Publications (145)319.18 Total impact
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: To assess how two types of drinking-driving laws-permitting sobriety checkpoints and prohibiting open containers of alcohol in motor vehicles-are associated with drinking-driving, and how enforcement efforts may affect these associations. Methods: We obtained 2010 data on state-level drinking-driving laws and individual-level self-reported drinking-driving from archival sources (Alcohol Policy Information System, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, and Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System). We measured enforcement of the laws via a 2009 survey of state patrol agencies. We computed multi-level regression models (separate models for each type of law) that first examined how having the state law predicted drinking-driving, controlling for various state- and individual-level covariates; we then added the corresponding enforcement measure as another potential predictor. Results: We found that states with a sobriety checkpoint law, compared with those without a law, had 18.2% lower drinking-driving; states that conducted sobriety checks at least monthly (vs. not conducting checks) had 40.6% lower drinking-driving (the state law variable was not significant when enforcement was added). We found no significant association between having an open container law and drinking-driving, but states that conducted open container enforcement, regardless of having a law, had 17.6% less drinking-driving. Conclusion: Our results suggest that having a sobriety checkpoint law and conducting checkpoints as well as enforcement of open containers laws, may be effective strategies for addressing drinking-driving.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Excessive alcohol consumption at licensed alcohol establishments (i.e., bars and restaurants) has been directly linked to alcohol-related problems such as traffic crashes and violence. Historically, alcohol establishments have had a high likelihood of selling alcohol to obviously intoxicated patrons (also referred to as "overservice") despite laws prohibiting these sales. Given the risks associated with overservice and the need for up-to-date data, it is critical that we monitor the likelihood of sales to obviously intoxicated patrons. Methods: To assess the current likelihood of a licensed alcohol establishment selling alcohol to an obviously intoxicated patron, we conducted pseudo-intoxicated purchase attempts (i.e., actors attempt to purchase alcohol while acting out obvious signs of intoxication) at 340 establishments in 1 Midwestern metropolitan area. We also measured characteristics of the establishments, the pseudo-intoxicated patrons, the servers, the managers, and the neighborhoods to assess whether these characteristics were associated with likelihood of sales of obviously intoxicated patrons. We assessed these associations with bivariate and multivariate regression models. Results: Pseudo-intoxicated buyers were able to purchase alcohol at 82% of the establishments. In the fully adjusted multivariate regression model, only 1 of the characteristics we assessed was significantly associated with likelihood of selling to intoxicated patrons-establishments owned by a corporate entity had 3.6 greater odds of selling alcohol to a pseudo-intoxicated buyer compared to independently owned establishments. Conclusions: Given the risks associated with overservice of alcohol, more resources should be devoted first to identify effective interventions for decreasing overservice of alcohol and then to educate practitioners who are working in their communities to address this public health problem.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aims: We assessed levels and patterns of alcohol policy enforcement activities among U.S. local law enforcement agencies. Design/setting/participants: We conducted a cross-sectional survey of a representative sample of 1,631 local law enforcement agencies across the 50 states. Measures/methods: We assessed 29 alcohol policy enforcement activities within each of five enforcement domains-underage alcohol possession/consumption, underage alcohol provision, underage alcohol sales, impaired driving, and overservice of alcohol-and conducted a series of latent class analyses to identify unique classes or patterns of enforcement activity for each domain. Findings: We identified three to four unique enforcement activity classes for each of the enforcement domains. In four of the domains, we identified a Uniformly Low class (i.e., little or no enforcement) and a Uniformly High enforcement activity class (i.e., relatively high levels of enforcement), with one or two middle classes where some but not all activities were conducted. The underage provision domain had a Uniformly Low class but not a Uniformly High class. The Uniformly Low class was the most prevalent class in three domains: underage provision (58%), underage sales (61%), and overservice (79%). In contrast, less than a quarter of agencies were in Uniformly High classes. Conclusions: We identified qualitatively distinct patterns of enforcement activity, with a large proportion of agencies in classes characterized by little or no enforcement and fewer agencies in high enforcement classes. An important next step is to determine if these patterns are associated with rates of alcohol use and alcohol-related injury and mortality.