Yan Yu

Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, Shanghai Shi, China

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Publications (47)128.22 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products (sRAGE), a natural inhibitor of RAGE, is considered to be a putative therapeutic molecule for a variety of diseases and a biomarker for certain conditions. To further study the function of sRAGE, recombinant rat sRAGE (rrsRAGE) was expressed and produced in a eukaryotic system. The open reading frame of rat sRAGE was cloned downstream of the methanol-inducible alcohol oxidase promoter of pPICZαA vector, and Pichia pastoris strain X-33 was used as the host strain. The expression of rrsRAGE was achieved by fermentation in a 15-L bioreactor and the resulting fermentation broth was subjected to purification on a cation exchange chromatography column. The purification of rrsRAGE reached 95% after size exclusion chromatography(SEC). The bioactivity of the purified protein was confirmed in a SH-SY5Y cell proliferation assay. The biological function of the purified rrsRAGE protein rat CCl4-induced model was then examined. Treatment with rrsRAGE resulted in significantly lower liver fibrosis and lower serum level of ALT, suggesting that sRAGE prevent liver from injury and fibrosis. In conclusion, we achieved high-efficiency production of bioactive rrsRAGE in Pichia pastoris.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Protein Expression and Purification
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    ABSTRACT: To confirm the treating effectiveness of midkine as an articular protective agent, mouse midkine (mMK) was produced for the pre-clinic long-term studies in mice. The protein was expressed under the control of the AOX1 gene promoter in Pichia pastoris, X-33 strain, and secreted into fermentation broth through high-density fermentation. Approximately 380 mg mMK, containing authentic and truncated forms, was secreted into 1 liter induction medium and 280 mg mMK was obtained after one-step purification on a 50 ml SP Sepharose Fast Flow column. The purified protein was characterized and identified to be the mature, authentic form of mMK. N-terminal five amino acid sequence was determined to be K-K-K-E-K. SDS-PAGE analysis indicated that the molecular weight of the product was about 13 KDa. The purity of the purified rmMK protein was determined to be 99 % by high performance liquid chromatography. The biological activity of final product was verified via migration assay on osteoblast-like UMR-106 cells.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Applied biochemistry and biotechnology
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    ABSTRACT: The recurrence of colorectal cancer after chemotherapy is the leading cause of its high mortality. We propose that elucidating the mechanisms of tumor regrowth after chemotherapy in tumor-bearing mice may provide new insights into tumor relapse in cancer patients. We firstly report the identification of a chemokine, CXCL4, that plays an important role in the molecular mechanism of cancer regrowth after chemotherapy. A syngenic transplantation tumor model was established with murine colon cancer CT26 cells and treated with 5-FU. Genome-wide gene expression analysis determined that CXCL4 was transiently upregulated in the tumor model. Systemic overexpression of CXCL4 accelerated cancer growth in vivo, but not in vitro. Conversely, the anti-CXCL4 monoclonal antibody (CXCL4-mab) retarded tumor-regrowth after 5-FU treatment in immune-competent mice, but not nude mice. The CXCL4-mab treatment increased the local expression levels of IFN-γ and Gran-b genes in the tumor-bed, and elevated the function of CTLs against CT26 cells. Thus, the colon cancer cells in responding to the cytotoxic stress of 5-FU produce a high level of CXCL4, which suppresses antitumor immunity to confer the residual cancer cells an advantage for regrowth after chemotherapy. Our findings provide a novel target for developing therapeutics aiming to increase antitumor immunity after chemotherapy.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Cancer biology & therapy

  • No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica
