Peter T Scardino

Queen Mary, University of London, Londinium, England, United Kingdom

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Publications (792)4946.87 Total impact

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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background Although life expectancy estimation is vital to decision making for localized prostate cancer, there are few, if any, valid and usable tools. Our goal was to create and validate a prediction model for other cause mortality in localized prostate cancer patients that could aid clinician’s initial treatment decisions at the point of care. Methods We combined an adjusted Social Security Administration table with a subset of comorbidities from a UK actuarial life expectancy model. Life tables were adjusted on the basis of survival data from a cohort of almost 10,000 radical prostatectomy patients treated at four major US academic institutions. Comorbidity-specific odds ratios were calculated and incorporated with baseline risk of mortality. We externally validated the model on 2898 patients from the Prostate Cancer Outcomes Study, which included men diagnosed with prostate cancer in six SEER cancer registries. These men had sufficient follow-up for our endpoints of 10- and 15-year mortality and also had self-reported comorbidity data. Results Life expectancy for prostate cancer patients were close to that of a typical US man who was 3 years younger. On external validation, 10- and 15-year concordance indexes were 0.724 and 0.726, respectively. Our model exhibited excellent calibration. Taking into account differences between how comorbidities are used in the model versus how they were recorded in the validation cohort, calibration would improve for most patients, but there would be overestimation of the risk of death in the oldest and sickest patients. Conclusions We successfully created and externally validated a new life expectancy prediction model that, while imperfect, has clear advantages to any alternative. We urge consideration of its use in counseling patients with localized prostate cancer.
    Preview · Article · Dec 2016 · BMC Medicine
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Gleason scoring (GS) has major deficiencies and a novel system of five grade groups (GS⩽6; 3+4; 4+3; 8; ⩾9) has been recently agreed and included in the WHO 2016 classification. Although verified in radical prostatectomies using PSA relapse for outcome, it has not been validated using prostate cancer death as an outcome in biopsy series. There is debate whether an 'overall' or 'worst' GS in biopsies series should be used. Methods: Nine hundred and eighty-eight prostate cancer biopsy cases were identified between 1990 and 2003, and treated conservatively. Diagnosis and grade was assigned to each core as well as an overall grade. Follow-up for prostate cancer death was until 31 December 2012. A log-rank test assessed univariable differences between the five grade groups based on overall and worst grade seen, and using univariable and multivariable Cox proportional hazards. Regression was used to quantify differences in outcome. Results: Using both 'worst' and 'overall' GS yielded highly significant results on univariate and multivariate analysis with overall GS slightly but insignificantly outperforming worst GS. There was a strong correlation with the five grade groups and prostate cancer death. Conclusions: This is the largest conservatively treated prostate cancer cohort with long-term follow-up and contemporary assessment of grade. It validates the formation of five grade groups and suggests that the 'worst' grade is a valid prognostic measure.British Journal of Cancer advance online publication, 21 April 2016; doi:10.1038/bjc.2016.86
    No preview · Article · Apr 2016 · British Journal of Cancer
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  • No preview · Article · Apr 2016
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose To examine the hypothesis that vascular-targeted photodynamic therapy (VTP) with WST11 and clinically relevant parameters can be used to ablate target tissues in a non-tumor-bearing large-animal model while selectively sparing blood vessels and collagen. Materials and Methods By using an institutional animal care and use committee-approved protocol, 68 ablations were performed in the kidneys (cortex and medulla) and livers of 27 adult pigs. Posttreatment evaluation was conducted with contrast material-enhanced computed tomography in the live animals at 24 hours. Immunohistochemistry was evaluated and histologic examination with hematoxylin-eosin staining was performed at 4 hours, 24 hours, and 7 days. Intravenous infusion of WST11 (4 mg per kilogram of body weight) was followed by using near-infrared illumination (753 nm for 20 minutes) through optical fibers prepositioned in target tissues by using a fixed template. Treated areas were scanned, measured, and statistically analyzed by using the Student t test and two-way analysis of variance. Results Focal WST11 VTP treatment in the liver and kidney by using a single optical fiber resulted in well-demarcated cylindrical zones of nonthermal necrosis concentrically oriented around the light-emitting diffuser, with no intervening viable parenchymal cells. The radius of ablated tissue increased from approximately 5 mm at 150 mW to approximately 7 mm at 415 mW (P < .01). Illumination through fiber triads at 1-cm separation resulted in confluent homogeneous necrosis. Patterns of acute injury within 24 hours were consistent with microcirculatory flow arrest and collagen preservation (demonstrated with trichrome staining). In the peripheral ablation zone, blood vessels at least 40 μm in diameter were selectively preserved and remained functional at 7 days. Ablated tissues exhibited progressive fibrosis and chronic inflammatory cell infiltrates. No histologic changes consistent with thermal injury were observed in blood vessels or collagen. The renal hilum and collecting system did not show treatment effect, despite treatment proximity. Conclusion WST11 VTP induces nonthermal tissue ablation in target tissue while preserving critical organ structures and bystander blood vessels within solid organs. (©) RSNA, 2016 Online supplemental material is available for this article.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2016 · Radiology