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction and aims: Many studies of alcohol policies examine the presence or absence of a single policy without considering policy strength or enforcement. We developed measures for the strength of 18 policies (from Alcohol Policy Information System) and levels of enforcement of those policies for the 50 US states, and examined their associations with alcohol consumption. Design and methods: We grouped policies into four domains (underage alcohol use, provision of alcohol to underage, alcohol serving, general availability) and used latent class analysis to assign states to one of four classes based on the configuration of policies-weak except serving policies (6 states), average (29 states), strong for underage use (11 states) and strong policies overall (4 states). We surveyed 1082 local enforcement agencies regarding alcohol enforcement across five domains. We used multilevel latent class analysis to assign states to classes in each domain and assigned each state to an overall low (15 states), moderate (19 states) or high (16 states) enforcement group. Consumption outcomes (past month, binge and heavy) came from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Results: Regression models show inverse associations between alcohol consumption and policy class, with past month alcohol consumption at 54% in the weakest policy class and 34% in the strongest. In adjusted models, the strong underage use policy class was consistently associated with lower consumption. Enforcement group did not affect the policy class and consumption associations. Discussion and conclusions: Results suggest strong alcohol policies, particularly underage use policies, may help to reduce alcohol consumption and related consequences. [Erickson DJ, Lenk KM, Toomey TL, Nelson TF, Jones-Webb R. The alcohol policy environment, enforcement, and consumption in the United States. Drug Alcohol Rev 2015;●●:●●-●●].
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: Little is known about the practices for stocking and procuring healthy food in non-traditional food retailers (e.g. gas-marts, pharmacies). The present study aimed to: (i) compare availability of healthy food items across small food store types; and (ii) examine owner/manager perceptions and stocking practices for healthy food across store types. Design: Descriptive analyses were conducted among corner/small grocery stores, gas-marts, pharmacies and dollar stores. Data from store inventories were used to examine availability of twelve healthy food types and an overall healthy food supply score. Interviews with managers assessed stocking practices and profitability. Setting: Small stores in Minneapolis and St. Paul, MN, USA, not participating in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children. Subjects: One hundred and nineteen small food retailers and seventy-one store managers. Results: Availability of specific items varied across store type. Only corner/small grocery stores commonly sold fresh vegetables (63 % v. 8 % of gas-marts, 0 % of dollar stores and 23 % of pharmacies). More than half of managers stocking produce relied on cash-and-carry practices to stock fresh fruit (53 %) and vegetables (55 %), instead of direct store delivery. Most healthy foods were perceived by managers to have at least average profitability. Conclusions: Interventions to improve healthy food offerings in small stores should consider the diverse environments, stocking practices and supply mechanisms of small stores, particularly non-traditional food retailers. Improvements may require technical support, customer engagement and innovative distribution practices.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose . To identify and describe homogenous classes of male college students based on their weight-related behaviors (e.g., eating habits, physical activity, and unhealthy weight control) and to examine differences by sexual orientation. Design . Study design was a cross-sectional sample of 2- and 4-year college students. Setting . Study setting was forty-six 2- and 4-year colleges in Minnesota. Subjects . Study subjects comprised 10,406 college males. Measures . Measures were five categories of sexual orientation derived from self-reported sexual identity and behavior (heterosexual, discordant heterosexual [identifies as heterosexual and engages in same-sex sexual behavior], gay, bisexual, and unsure) and nine weight-related behaviors (including measures for eating habits, physical activity, and unhealthy weight control). Analysis . Latent class models were fit for each of the five sexual orientation groups, using the nine weight-related behaviors. Results . Overall, four classes were identified: "healthier eating habits" (prevalence range, 39.4%-77.3%), "moderate eating habits" (12.0%-30.2%), "unhealthy weight control" (2.6%-30.4%), and "healthier eating habits, more physically active" (35.8%). Heterosexual males exhibited all four patterns, gay and unsure males exhibited four patterns that included variations on the overall classes identified, discordant heterosexual males exhibited two patterns ("healthier eating habits" and "unhealthy weight control"), and bisexual males exhibited three patterns ("healthier eating habits," "moderate eating habits," and "unhealthy weight control"). Conclusion . Findings highlight the need for multibehavioral interventions for discordant heterosexual, gay, bisexual, and unsure college males, particularly around encouraging physical activity and reducing unhealthy weight control behaviors.