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    ABSTRACT: To determine the incidence of the positive neutralizing anti-human interleukin receptor antagonist (anti-IL-1Ra), a novel assay based on the proliferation of human melanoma A375.S2 cells was developed and validated. In the presence of a growth-limiting concentration of IL-1β, A375.S2 cells were able to regain proliferation following the addition of IL-1Ra in a concentration-dependent manner. This dose-response effect enabled the validation of a standard curve for calculation of the concentration of IL-1Ra or, inversely, the concentration of neutralizing anti-IL-1Ra antibodies in cell culture medium or sera. The assay used CCK-8 as an indicator of proliferation. The dose-response relationship between rhIL-1Ra (dose range of 5-75 ng/ml rhIL-1Ra) and A375.S2 cell proliferation was sigmoidal and fitted a four-parameter logistic model. The percent coefficients of variation (%CVs) of quality control samples were 12.5 and 11.9% for intra-assay repeatability and 14.5 and 19.5% for inter-assay repeatability, while the total accuracy was in the range of 97.2-103.6%. For the neutralization assay, the optimal sample dilution factor was found to be 40-fold and the reasonable standard for positive and negative decision was calculated to be 59.4% neutralization rate. The %CVs of quality control samples were 12.7 and 24.0% for intra-assay repeatability and 11.6 and 30.0% for inter-assay repeatability. Analysis using the assay showed that rats could produce neutralizing anti-IL-1Ra antibodies after repeated intramuscular injection with rhIL-1Ra, and this response was not significantly dependent on the dose injected.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology
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    ABSTRACT: CXCL4 plays important roles in numerous disease processes, which makes the CXCL4 signaling pathway a potential therapeutic target. In this study, we aimed to develop a neutralizing antibody against both human and mouse CXCL4. Rats were immunized with recombinant human CXCL4 (rhCXCL4). Hybridoma clones were created by fusion of the immunized rat spleen cells with mouse myeloma SP2/0 cells and screened using recombinant mouse CXCL4 (rmCXCL4) and rhCXCL4. The CXCL4 monoclonal antibody (CXCL4 MAb) produced by the 16D6-3 hybridoma clone was sequenced and characterized by Western blot and Biacore assays. It recognized both human and mouse CXCL4 with high affinity and neutralized the effect of rhCXCL4 in vitro. Thus, the antibody may be used in the studies of CXCL4 in murine disease models and as a template in the antibody humanization for clinical developments.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · Monoclonal Antibodies in Immunodiagnosis and Immunotherapy
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: Acute intestinal damage induced by chemotherapeutic agent is often a dose-limiting factor in clinical cancer therapy. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of chemokine CXCL9 on the intestinal damage after chemotherapy and explore the therapeutic potential of anti-CXCL9 agents. Methods: In vitro cell proliferation assay was performed with a non-tumorigenic human epithelial cell line MCF10A. Multiple pathway analysis was carried out to explore the pathway that mediated the effect of CXCL9, and the corresponding downstream effector was identified with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Chemotherapy-induced mouse model of intestinal mucositis was prepared by a single injection of the chemotherapeutic agent 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). In vivo expression of cxcl9 and its receptor cxcr3 in intestinal mucosa after chemotherapy was determined by quantitative real-time PCR. Therapeutic treatment with anti-CXCL9 antibodies was investigated to confirm the hypothesis that CXCL9 can contribute to the intestinal epithelium damage induced by chemotherapy. Results: CXCL9 inhibited the proliferation of MCF10A cells by activating phosphorylation of p70 ribosomal S6 kinase (p70S6K), which further promotes the secretion of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) as the downstream effector. A blockade of phospho-p70S6K with inhibitor abolished the effect of CXCL9 on MCF10A cells and reduced the secretion of TGF-β. The expression levels of cxcl9 and cxcr3 were significantly up-regulated in intestinal mucosa after 5-FU injection. Neutralizing elevated CXCL9 with anti-CXCR9 antibodies successfully enhanced reconstitution of intestinal mucosa and improved the survival rate of mice that received high-dose chemotherapy. Conclusions: CXCL9 inhibits the proliferation of epithelial cells via phosphorylation of p70S6K, resulting in the excretion of TGF-β as downstream mediator. CXCL9/CXCR3 interaction can exacerbate chemotherapeutic agent-induced intestinal damage, and anti-CXCL9 agents are potential novel therapeutic candidates for promoting mucosal restitution.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2014 · Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology
