[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The mammalian polycomb group proteins play an important role in cell cycle control and tumorigenesis. Nervous system polycomb
1 (NSPc1) is a newly identified transcription repressor, highly homologous with PcG protein Bmi-1. In this article, we showed
that NSPc1 could promote tumor cell cycle progression and cell proliferation. Semi-quantitative RT–PCR showed that NSPc1 did
not affect the expression levels of most Cyclin-depentent kinases (CDK) inhibitors except for p21Waf1/Cip1. Repression activity
assays, chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and DNA pulldown assays all verified that NSPc1 represses the expression of p21Waf1/Cip1
by binding to the (−1357 to −1083) region of the p21Waf1/Cip1 promoter in vivo, and the repression effect is dependent on the retinoid acid response element (RARE element) within the above region of the
p21Waf1/Cip1 promoter. Further analysis showed that NSPc1 could compete the RARE element site with RA receptors both in vitro and in vivo. Taken together, our results support the hypothesis that NSPc1 has a positive role in tumor cell growth by down-regulating
p21Waf1/Cip1 via the RARE element, which directly connects transcriptional repression of PcGs to CDKIs and RA signaling pathways.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2006 · Nucleic Acids Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human DPY-30-like is a homolog of C. elegans DPY-30. DPY-30 is an essential component of dosage compensation machinery and loss of dpy-30 activity results in XX-specific lethality. In XO animals, DPY-30 is required for developmental processes other than dosage compensation. In yeast, the homolog of DPY-30, Saf19p, functions as a member of histone 3 lysine 4 methylation complex, which is the key part of epigenetic developmental control. In this report, human DPY-30-like protein was overexpressed and purified with the goal of structure determination. It was crystallized at 291 K in hanging drops by the vapour diffusion technique from a precipitant solution consisting of (NH4)2SO4 (1.5-2.0 M), Tris-HCl (0.1 M, pH 8.0). The crystal diffracted to 2.7 A resolution at 100 K in-house and belongs to the space group P4(1)2(1)2 or P4(3)2(1)2 with unit-cell parameters of a=b=74.5 A, c=87.0 A, alpha=beta=gamma=90.0 degrees. The asymmetric unit contains two molecules with 49% solvent content. We also analyzed its biochemical and biophysical characterizations. Efforts are now under way to determine the molecular structure of the DPY-30-like. These studies will open a new avenue towards the structure-based functional analysis of human DPY-30-like and dosage compensation machinery.
No preview · Article · Jan 2006 · Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The SARS-nsp13 protein was identified as an mRNA cap1 methyltransferase. In this study, the nsp13 gene was cloned from the SARS-CoV PUMC02 strain viral RNA by RT-PCR, and inserted into the expression plasmid pET30a(+). The recombinant plasmid pET30a(+)-nsp13 was confirmed by restriction enzymes and sequencing analysis, and transformed into Escherichia coli BL21(DE3). The His-tag-fused protein was expressed by induction of 0.5mM IPTG and purified by a single Ni(2+) affinity chromatography. The protein was validated by western blot and MS analysis. A large quantity of the nsp13 protein obtained with this method may be useful for further study of its structure and function.
Full-text · Article · Jul 2005 · Protein Expression and Purification
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nectins are immunoglobulin superfamily adhesion molecules that participate in the organization of epithelial and endothelial junctions. Sharing high homology with the poliovirus receptor (PVR/CD155), nectins were also named poliovirus receptor-related proteins (PRRs). Four nectins and five nectin-like molecules have been identified. Here we describe the cloning and characterization of human and mouse nectin-like molecular 1 (NECL1). Human and mouse NECL1 share 87.3% identity at the amino acid level. NECL1 contains an ectodomain made of three immunoglobulin-like domains, and a cytoplasmic region homologous to those of glycophorin C and contactin-associated protein. RNA blot and in situ hybridization analysis showed that NECL1 predominantly expressed in the central nervous system, mainly in neuronal cell bodies in a variety of brain regions including the cerebellum, cerebral cortex and hippocampus. In vitro binding assay proved the association of NECL1 with protein 4.1N. NECL1 localizes to the cell-cell junctions and recruits protein 4.1N to the plasma membranes through its C-terminus, thus may regulate the function of the cell-cell junction. We propose that the NECL1 and protein 4.1N complex is involved in the morphological development, stability, and dynamic plasticity of the nervous system.