only found in stem (CA-S) and beans (CA-BN) extracts.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Two new natural triterpenes, lantaninilic acid and lantoic acid, along with the known triterpenes lantadene A, and oleanolic, ursolic, betulinic, lantanolic, and camaric acid, were obtained from the aerial parts of Lantana camara through bioassay-guided isolation, monitoring the in vitro antileishmanial activity against promastigotes of Leishmania major. Oleanolic acid (3), ursolic acid (4), lantadene A (5), and lantanilic acid (7) showed significant leishmanicidal activities with IC50 values of 53.0, 12.4, 20.4, and 21.3 μM, respectively. The IC50 value of ursolic acid (4; 12.4 μM) was found to be comparable with that of the standard drugs, pentamidine (IC50 15.0 μM) and amphotericin B (IC50 0.31 μM). The in vitro activities of L. camara and its constituents against promastigotes of Leishmania major are reported here for the first time.
Full-text · Article · May 2014 · Chemistry & Biodiversity
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Carissa carandas Linn. commonly known as "Karaunda" (Apocynaceae) is a popular medicinal herb widely distributed in different parts of Pakistan. In addition to other medicinal uses, C. carandas is popular in indigenous system of medicine for its medicinal use in gut motility disorders like, constipation and diarrhea.
This study was planned to provide pharmacological basis to the medicinal use of C. carandas in constipation and diarrhea.
The crude extract of the leaves of C. carandas (Cc.Cr) was prepared in methanol and its fractionation was carried out with ethylacetate, petroleum ether and n-butanol. In-vivo studies were conducted on mice, while isolated rabbit jejunum and guinea-pig ileum preparations were used for the in-vitro experiments. The spasmogenic and spasmolytic responses of gut tissues were recorded using isotonic transducers coupled with PowerLab data acquisition system.
Cc.Cr was tested positive for steroids, triterpenoids, flavonoids and phenols, while the HPLC fingerprints of Cc.Cr, its petroleum (Cc.Pef), ethylacetate (Cc.Eaf) and n-butanol (Cc.Baf) fractions showed the presence of oleanolic acid, ursolic acid, stigmasterol and β-sitosterol. Oral administration of Cc.Cr to mice increased fecal output at lower doses (30 and 50mg/kg), while it showed protection against castor oil-induced diarrhea at higher doses (300 and 600mg/kg). In isolated guinea-pig ileum and rabbit jejunum, Cc.Cr and Cc.Baf exhibited stimulatory effect at 0.003-3mg/ml, which was partially sensitive to atropine or pyrillamine or partially/fully sensitive to atropine+pyrillamine, followed by relaxation at higher tested concentrations, being more potent in rabbit tissues. The ethylacetate fraction (0.1-5mg/ml) exhibited fully atropine-sensitive contractions in both guinea-pig and rabbit tissues, being more potent in guinea-pig while more efficacious in rabbit tissues. However, the petroleum fraction (0.003-1.0mg/ml) showed only spasmolytic activity in spontaneously contracting rabbit tissues, similar to nifedipine. In guinea-tissue, Cc.Pef did not cause any stimulant effect. When studied against high K(+) (80mM)-induced contraction, the crude extract and its fractions caused a dose-dependent inhibition, with the following order of potency: Cc.Pef>Cc.Eaf>Cc.Cr≥Cc.Baf, similar to nifedipine indicating Ca(++) channel antagonist like activity, which was further confirmed when the plant extract displaced Ca(++) curves to the right with suppression of maximum effect similar to that of nifedipine.