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    ABSTRACT: Osteoarthritis (OA) is a worldwide disease in aged people, causing not only physical suffering to the patients themselves, but also a great burden on their families and on society. Here we used a mouse OA model induced by destabilization of the medial meniscus (DMM), and studied the therapeutic effect of recombinant human midkine (rhMK) on this OA model. Our results indicated that the DMM surgery induced mechanical allodynia and locomotor activity obstacles, together with cartilage injury in the C57BL/6 mice. The rhMK treatment mitigated the OA related mechanical allodynia, improved locomotor activity capacity, and prevented degradation of the cartilage. Considering the safety issue of rhMK used as a biologic, we also inspected the main organs in the rhMK treated mice throughout the process and found no pathological change. These results suggest that rhMK could be used as a biologic to treat OA or OA related pain.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2014 · Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
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    ABSTRACT: Chemotherapy-induced intestinal mucositis (CIM) is a major dose-limiting side effect of many chemoagents, resulting in weight loss, diarrhea, and even death. The current treatments for CIM are palliative and have limited benefit. Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist is a natural antagonist of interleukin-1. Our previous studies showed the protective effect of recombinant human interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (rhIL-1Ra) on the intestine in mice after 5-fluorouracil chemotherapy. In this study, we further evaluated rhIL-1Ra in the treatment of CIM induced by different chemoagents and their combination. Normal as well as tumor-bearing mice were administered oxaliplatin (L-OHP), 5-fluorouracil, or their combination to induce intestinal mucositis and mortality. rhIL-1Ra administered after the chemotherapy, but not after the onset of diarrhea, significantly improved mouse survival, attenuated body weight loss, and reduced the incidence, severity, and duration of diarrhea. Histological examination showed that rhIL-1Ra-treated mice had a relatively intact mucosa structure, more proliferating crypt cells, and higher acid mucin content than the vehicle-treated mice. rhIL-1Ra suppressed crypt apoptosis by reducing the levels of proapoptotic proteins in wild-type, but not in IL-1RI or p53 mice. In addition, rhIL-1Ra was as effective as octreotide acetate in the treatment of chemotherapy-induced diarrhea, but with the advantage of reducing the epithelial apoptosis, the major cause of CIM. Importantly, the tumor sensitivity to chemotherapy was not affected by rhIL-1Ra. Thus, our data strongly suggest that rhIL-1Ra may be useful for the treatment of intestinal mucositis and improving the quality of life for cancer patients on chemotherapy.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2014 · Anti-Cancer Drugs
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    ABSTRACT: Chemotherapy-induced mucositis (CIM) is a major does limiting side-effect of chemoagents such as 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). Molecules involved in this disease process are still not fully understood. We proposed that the homeostatically regulated genes during CIM may participate in the disease. A cluster of such genes were previously identified by expression gene-array from the mouse jejunum in 5-FU-induced mucositis model. Here, we report that CXCL4 is such a homeostatically regulated gene and serves as a new target for the antibody treatment of CIM. CXCL4 and its receptor CXCR3 were confirmed at both the gene and protein levels to be homeostatically regulated during 5-FU-induced mucositis. Using of CXCL4 neutralizing monoclonal antibody (CXCL4mab) decreased the incidence, severity, and duration of the chemotherapy-induced diarrhea, the major symptom of CIM, in a 5-FU mouse CIM model. Mechanistically, CXCL4mab reduced the apoptosis of the crypt epithelia by suppression of the 5-FU-induced expression of p53 and Bax through its receptor CXCR3. The downstream signaling pathway of CXCL4 in activation of the epithelial apoptosis was identified in an intestinal epithelial cell line (IEC-6). CXCL4 activated the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, which mediated the stimulated expression of p53 and Bax, and resulted in the ultimate activation of Caspase-8, -9, and -3. Taken together, activation of CXCL4 expression by 5-FU in mice participates in 5-FU-induced intestinal mucositis through upregulation of p53 via activation of p38-MAPK, and CXCL4mab is potentially beneficial in preventing CIM in the intestinal tract.