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2005 · Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nervous system polycomb 1 (NSPc1) shares high homology with vertebrate PcG proteins Mel-18 and Bmi-1. The mRNA of NSPc1 is highly expressed in the developmental nervous system [Mech. Dev. 102 (2001) 219-222]. However, the functional characterization of NSPc1 protein is not clear. In the present study, using Western blotting technique, we aimed to describe the distributions of NSPc1 protein in rat tissues and cell lines. The subcellular localization of NSPc1 was examined in HeLa and SH-SY5Ycell lines, and its transcriptional repression activity was examined in COS-7 cell line. We found that the NSPc1 protein was localized mainly in the nucleus. NSPc1 remarkably repressed the transcription. Most interestingly, both the C-terminal of NSPc1 and two phosphorylation sites in the C-terminal, especially the PKC phosphorylation site at S183, were important in mediating transcription repression. Taken together, results from our study suggest that NSPc1, as a typical PcG family member, has powerful transcriptional repression ability, which may be related to the PKC signaling pathway.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human Bex2 (brain expressed X-linked, hBex2) is highly expressed in the embryonic brain, but its function remains unknown. We have identified that LMO2, a LIM-domain containing transcriptional factor, specifically interacts with hBex2 but not with mouse Bex1 and Bex2. The interaction was confirmed both by pull-down with GST-hBex2 and by coimmunoprecipitation assays in vivo. Using electrophoretic mobility shift assay, we have demonstrated the physical interaction of hBex2 and LMO2 as part of a DNA-binding protein complex. We have also shown that hBex2 can enhance the transcriptional activity of LMO2 in vivo. Furthermore, using mammalian two-hybrid analysis, we have identified a neuronal bHLH protein, NSCL2, as a novel binding partner for LMO2. We then showed that LMO2 could up-regulate NSCL2-dependent transcriptional activity, and hBex2 augmented this effect. Thus, hBex2 may act as a specific regulator during embryonic development by modulating the transcriptional activity of a novel E-box
sequence-binding complex that contains hBex2, LMO2, NSCL2 and LDB1.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2005 · Nucleic Acids Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neuroendocrine-specific protein (NSP) reticulons are endoplasmic reticulum-associated protein complexes, which are localized in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and identified as markers for neuroendocrine differentiation. In the present study, human reticulon 3 gene (hRTN3) was cloned and its expression pattern in a variety of tissues was investigated. Truncated hRTN3s corresponding to the C-terminal (hRTN3-C) domain were expressed and purified. hRTN3 mRNA was down-regulated during the differentiation of human neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y induced by all-trans-retinoic acid (RA), which suggests that, like other members of the reticulon family, hRTN3 is a potential marker for neuroendocrine differentiation.
No preview · Article · Jul 2004 · Progress in Natural Science
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Proteins of the immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF) are involved in a variety of specific cell-cell interactions in the developing nervous system. To identify and characterize new members of this protein family in human nervous system, we screen the human fetal brain cDNA library and isolate a full-length cDNA clone which contains a 1032 bp open reading frame encoding a protein of 344 amino acids. Sequence analysis reveals that it is a glycoprotein comprised of three C2-like immunoglobulin domains and is anchored to the plasma membrane via a post-translationally attached glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI) moiety. The protein shows high sequence similarity to the rat Ntm (97%), so we term it human neurotrimin (NTM). Northern blot analysis reveals that (HUMAN)NTM has three different transcripts with the length of 3.2 kb, 4.0 kb and 9.0 kb respectively. It has a wider expression pattern than that of (RAT) Ntm. Notably, the expression of NTM in fetal brain is higher than that in mature brain and is stronger in nervous tumors than that in normal brain tissues. We insert an HA epitope tag between the third Ig-like domain of NTM and the site of GPI attachment, then construct it into the eukaryotic expression vector pcDNA3.1+/Zeocin. The pcDNA3.1-HA-NTM is transfected into the Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells. The results demonstrate that HA-NTM is expressed on the surface of CHO cells and could strengthen the aggregation of CHO-NTM cells.