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose: The accurate detection of lymph node metastases in prostate cancer patients is important to direct treatment decisions. Our goal was to develop an intraoperative imaging approach to distinguish normal from metastasized lymph nodes. We aimed at developing and testing gold-silica surface-enhanced resonance Raman spectroscopy (SERRS) nanoparticles that demonstrate high uptake within normal lymphatic tissue and negligible uptake in areas of metastatic replacement. Procedures: We evaluated the ability of SERRS nanoparticles to delineate lymph node metastases in an orthotopic prostate cancer mouse model using PC-3 cells transduced with mCherry fluorescent protein. Tumor-bearing mice (n = 6) and non-tumor-bearing control animals (n = 4) were injected intravenously with 30 fmol/g SERRS nanoparticles. After 16-18 h, the retroperitoneal lymph nodes were scanned in situ and ex vivo with a Raman imaging system and a handheld Raman scanner and data corroborated with fluorescence imaging for mCherry protein expression and histology. Results: The SERRS nanoparticles demonstrated avid homing to normal lymph nodes, but not to metastasized lymph nodes. In cases where lymph nodes were partially infiltrated by tumor cells, the SERRS signal correctly identified, with sub-millimeter precision, healthy from metastasized components. Conclusions: This study serves as a first proof-of-principle that SERRS nanoparticles enable high precision and rapid intraoperative discrimination between normal and metastasized lymph nodes.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2016 · Molecular imaging and biology: MIB: the official publication of the Academy of Molecular Imaging
  • No preview · Article · Mar 2016 · European Urology Supplements
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose: To compare diagnostic outcomes between 2 different techniques for targeting regions-of-interest on prostate multiparametric Magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI); MRI-ultrasound fusion (MR-F) and visually targeted (VT) biopsy. Materials and methods: Patients presenting for prostate biopsy with regions-of-interest on mpMRI underwent MRI-targeted biopsy. For each region-of-interest two VT cores were obtained, followed by 2 cores using an MR-F device. Our primary endpoint was the difference in the detection of high-grade (Gleason ≥7) and any-grade cancer between VT and MR-F, investigated using McNemar's method. Secondary endpoints were the difference in detection rate by biopsy location using a logistic regression model, and difference in median cancer length using Wilcoxon sign-rank test. Results: We identified 396 regions-of-interest in 286 men. The difference in high-grade cancer detection between MR-F biopsy and VT biopsy was -1.4% (95% CI -6.4% to 3.6%; p=0.6); for any-grade cancer the difference was 3.5% (95% CI -1.9% to 8.9%; p=0.2). Median cancer length detected by MR-F and VT were 5.5mm vs. 5.8mm, respectively (p=0.8). MR-F biopsy detected 15% more cancers in the transition zone (p=0.046), and VT biopsy detected 11% more high-grade cancer at the prostate base (p=0.005). Only 52% of all high-grade cancers were detected by both techniques. Conclusions: We found no evidence of a significant difference in the detection of high-grade or any-grade cancer between VT and MR-F biopsy. However, the performance of each technique varied in specific biopsy locations, and the outcomes of both techniques were complementary. Combining VT biopsy and MR-F biopsy may optimize prostate cancer detection.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2016 · The Journal of urology
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose: To describe the efficacy of radical prostatectomy to achieve complete primary tumor excision while preserving erectile function in a cohort of patients with high risk features, in whom surgical resection was tailored according to clinical staging, biopsy data, preoperative imaging, and intraoperative findings. Materials and methods: In a retrospective review, we identified 584 patients with high-risk features (Prostate-specific antigen ≥ 20ng/mL; clinical stage ≥ T3; preoperative Gleason grade 8-10) who underwent radical prostatectomy between 2006 and 2012. The probability of neurovascular bundle preservation was estimated based on preoperative characteristics. Positive surgical margin rates and erectile function recovery were determined in patients who had some degree of neurovascular bundle preservation. Results: The neurovascular bundles were resected bilaterally in 69/584 (12%), and unilaterally in 91/584 (16%) patients. The rest had some degree of bilateral neurovascular bundle preservation. Preoperative features associated with a lower probability of neurovascular bundle preservation were: biopsy primary Gleason grade 5, and clinical stage T3. Among patients who underwent some degree of neurovascular bundle preservation, 125/515(24%) had a positive surgical margin and 75/160(47%) men with preoperatively functional erections and available erectile function follow-up had recovered erectile function within 2 years. Conclusions: High-risk features should not be considered an indication for complete bilateral neurovascular bundle resection. Some degree of neurovascular bundle preservation can be safely performed by high volume surgeons in the majority of these patients with an acceptable rate of positive surgical margins. Nearly half of high-risk patients with functional erections preoperatively recover erectile function after radical prostatectomy.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2016 · The Journal of urology