    Full-text · Article · May 2014 · Cancer biology & therapy
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    ABSTRACT: Midkine (MK) and pleiotrophin (PTN) belong to the subfamily of heparin binding growth factors. They have ca. 50% structural homology, with similar C- and N-domains as well as comparable binding affinity to heparin, glycoproteins and proteoglycans. Both MK and PTN have diverse functions, such as mitogenicity, inflammation, angiogenesis, oncogenesis and stem cell self-renewal. The high expression of MK and PTN in many kinds of cancers makes them excellent as cancer biomarkers and targets for anticancer drug development. In addition, the important roles of MK and PTN in the regeneration of tissues, such as myocardium, cartilage, neuron, muscle, and bone, make them attractive candidates for the treatment of degenerative diseases such as myocardiac and cerebral infarction, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and skeletal muscle injury. As a result, there has been a growing interest in the mechanisms of MK and PTN function, including the diverse receptors on the cell membrane and complex signal pathways in the cytoplasm. This work reviews the structures of MK and PTN, as well as the receptors and the intracellular signal pathways involving MK and PTN which will pave the way for future development of MK and PTN therapeutics.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2014 · Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
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    ABSTRACT: Chemotherapy-induced intestinal mucositis (CIM) is a major dose-limiting side effect, resulting from the nonspecific cytoablative actions of chemoagents, including 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and irinotecan (CPT-11). Preventive strategies are urgently needed for the predictable CIM. Previously, we have demonstrated an important role of recombinant human interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (rhIL-1Ra) in the prevention of cyclophosphamide-induced mucositis in mice. In this study, the preventive role of rhIL-1Ra was further evaluated in 5-FU- and CPT-11-induced mucositis mouse models. rhIL-1Ra pretreatment reduced the incidence, severity, and duration of chemotherapy-induced diarrhea, through attenuating crypt apoptosis and improving crypt survival in wild-type mice, but not in IL-1RI(-/-), p53(-/-), and p21(-/-) mice. Further studies demonstrated that rhIL-1Ra promoted the cell cycle arrest of intestinal crypt epithelia (ICE) through elevating the cellular level of p21(WAF1) and p27(KIP1), which was abolished in IL-1RI(-/-) and p53(-/-) mice, and in p21(WAF1) and p27(KIP1) silenced IEC-6 cells. Importantly, the tumor growth and sensitivity to chemotherapy were not affected by rhIL-1Ra in cultures of tumor cell lines and in a syngeneic tumor-transplantation mouse model. The present study demonstrated that rhIL-1Ra effectively and specifically protected ICE from chemotoxicity through reversible reduction of the basal level of IL-1 signaling to promote normal cell cycle arrest, but not tumor cells. Our findings support the clinical development of rhIL-1Ra in the prevention of CIM.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2014 · Pharmacological Research
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    ABSTRACT: Secreted phosphoprotein 1 (SPP1) is a phosphorylated acidic glycoprotein. It is broadly expressed in a variety of tissues, and it is involved in a number of physiological and pathological events, including cancer metastasis, tissues remodeling, pro-inflammation regulation, and cell survival. SPP1 has shown its function of protecting tissues and organs against injury and wound, giving itself potentials to become a therapy target or giving its antibodies of other counter-acting reagents potentials to become drug candidates. Non-tagged (native) recombinant SPP1 would be valuable in therapeutic and pharmaceutical researches. In our study, mouse Spp1 DNA fragment without signal peptide was built in pET28a(+) vector and transformed into Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). The recombinant mouse SPP1 (rmSPP1) was then expressed in bacteria upon induction by isopropyl beta-d-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG). The abundance of rmSPP1 was increased using isoelectric precipitation and ammonium sulfate fractionation methods, and anion and cation exchange chromatography was employed to further purify rmSPP1. Finally, we got rmSPP1 product with 12.8 % productivity, 97 % purity, satisfactory bioactivity, and low endotoxin content.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2014 · Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology

  • No preview · Article · Jan 2014
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    ABSTRACT: Recent developments in nanotechnology have led to significant advancements in point-of-care (POC) nucleic acid detection. The ability to sense DNA and RNA in a portable format leads to important applications for a range of settings, from on-site detection in the field to bedside diagnostics, in both developing and developed countries. We review recent innovations in three key process components for nucleic acid detection: sample preparation, target amplification, and read-out modalities. We discuss how the advancements realized by nanotechnology are making POC nucleic acid detection increasingly applicable for decentralized and accessible testing, in particular for the developing world.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2013 · Nanoscale