No preview · Article · May 2004 · Science in China Series C Life Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dok1 is a common substrate of activated protein-tyrosine kinases. It is rapidly tyrosine-phosphorylated in response to receptor tyrosine activation and interacts with ras GTPase-activating protein and Nck, leading to inhibition of ras signaling pathway activation and the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and c-Jun activation, respectively. In chronic myelogenous leukemia cells, it has shown constitutive phosphorylation. The N-terminal phosphotyrosine binding (PTB) domain of Dok1 can recognize and bind specifically to phosphotyrosine-containing motifs of receptors. Here we report the crystal structure of the Dok1 PTB domain alone and in complex with a phosphopeptide derived from RET receptor tyrosine kinase. The structure consists of a beta-sandwich composed of two nearly orthogonal, 7-stranded, antiparallel beta-sheets, and it is capped at one side by a C-terminal alpha-helix. The RET phosphopeptide binds to Dok1 via a surface groove formed between strand beta5 and the C-terminal alpha-helix of the PTB domain. The structures reveal the molecular basis for the specific recognition of RET by the Dok1 PTB domain. We also show that Dok1 does not recognize peptide sequences from TrkA and IL-4, which are recognized by Shc and IRS1, respectively.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2004 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The PTB domain of mouse dok1 fusion protein has been overexpressed in Escherichia coli and crystallized in a form suitable for X-ray crystallographic study. Crystals have been obtained using the vapour-diffusion method and belong to space group P2(1)2(1)2(1). X-ray diffraction data were collected in-house to 2.5 A resolution. A selenomethionine (SeMet) dok1 PTB fusion-protein derivative was expressed using the same expression system, purified in a reductive environment and crystals were obtained under similar conditions. Subsequently, three different wavelength data sets from the derivative crystal were collected to 2.5 A resolution at SPring-8.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2004 · Acta Crystallographica Section D Biological Crystallography
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Until 30 years ago, it had been considered that D-amino acids were excluded from living systems except for D-amino acids in the cell wall of microorganisms. However, D-amino acids, in the form of free amino acids, peptides and proteins, were recently detected in various living organisms from bacteria to mammals. The extensive distribution of bio-functional D-amino acids challenges the current concept of protein synthesis: more attention should be paid to the stereospecificity of the translation machine. Besides aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, elongation factor Tu and some other mechanisms, D-Tyr-tRNA(Tyr) deacylases provide a novel checkpoint since they specifically recycle misaminoacylated D-Tyr-tRNA(Tyr) and some other D-aminoacyl-tRNAs. Their unique structure represents a new class of tRNA-dependent hydrolase. These unexpected findings have far-reaching implications for our understanding of protein synthesis and its origin.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Reticulons (RTN) are endoplasmic reticulum-associated protein complexes, which are localized in the endoplasmic reticulum
(ER) and identified as markers for neuroendocrine differentiation. At least four different RTN genes have been identified in mammals, but in most cases, the functions of the encoded proteins except mammalian RTN4-A and
RTN4-B are still elusive. In the present study, mouse reticulon 3 (mRTN3) is cloned and its expression pattern in a variety
of tissues is investigated. Three alternatively spliced transcripts of 1.8, 2.8 and 4.2 kb are revealed by Northern blotting
hybridization. The 1.8 and 2.8 kb transcripts are expressed in many tissues. The 2.8 kb transcript has a high level in brain
and the 4.2 kb transcript is only found in brain. In situ hybridization and immunohisto-chemical analysis indicated its high expression in non-glial cells in some particular region
of mouse central nervous system, such as hippocampus, sub-thalamus nucleus, thalamus nucleus and cerebrum cortex.
No preview · Article · Oct 2003 · Chinese Science Bulletin
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: For better understanding of functions of the Calcyclin Binding Protein (CacyBP) and exploring its possible roles in neuronal differentiation, the subcellular localization of human CacyBP was examined in retinoic acid(RA)-induced and uninduced neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. Immunostaining indicated that CacyBP was present in the cytoplasm of uninduced SH-SY5Y cells, in which the resting Ca(2+) concentration was relatively lower than that of RA-induced cells. After the RA induction, immunostaining was seen in both the nucleus and cytoplasm. In the RA-induced differentiated SH-SY5Y cells, CacyBP was phosphorylated on serine residue(s), while it existed in a dephosphorylated form in normal (uninduced) cells. Thus, the phosphorylation of CacyBP occurs when it is translocated to the nuclear region. The translocation of CacyBP during the RA-induced differentiation of SH-SY5Y cells suggested that this protein might play a role in neuronal differentiation.
Preview · Article · Aug 2003 · Journal of biochemistry and molecular biology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The human dok-5 PTB domain fusion protein has been overexpressed in Escherichia coli and crystallized in a form suitable for X-ray crystallographic study. Crystals were obtained by the vapour-diffusion method. The crystal has unit-cell parameters a = b = 75.9, c = 108.0 A, alpha = beta = 90, gamma = 120 degrees and belongs to space group P3(2)21. Diffraction data were collected to 2.8 A resolution in-house. Furthermore, a selenomethionine (SeMet) derivative of dok-5 PTB domain fusion protein was overexpressed using the same expression system and was purified in a reductive environment. The derivative crystals were obtained under similar conditions. Subsequently, three different wavelength data sets were collected to 2.3 A resolution from the derivative crystal at the Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2003 · Acta Crystallographica Section D Biological Crystallography
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Thioredoxin is a ubiquitous dithiol oxidoreductase found in many organisms and involved in numerous biochemical processes. Human thioredoxin-like protein (hTRXL) is differentially expressed at different development stages of human fetal cerebrum and belongs to an expanding family of thioredoxins. We have solved the crystal structure of the recombinant N-terminal catalytic domain (hTRXL-N) of hTRXL in its oxidized form at 2.2-A resolution. Although this domain shares a similar three-dimensional structure with human thioredoxin (hTRX), a unique feature of hTRXL-N is the large number of positively charged residues distributed around the active site, which has been implicated in substrate specificity. Furthermore, the hTRXL-N crystal structure is monomeric while hTRX is dimeric in its four crystal structures (reduced, oxidized, C73S and C32S/C35S mutants) reported to date. As dimerization is the key regulatory factor in hTRX, the positive charge and lack of dimer formation of hTRXL-N suggest that it could interact with the acidic amino-acid rich C-terminal region, thereby suggesting a novel regulation mechanism.