This study demonstrates that the crude extract of C. carandas possesses a gut-stimulatory effect mediated primarily through the activation of muscarinic and histaminergic receptors while its spasmolytic effect was mediated possibly through Ca(++) antagonist pathway. Thus, this study provides a clear evidence for the dual effectiveness of C. carandas in constipation and diarrhea, thus validating its medicinal use.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2014 · Journal of ethnopharmacology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study was carried out to investigate the antioxidant effect of the methanolic extract, its alkaloidal and non-alkaloidal fractions along with petroleum ether soluble, ether soluble and ethyl acetate soluble sub-fractions of non-alkaloidal part of the bark of Holarrhena pubescens. The pure compound conessine was also tested. The activity was determined by using DPPH free radical scavenging assay at 500 μg/mL for the extract and the fractions, and at 200 μg/mL for conessine and the standard (ascorbic acid). The non-alkaloidal fraction was found to be more active (63% inhibition; EC 50 = 250 μg / mL) than the alkaloidal fraction (16% inhibition) and its polar ethyl acetate soluble fraction was found to be most active (70% inhibition; EC 50 = 250 μg / mL). Conessine was non-active at the concentration used.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The in vitro antioxidant activities of the methanol extract of fresh leaves of Psidium guajava cultivated in Pakistan and its different fractions were evaluated using 1,1-diphenyl-2- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay. The methanol extract, main ethyl acetate fraction and its polar sub fraction showed high free radical scavenging activity with EC50 11.72, 11.72 and 46.8 µg/mL respectively. The first two values are comparable with that of reference compound ascorbic acid (EC50 9.4 µg/mL). The known antioxidants gallic acid (1), methyl ferulate (2) and methyl p-E-coumarate (3) were isolated from the ethyl acetate insoluble fraction. Their structures were identified by mass, 1H- and 13C-NMR spectroscopy. Compounds 2 and 3 are reported for the first time from the genus Psidium.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2014 · Journal- Chemical Society of Pakistan
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and c-Fos are shown to promote epileptogenesis and are taken as a marker of neuronal activity. The present study investigated the expression of BDNF and c-Fos in mice brain with pentylenetetrazol- (PTZ-) induced generalized seizure and evaluated the effect of novel tryptamine derivative HHL-6 on the expression of these two markers. The subconvulsive dose of PTZ (50 mg/kg) was administered on alternate days in the experimental groups until the seizure scores 4-5 developed in the PTZ-control group. At the end of each experiment, animals were sacrificed, brain samples were collected and cryosectioned, and immunohistochemical analysis of BDNF and c-Fos protein was performed. Data obtained from two sections per mouse (n = 12 animals/group) is presented as means ± S.E.M. The test compound HHL-6 demonstrated a potent anticonvulsant activity in the PTZ-induced seizure in mice. Significant reduction in the BDNF (P < 0.003) and c-Fos (P < 0.01) protein expression was observed in the HHL-6 treated group. Based on these results we suggest that one of the possible mechanisms of HHL-6 to inhibit epileptogenesis might be due to its controlling effect on the cellular and molecular expression of the factors that contribute to the development of epileptogenic plasticity in the CNS.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The genus Morinda is pan tropical in its distribution with about 80 species. This genus includes trees, shrubs and vines. In the Western Pacific region, vines are most common while the trees are only a few, including Morinda citrifolia which typically have "vine-like" characteristics of their branches and stems [1,2]. The tree belongs to the family Rubiaceae. It has different local names in various geographical locations. Some commonly used names include noni in Hawaii, nono in Tahiti, Indian Mulberry in India, Ba ji tian in China and cheese fruit in Australia . Morinda citrifolia has been used by humankind both as food and medicine for millennia [4-6]. Due to its traditional and current use, a number of biological and chemical studies have been performed on this species dating back more than 100 years. Literature survey however reveals that the leaves have the most prevalent traditional use and were usually used topically. On the other hand, in the current practice the fruit juice and less commonly the leaves or other parts are used and these are primarily given orally [3,7]. Hence in the present preliminary studies three parts namely fruits, leaves and stem were separately evaluated for different biological activities namely, anti-leishmanial, spasmolytic and spasmogenic, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. It may be noted that in earlier studies the parts of the plant mainly used for these activities were roots , fruits and roots [9,10] and fruit juice . The present results provide a direction regarding the selection of particular part for studying any specific biological activity referred to above in future.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The antituberculosis activity of six constituents including three triterpenoids, lawsowaseem, lawsonic acid, lawsonin; a dihydrobenzofuran derivative, lawsonicin; a naphthoquinone derivative, lawsonadeem, and vomifoliol isolated from the aerial parts of Lawsonia alba Lam was investigated. Compounds were identified using spectroscopic analysis. All the compounds were tested for their antitubercular activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain H37 Rv and showed growth inhibition from 0 to 60 % at 6.25 µg/mL. Two acetyl derivatives were also assayed and caused 100 and 72 % growth inhibition of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain H37 Rv respectively at MIC 6.25 µg/mL in the primary screen.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lawsonia is a monotypic genus represented by Lawsonia alba (syn. Lawsonia inermis Linn.). In this review a comprehensive data of its chemical constituents and biological activities of its various extracts, fractions and pure compounds are presented. Studies on this important medicinal plant have resulted in the isolation and structure elucidation of more than 80 compounds up to 2011 and evaluation of biological activities of some of them. Different types of biological activities attributed to L. alba as well as the diverse structural entities isolated from this source offer a valuable source of information to carry out further studies on this plant in future.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2013 · Journal- Chemical Society of Pakistan