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    ABSTRACT: Chemokines have been shown to play an important role in the pathogenesis of pancreatitis, but the role of chemokine CXCL9 in pancreatitis is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate whether CXCL9 was a modulating factor in chronic pancreatitis. Chronic pancreatitis was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats by intraductal infusion of trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) and CXCL9 expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry, Western blot analysis and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Recombinant human CXCL9 protein (rCXCL9), neutralizing antibody and normal saline (NS) were administered to rats with chronic pancreatitis by subcutaneous injection. The severity of fibrosis was determined by measuring hydroxyproline in pancreatic tissues and histological grading. The effect of rCXCL9 on activated pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) in vitro was examined and collagen 1α1, TGF-β1 and CXCR3 expression was assessed by Western blot analysis in isolated rat PSCs. Chronic pancreatic injury in rats was induced after TNBS treatment and CXCL9 protein was markedly upregulated during TNBS-induced chronic pancreatitis. Although parenchymal injury in the pancreas was not obviously affected after rCXCL9 and neutralizing antibody administration, rCXCL9 could attenuate fibrogenesis in TNBS-induced chronic pancreatitis in vivo and exerted antifibrotic effects in vitro, suppressing collagen production in activated PSCs. In conclusion, CXCL9 is involved in the modulation of pancreatic fibrogenesis in TNBS-induced chronic pancreatitis in rats, and may be a therapeutic target in pancreatic fibrosis.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2013 · Cytokine
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    ABSTRACT: Cyclophosphamide (CY), targeting to fast dividing cells, results in bone marrow (BM) suppression, which is the most common side effect of cancer chemotherapy. Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra), activated by variety of chemotherapeutic drugs, is a natural inhibitor of interleukin-1 (IL-1) and blocks the functional IL-1 receptor signaling. Our previous studies showed the protective effect of recombinant murine IL-1Ra on hematopoiesis in mice after treatment with chemotherapeutic agent 5-fluorouracil. In this report, we demonstrate that the pretreatment use of recombinant human IL-1Ra (rhIL-1Ra) significantly alleviated chemotherapy-induced peripheral blood injury in mice, and reduced the incidence and severity of neutropenia in beagle dogs. Moreover, acute lethal toxicity in single and repeated CY treatment was markedly reduced by rhIL-1Ra administration. The chemoprotective role of rhIL-1Ra is attributed to the attenuated BM damage, accelerated recovery of BM cells, and enhanced survival of hematopoietic progenitor cells which expressed high level of aldehyde dehydrogenase and IL-1 receptor type I. Thus, our data strongly suggest that the prophylactic use of exogenous rhIL-1Ra renders BM primitive hematopoietic cells resistant to chemotherapy, which provides novel strategies to prevent BM suppression in clinical settings.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2013 · Biomedicine & pharmacotherapy = Biomedecine & pharmacotherapie
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    ABSTRACT: Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) superfamily controls many physiological processes such as cell proliferation and differentiation, immune responses, wound repair and various endocrine activities. As a member of TGF-β, activin A can maintain the pluripotency of embryonic stem cells. We report here that activin A exhibited cell type-dependent function of expanding the human primitive hematopoietic cells isolated from umbilical cord blood (UCB). However, the multipotency of the cells pretreated with activin A was exhausted in the sequential dilution culture. In conclusion, activin A may not be a key factor, but a regulator, in the multipotency maintenance of primitive hematopoietic cells and the application of activin A in the hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HS/PCs) culture expansion remains a significant challenge.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2012 · Biomedicine & pharmacotherapy = Biomedecine & pharmacotherapie
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    ABSTRACT: S100 proteins belong to a family of small, acidic, EF-hand Ca ( 2+) -binding proteins and have been found to exert both intracellular and extracellular functions in regulation of Ca ( 2+) homeostasis, cytoskeletal dynamics, cell cycle, motility and differentiation. As a result, they have been widely investigated for their association with diseases, such as, neurological diseases, cardiomyopathy, neoplasias and inflammatory diseases. To facilitate further studies of S100 proteins, we reported a simple and efficient method for the expression and purification of human S100A4 and S100A11 proteins in Escherichia coli. Since S100 proteins share many common physical and chemical characteristics, we expect that this approach can be extended to the production of most S100 proteins.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2012
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    ABSTRACT: Alterations in gene expression after chemotherapy may potentially help to identify mediators that induce suppression or regeneration in bone marrow. This paper reports our observation that the expression of the chemokine monokine induced by IFN-γ (Mig) and its receptor CXCR3 was significantly activated in mice after treatment with the chemotherapeutic agent 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). The neutralization of antibodies against the activated Mig increased the survival rate and accelerated BM recovery after chemotherapy. In addition, elevation of Mig plasma levels after 5-FU treatment corresponded with increased mortality. The cell cycle-inhibiting effect of the prophylactic administration of Mig protected hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) from 1-β-d-arabinofuranosylcytosine in spleen colony assays and enhanced the irradiated recipients' survival. In CXCR3(-/-) mice, Mig did not propagate BM suppression, indicating that the suppressive effect of Mig is dependent on CXCR3. On the one hand, Mig stimulated p70 S6K and Erk1/2 pathways in mesenchymal stroma cells, inhibiting mesenchymal stroma cell-dependent HPC expansion. Moreover, Mig suppressed the STAT5 pathway in HPCs, inhibiting leukocyte differentiation. Our results strongly suggest that Mig contributes to the acute lethal toxicity arising from 5-FU administration. Neutralization of Mig may offer new strategies to alleviate BM toxicity with potentially dramatic implications for chemotherapy.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2012 · Blood