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Enforcement of alcohol-impaired driving laws is an important component of efforts to prevent alcohol-involved motor vehicle fatalities. Little is known about the use of drinking-driving enforcement strategies by state and local law enforcement agencies or whether the use of strategies differs by agency and jurisdiction characteristics. We conducted two national surveys, with state patrol agencies (n = 48) and with a sample of local law enforcement agencies (n = 1,082) selected according to state and jurisdiction population size. We examined 3 primary enforcement strategies (sobriety checkpoints, saturation patrols, and enforcement of open container laws) and tested whether use of these strategies differed by jurisdiction and agency characteristics across state and local law enforcement agencies Most state patrol agencies reported conducting sobriety checkpoints (72.9%) and saturation patrols (95.8%), whereas less than half (43.8%) reported enforcing open container laws. In contrast, a lower proportion of local law enforcement agencies reported using these alcohol-impaired driving enforcement strategies (41.5, 62.7, and 41.1%, respectively). Sobriety checkpoint enforcement was more common in states in the dry South region (vs. wet and moderate regions). Among local law enforcement agencies, agencies with a full-time alcohol enforcement officer and agencies located in areas where drinking-driving was perceived to be very common (vs. not/somewhat common) were more likely to conduct multiple types of impaired driving enforcement. Recommended enforcement strategies to detect and prevent alcohol-impaired driving are employed in some jurisdictions and underutilized in others. Future research should explore the relationship of enforcement with drinking and driving behavior and alcohol-involved motor vehicle fatalities.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Individuals with high levels of hostility may be more susceptible to the influence of television on violence and risk taking behaviors. This study aimed to examine whether hostile personality trait modifies the association between TV viewing and injuries. It is a prospective study of 4,196 black and white adults aged 23 to 35 in 1990/1. Cross-lagged panel models were analyzed at three 5-year time periods to test whether TV viewing predicted injuries. Covariates were gender, race, and education. Individuals who watched more TV (0 hours, 1-3 hours, 4-6 hours, and ≥7 hours) were more likely to have a hospitalization for an injury in the following 5 years across each of the three follow-up periods [OR = 1.5 (95%CI = 1.2, 1.9), 1.5 (1.1, 1.9), and 1.9 (1.3, 2.6)]. The cross-lagged effects of TV viewing to injury were significant in the high hostility group [OR = 1.4 (95%CI = 1.1, 1.8), 1.3 (1.0, 1.8), and 2.0 (1.3, 2.9)] but not in the low hostility group [OR = 1.3 (95%CI = 0.6, 2.2), 1.1 (0.6, 2.1), and 1.4 (0.7, 2.8)]. Additionally, a statistically significant difference between the two models (P < 0.001) suggested that hostility moderated the relationship between TV watching and injury. These findings suggest that individuals who watch more TV and have a hostile personality trait may be at a greater risk for injury.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There are limited data from long-term prospective studies on the association between television (TV) viewing and obesity. We investigated this association between TV viewing and body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WST) over 15 years on 3,269 participants from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study. We used cross-lagged panel models at exam Years 5, 10, 15, and 20 over 15 years to assess the association between TV viewing and obesity. The cross-lagged effects of TV viewing on anthropometry were significant from exam Year 5 to Year 10 (B = 0.034 for BMI and 0.036 for WST). However, the cross-lagged effects of TV viewing at Years 10 and 15 on obesity at Years 15 and 20, respectively, were nonsignificant. The findings indicate that higher levels of TV viewing predicted higher BMI and WC in young adulthood, but this association was not observed as individuals aged over the following decade.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Google Street View (GSV) can be used as an effective tool to conduct virtual neighborhood audits. We expand on this research by exploring the utility of a GSV-based neighborhood audit to measure and match target and comparison study areas. We developed a GSV-based inventory to measure characteristics of retail alcohol stores and their surrounding neighborhoods. We assessed its reliability and assessed the utility of GSV-based audits for matching target and comparison study areas. We found that GSV-based neighborhood audits can be a useful, reliable, and cost-effective tool for matching target and comparison study areas when archival data are insufficient and primary data collection is prohibitive. We suggest that researchers focus on characteristics that are easily visible on GSV and are relatively stable over time when creating future GSV-based measuring and matching tools. Dividing the study area into small segments may also provide more accurate measurements and more precise matching. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: The purpose of this study was to document the development and testing costs of the Enhanced Alcohol Risk Management (eARM) intervention, a web enhanced training program to prevent alcohol sales to intoxicated bar patrons and to estimate its implementation costs in a "real world", non-research setting. Methods: Data for this study were obtained retrospectively from a randomized controlled trial of the eARM intervention, which was conducted across 15 communities in a Midwestern metropolitan area. Inputs and their costs were obtained from records maintained during the randomized controlled trial. Total development and testing costs were computed, and implementation costs were estimated with input from the research team. The average implementation cost per establishment was calculated by dividing the total estimated implementation cost by the number of establishments that participated in the study. This provides an estimate of the resources needed to support a broader dissemination of interventions such as eARM. Results: Direct development and testing costs were $484,904. Including the University's overhead cost rate of 51 percent, total development and testing costs were $732,205. Total estimated implementation costs were $179,999 over a 12 month period. The average cost per establishment was $1,588. Conclusions: Given the large damage liability awards faced by establishments that serve alcohol to drunk drivers, establishments or their insurance companies may be willing to pay the $1,588 estimated implementation cost in order to limit their exposure to these large damage awards. Therefore, making interventions such as eARM available could be an effective and sustainable policy for reducing alcohol-related incidents.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To identify and describe homogenous profiles of female college students based on weight-related behaviors and examine differences across 5 sexual orientation groups. Data from the 2009-2013 College Student Health Survey (Minnesota-based survey of 2- and 4-year college students) were used to fit latent class models. Four profiles were identified across all sexual orientation groups: "healthier eating habits," "moderate eating habits," "unhealthy weight control," and "healthier eating habits, more physically active." Differences in patterns and prevalence of profiles across sexual orientation suggest need for interventions addressing insufficient physical activity and unhealthy weight control behaviors. Future interventions should consider the diversity of behavioral patterns across sexual orientation to more effectively address weight-related behavioral disparities.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: All states in the U.S. prohibit alcohol-impaired driving but active law enforcement is necessary for effectively reducing this behavior. Sobriety checkpoints, saturation patrols, open container laws, and media campaigns related to enforcement efforts are all enforcement-related strategies for reducing alcohol-impaired driving. We conducted surveys of all state patrol agencies and a representative sample of local law enforcement agencies to assess their use of alcohol-impaired driving enforcement-related strategies and to determine the relationship between these enforcement-related strategies and self-reported alcohol-impaired driving behavior obtained from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. We found that sobriety checkpoints, saturation patrols, and enforcement of open container laws were associated with a lower prevalence of alcohol-impaired driving but, more importantly, a combination of enforcement-related strategies was associated with a greater decrease in alcohol-impaired driving than any individual enforcement-related activity. In addition, alcohol-impaired driving enforcement-related strategies were associated with decreased alcohol-impaired driving above and beyond their association with decreased binge drinking. Results suggest law enforcement agencies should give greater priority to using a combination of strategies rather than relying on any one individual enforcement activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Food shopping is a complex behavior that consists of multiple dimensions. Little research has explored multiple dimensions of food shopping or examined how it relates to dietary intake. To identify patterns (or classes) of food shopping across four domains (fresh food purchasing, conscientious food shopping, food shopping locations, and food/beverage purchasing on or near campus) and explore how these patterns relate to dietary intake among college students. A cross-sectional online survey was administered. Students attending a public 4-year university and a 2-year community college in the Twin Cities (Minnesota) metropolitan area (N=1,201) participated in this study. Fast-food and soda consumption as well as meeting fruit and vegetable, fiber, added sugar, calcium, dairy, and fat recommendations. Crude and adjusted latent class models and adjusted logistic regression