Full-text · Article · May 2002 · European Journal of Biochemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To clone and identify the gene encoding human ubiquitin binding enzyme 2 and study its expression pattern.
According to the sequence of human EST, which is highly homologous to the mouse ubiquitin binding/conjugating enzyme (E2), primers were synthesized to screen the human fetal brain cDNA library. The gene was analyzed by bioinformatics technique and its expression pattern was studied by using multiple-tissue Northern blot.
Two cDNA clones encoding human ubiquitin conjugating enzyme have been isolated and identified. Both containing the ubiquitin conjugating domain, the 2 cDNA clones are 88% identical in amino acid sequences and splicing isoforms to each other only with an exon excised to form the short sequence. They belong to a highly conserved and widely expressed E2 enzyme family. Northern blot shows that they are expressed exclusively in adult human heart, placenta, and pancreas but no transcripts can be detected in brain, lung, liver, skeletal muscle or kidney.
The gene encoding human ubiquitin binding enzyme is expressed under temporal control. As a key enzyme in the degradation of proteins, ubiquitin conjugating enzymes play a central role in the expression regulation on the level of post-translation.
No preview · Article · Apr 2002 · Chinese Medical Sciences Journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: LHX4 gene is a member of the LIM-homeobox gene family and plays a critical role in the development of motor neurons. We have isolated a cDNA of human LHX4 from a library of the adult human spinal cord. Its sequence is 92% homologous to that of the mouse Lhx4. The genomic structure of the LHX4 gene and its chromosomal localization were determined. The gene was mapped on human chromosome 1q 24.1-1q 24.3 and composed of six exons. The homeodomain was encoded by two exons, exons 4 and 5. The first LIM domain was coded by exon 2, and the second by exon 3. Human MTE Array was used to study the expression profile of LHX4 in 72 human tissues. The expression was specific in the CNS including the fetal brain, the spinal cord, and the cerebral cortex. In situ hybridization of the adult rodent CNS showed the abundant expression of LHX4 in the cerebral cortex and motor neurons of the spinal cord. Our results suggest that LHX4 may play a role in the CNS, especially the neocortex and the spinal cord, and provide a basis to investigate potential involvement of the LHX4 gene in human diseases.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Trx domain of human thioredoxin-like protein has been purified and crystallized using ammonium sulfate as precipitant. The crystal belongs to space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 87.5, b = 48.5, c = 29.8 A, beta = 99.59 degrees. It has one molecule per asymmetric unit and diffracts beyond 2.2 A under cryoconditions (100 K) using an in-house Cu rotating-anode X-ray generator.
No preview · Article · Dec 2001 · Acta Crystallographica Section D Biological Crystallography
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract Drosophila
ash2 is a member of the trxG gene super family, some human homologues of which are involved in hematopoiesis and leukemia. We report here the identification of the human homologue of Drosophila
ash2 and its alternative splicing isoform, ASH2L1 and ASH2L2. ASH2L proteins are 60% homologous to Drosophila ash2. ASH2L also has a zinc finger motif (C2C2) although it is not identical to that in ASH2. Expression profile analysis showed that the amount of ASH2L transcripts is extremely high in fetal liver, testis, and leukemia cell lines with erythroid and megakaryocytic potential such as K562, Hel, and Dami. We treated these cells with differentiation inducers phorbol ester and hemin. We found that ASH2L is downregulated rapidly and dramatically in K562, Hel, and Dami cells during phorbol ester induced differentiation with megakaryocytic features. However, its expression is maintained at a high level during erythroid differentiation of K562 cells induced with hemin. These results suggest that ASH2L plays a role in hematopoiesis and is associated with some special kinds of leukemia.
No preview · Article · Aug 2001 · Journal of Molecular Medicine