[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a severely debilitating disease associated with a dismal prognosis. There are currently no effective therapies for IPF, thus the identification of novel therapeutic targets is greatly needed. The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily of cell surface receptors whose activation has been linked to various pathologies. In healthy adult animals, RAGE is expressed at the highest levels in the lung compared to other tissues. To investigate the hypothesis that RAGE is involved in IPF pathogenesis, we have examined its expression in two mouse models of pulmonary fibrosis and in human tissue from IPF patients. In each instance we observed a depletion of membrane RAGE and its soluble (decoy) isoform, sRAGE, in fibrotic lungs. In contrast to other diseases in which RAGE signaling promotes pathology, immunohistochemical and hydroxyproline quantification studies on aged RAGE-null mice indicate that these mice spontaneously develop pulmonary fibrosis-like alterations. Furthermore, when subjected to a model of pulmonary fibrosis, RAGE-null mice developed more severe fibrosis, as measured by hydroxyproline assay and histological scoring, than wild-type controls. Combined with data from other studies on mouse models of pulmonary fibrosis and human IPF tissues indicate that loss of RAGE contributes to IPF pathogenesis.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2008 · American Journal Of Pathology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The receptor for advanced glycation end products (mRAGE) is associated with pathology in most tissues, while its soluble form (sRAGE) acts as a decoy receptor. The adult lung is unique in that it expresses high amounts of RAGE under normal conditions while other tissues express low amounts normally and up-regulate RAGE during pathologic processes. We sought to determine the regulation of the soluble and membrane isoforms of RAGE in the developing lung, and its expression under hyperoxic conditions in the neonatal lung.
Fetal (E19), term, 4 day, 8 day and adult rat lung protein and mRNA were analyzed, as well as lungs from neonatal (0-24 hrs) 2 day and 8 day hyperoxic (95% O2) exposed animals. mRAGE transcripts in the adult rat lung were 23% greater than in neonatal (0-24 hrs) lungs. On the protein level, rat adult mRAGE expression was 2.2-fold higher relative to neonatal mRAGE expression, and adult sRAGE protein expression was 2-fold higher compared to neonatal sRAGE. Fetal, term, 4 day and 8 day old rats had a steady increase in both membrane and sRAGE protein expression evaluated by Western Blot and immunohistochemistry. Newborn rats exposed to chronic hyperoxia showed significantly decreased total RAGE expression compared to room air controls.
Taken together, these data show that rat pulmonary RAGE expression increases with age beginning from birth, and interestingly, this increase is counteracted under hyperoxic conditions. These results support the emerging concept that RAGE plays a novel and homeostatic role in lung physiology.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2007 · BMC Developmental Biology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Inhalation of asbestos fibers causes pulmonary inflammation and eventual pulmonary fibrosis (asbestosis). Although the underlying molecular events are poorly understood, protease/antiprotease and oxidant/antioxidant imbalances are believed to contribute to the disease. Implicated in other forms of pulmonary fibrosis, the matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have not been examined in asbestosis. We therefore hypothesized that MMPs play a pathogenic role in asbestosis development. Wild-type C57BL/6 mice were intratracheally instilled with 0.1 mg crocidolite asbestos, causing an inflammatory response at 1 d and a developing fibrotic response at 7, 14, and 28 d. Gelatin zymography demonstrated an increase in MMP-9 (gelatinase B) during the inflammatory phase, while MMP-2 (gelatinase A) was profoundly increased in the fibrotic phase. Immunohistochemistry revealed MMP-9 in and around bronchiolar and airspace neutrophils that were often associated with visible asbestos fibers. MMP-2 was found in fibrotic regions at 7, 14, and 28 d. No increases in RNA levels of MMP-2, MMP-9, or MMP-8 were found, but levels of MMP-7, MMP-12, and MMP-13 RNA did increase at 14 d. The MMP inhibitors, TIMP-1 and TIMP-2, were also increased at 7-28 d after asbestos exposure. To confirm the importance of MMP activity in disease progression, mice exposed to asbestos were given daily injections of the MMP inhibitor, GM6001. MMP inhibition reduced inflammation and fibrosis in asbestos-treated mice. Collectively, these data suggest that MMPs contribute to the pathogenesis of asbestosis through effects on inflammation and fibrosis development.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2006 · American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily of cell surface proteins
that has been implicated as a progression factor in a number of pathologic conditions from chronic inflammation to cancer
to Alzheimer's disease. In such conditions, RAGE acts to facilitate pathogenic processes. Its secreted isoform, soluble RAGE
or sRAGE, has the ability to prevent RAGE signaling by acting as a decoy. sRAGE has been used successfully in animal models
of a range of diseases to antagonize RAGE-mediated pathologic processes. In humans, sRAGE results from alternative splicing
of RAGE mRNA. This study was aimed to determine whether the same holds true for mouse sRAGE and, in addition, to biochemically
characterize mouse sRAGE. The biochemical characteristics examined include glycosylation and disulfide patterns. In addition,
sRAGE was found to bind heparin, which may mediate its distribution in the extracellular matrix and cell surfaces of tissues.
Finally, our data indicated that sRAGE in the mouse is likely produced by carboxyl-terminal truncation, in contrast to the
alternative splicing mechanism reported in humans.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2004 · Journal of Biological Chemistry