models were fit. An eight-class solution was identified: "traditional shopper" (14.9%), "fresh food and supermarket shopper" (14.1%), "convenience shopper" (18.8%), "conscientious convenience shopper" (13.8%), "conscientious, fresh food, convenience shopper" (11.8%), "conscientious fresh food shopper" (6.6%), "conscientious nonshopper" (10.2%), and "nonshopper" (9.8%). "Fresh food and supermarket shoppers" and "conscientious fresh food shoppers" had better dietary intake (for fast food, calcium, dairy, and added sugar), whereas "convenience shoppers" and "conscientious convenience shoppers," and "nonshoppers" had worse dietary intake (for soda, calcium, dairy, fiber, and fat) than "traditional shoppers." These findings highlight unique patterns in food shopping and associated dietary patterns that could inform tailoring of nutrition interventions for college students. Additional research is needed to understand modifiable contextual influences of healthy food shopping. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to investigate consumption patterns of gay-oriented sexually explicit media (SEM) among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Norway, with a particular emphasis on a possible relationship between gay SEM consumption and HIV risk behavior. Participants included 529 MSM living in Norway recruited online to complete a SEM consumption and sexual risk survey. Of the 507 participants who responded to the all items measuring exposure to SEM, 19% reported unprotected anal intercourse with a casual partner (UAI) in last 90 days, and 14% reported having had sero-discordant UAI. Among those with UAI experience, 23% reported receptive anal intercourse (R-UAI) and 37% reported insertive anal intercourse (I-UAI). SEM consumption was found to be significantly associated with sexual risk behaviors. Participants with increased consumption of bareback SEM reported higher odds of UAI and I-UAI after adjusting for other factors using multivariable statistics. MSM who started using SEM at a later age reported lower odds of UAI and I-UAI than MSM who started earlier. Future research should aim at understanding how MSM develop and maintain SEM preferences and the relationship between developmental and maintenance factors and HIV sexual risk behavior. © 2015 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The viewing of sexually explicit media (SEM) is widespread, especially among men, and research linking SEM viewing and sexual behavior has shown a variety of results, some positive (e.g., sexuality education) and some negative (e.g., poorer body image). These results might be due to limitations in measuring SEM consumption, particularly around typology. The goal of the current study was to examine potential patterns of SEM viewing activities. Using data from an online survey of men who have sex with men (MSM), we conducted latent class analyses of 15 SEM activities. Results suggested a three-class solution. The most prevalent class included over 60% of men and was characterized by viewing primarily safer-sex or conventional behaviors. The second class included 32% of men and had a similar albeit amplified pattern of viewing. The final class included just 7% of men and was marked by high levels of viewing of all activities, including fetish and kink. Compared to the conventional or safer-sex class, the other classes had lower internalized homonegativity, lower condom use self-efficacy, and higher SEM consumption or dose. Implications for HIV prevention, sexuality research and the SEM industry are discussed.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated what local enforcement agencies are doing to target adults who provide alcohol to underage youth; what types of enforcement activities are being conducted to target adult providers; and factors that encourage enforcement activities that target adult providers. We surveyed 1,056 local law enforcement agencies in the US and measured whether or not the agency conducted enforcement activities that target adults who provide alcohol to underage youth. We also measured whether certain agency and jurisdiction characteristics were associated with enforcement activities that target adults who provide alcohol to underage youth. Less than half (42 %) of local enforcement agencies conducted enforcement efforts targeting adults who provide alcohol to underage youth. Agencies that conducted the enforcement activities targeting adult providers were significantly more likely to have a full time officer specific to alcohol enforcement, a division specific to alcohol enforcement, a social host law, and to perceive underage drinking was very common. Results suggest that targeting social providers (i.e., adults over 21 years of age) will require greater law enforcement resources, implementation of underage drinking laws (e.g., social host policies), and changing perceptions among law enforcement regarding underage drinking. Future studies are needed to identify the most effective enforcement efforts and to examine how enforcement efforts are prospectively linked to alcohol consumption.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In matched-pair analyses, study groups are matched with comparison groups on certain criteria to control for extraneous factors that may confound results (e.g., socioeconomic status). In some cases, available archival data sources are not sufficient to make a good match. To address this problem, we developed a new methodology using an innovative data source, virtual geographic imaging (VGI) technology, to identify appropriate comparisons. Our broader study evaluates effects of local malt liquor policies on urban crime. Beginning with three pilot cities, we will compare crime rates around alcohol outlets that are subject to local restrictions on high-alcohol malt liquor sales, with crime rates around similar outlets that are not subject to the restrictions. To identify comparison outlets, we first matched on neighborhood demographics and alcohol outlet densities. We then conducted VGI observations on the five closest matches to inform our final selection. Our VGI instrument measures store type (e.g., grocery versus liquor), opportunity to loiter (e.g., adjacent parking lot), land use (e.g., commercial versus residential), infrastructure condition (e.g., boarded windows) and social disorder (e.g., adjacent adult bookstore). We confirmed the reliability of our instrument by comparing VGI results with results from in-person observations in all three cities. We assessed inter-rater reliability in a sample of 25 outlets and found good concordance. We concluded that VGI observations can be a reliable and useful tool for matching target and comparison groups when archival data sources are inadequate and in-person observations are not feasible. We will describe VGI measurement methodology and potential applications.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: How does what we see influence what we do? This study sought to study consumption patterns of gay-oriented sexually explicit media (SEM) by men who have sex with men (MSM); and to investigate a hypothesized relationship between gay SEM consumption and HIV risk behavior. Methods: Participants were 1391 MSM living in the US recruited online to complete a SEM consumption and sexual risk survey. We build linear, quadratic, quadratic term and nominal models to assess the relationship between gay SEM consumption and HIV risk behavior Results: Almost all (98.5%) reported some gay SEM exposure over the last 90 days, with 97.8% reporting watching online. Median dosage was 24.9 minute per day or 2.9 hours per week. While 41% reported a preference to watch actors perform anal sex without condoms (termed “bareback SEM”), 17% preferred to watch actors perform anal sex with condoms (termed “safer sex SEM”) and 42% reported no preference. Overall SEM consumption was not associated with HIV risk; however, participants who watched more bareback SEM and/or who preferred bareback SEM reported significantly greater odds of engaging in risk behavior. Conclusions: Gay SEM consumption appears normative and extremely common among MSM. While SEM consumption does not predict risk, a preference for bareback SEM and greater exposure to bareback SEM was associated with increased risk behavior. In advancing HIV prevention for MSM, research to investigate causality and to identify new ways to use SEM in HIV prevention, is recommended.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the United States, 17 states use some form of state-run system for the distribution of beer, wine and/or spirits for off-premise outlets (control states). Over the last few decades some states, most recently Washington, have privatized a part or all of their distribution system despite a recommendation by the U.S. Community Preventive Services Task Force against privatizing retail sales of alcohol. In the present study we examined how 17 alcohol control policies differed in control (n=18; including Washington) compared with privatized states (n=32), using data obtained from the Alcohol Policy Information System for 2009. We assigned a score for each of the 17 policies in each state based on the level of the policy’s restrictiveness. Scores were developed based on both theoretical and empirical evidence for the available data. In addition, we created summary scores for policies in four domains (underage use, provision to underage, servers, and alcohol availability) and an overall summary score across all 17 policies. Differences in the mean scores between control and privatized states were assessed using the nonparametric Wilcoxon Mann-Whitney test. We also analyzed differences among the control states based on levels of policy restrictiveness. We found that control and privatized states did not differ for any of the 17 alcohol control policies or across the summed scores. Control states do not appear to be more or less restrictive than privatized states on other alcohol control policies. These findings suggest that a state’s alcohol distribution system is independent of its overall policy environment.
University of Minnesota Duluth
Duluth, Minnesota, United States
- Department of Family Medicine and Community Health
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida, United States
- College of Medicine
University of Minnesota Twin CitiesMinneapolis, Minnesota, United States
Boston UniversityBoston, Massachusetts, United States
U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs
Washington, D. C., DC, United States
- National Center for PTSD (Post Traumatic Stress Disorder)
University of Missouri
Columbia, Missouri, United States
- Department of Psychological Sciences