  • Andrew J. Vickers · James A. Eastham · Peter T. Scardino · Hans Lilja
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) recommendations on prostate cancer screening were developed in response to three limitations of previous screening guidelines: insufficient evidence-base, failure to link screening with treatment, and lack of risk stratification. The objective of the recommendations is to provide a schema for prostate cancer screening that maximizes the benefits, in terms of reduction in prostate cancer-specific mortality, and minimizes the harms, in terms of overdiagnosis and overtreatment. We recommend the following schema for men choosing to be screened following informed decision-making. Starting at age 45, PSA without DRE. If PSA ≥ 3 ng / mL: consider prostate biopsy; PSA ≥ 1 but < 3 ng / mL: return for PSA testing every 2 - 4 years; PSA < 1 ng / mL: return for PSA testing at 6 – 10 years. PSA testing should end at age 60 for men with PSA ≤ 1 ng/ mL; at 70, unless a man is very healthy and has a higher than average PSA; at 75 for all men. The decision to biopsy a man with a PSA > 3 ng / mL should be based on a variety of factors including repeat blood draw for confirmatory testing of the PSA level, DRE results, and work-up for benign disease. Additional reflex tests in blood such as a free-to-total PSA ratio, the Prostate Health Index, or 4Kscore, or urinary testing of PCA3, can also be informative in some patients. The best evidence suggests that more restricted indication for prostate biopsy and a more focused approach to pursue screening in men at highest risk of lethal cancer would retain most of the mortality benefits of aggressive screening schema, while importantly reducing harms from overdetection and overtreatment.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2016 · Urology
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose: We evaluated quality-of-life changes (QoL) in 907 patients treated with either radical prostatectomy (open or laparoscopic), real-time planned conformal brachytherapy, or high-dose intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) on a prospective IRB-approved longitudinal study. Methods: Validated questionnaires given pretreatment (baseline) and at 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 24, 36, and 48months addressed urinary function, urinary bother, bowel function, bowel bother, sexual function, and sexual bother. Results: At 48months, surgery had significantly higher urinary incontinence than others (both P<.001), but fewer urinary irritation/obstruction symptoms (all P<.001). Very low levels of bowel dysfunction were observed and only small subsets in each group showed rectal bleeding. Brachytherapy and IMRT showed better sexual function than surgery accounting for baseline function and other factors (delta 14.29 of 100, 95% CI, 8.57-20.01; and delta 10.5, 95% CI, 3.78-17.88). Sexual bother was similar. Four-year outcomes showed persistent urinary incontinence for surgery with more obstructive urinary symptoms for radiotherapy. Using modern radiotherapy delivery, bowel function deterioration is less-often observed. Sexual function was strongly affected in all groups yet significantly less for radiotherapy. Conclusions: Treatment selection should include patient preferences and balance predicted disease-free survival over a projected time vs potential impairment of QoL important for the patient.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Radiotherapy and Oncology
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: We prospectively evaluated the safety and efficacy of adding preoperative chemoprophylaxis to our institution's operative venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis policy as part of a physician-led quality improvement initiative. Study design: Patients undergoing major cancer surgery between August 2013 and January 2014 were screened according to service-specific eligibility criteria and targeted to receive preoperative VTE chemoprophylaxis. Bleeding, transfusion, and VTE rates were compared with rates of historical controls who had not received preoperative chemoprophylaxis. Results: The 2,058 eligible patients who underwent operation between August 2013 and January 2014 (post-intervention) were compared with a cohort of 4,960 patients operated on between January 2012 and June 2013, who did not receive preoperative VTE chemoprophylaxis (pre-intervention). In total, 71% of patients in the post-intervention group were screened for eligibility; 82% received preoperative anticoagulation. When compared with the pre-intervention group, the post-intervention group had significantly lower transfusion rates (pre- vs post-intervention, 17% vs 14%; difference 3.5%, 95% CI 1.7% to 5%, p = 0.0003) without significant difference in major bleeding (difference 0.3%, 95% CI -0.1% to 0.7%, p = 0.2). Rates of deep venous thrombosis (1.3% vs 0.2%; difference 1.1%, 95% CI 0.7% to 1.4%, p < 0.0001) and pulmonary embolus (1.0% vs 0.4%; difference 0.6%, 95% CI 0.2% to 1%, p = 0.017) were significantly lower in the post-intervention group. Conclusions: In patients undergoing major cancer surgery, institution of a single dose of preoperative chemoprophylaxis, as part of a physician-led quality improvement initiative, did not increase bleeding or blood transfusions and was associated with a significant decrease in VTE rates.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Journal of the American College of Surgeons
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Summary There is substantial heterogeneity among primary prostate cancers, evident in the spectrum of molecular abnormalities and its variable clinical course. As part of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), we present a comprehensive molecular analysis of 333 primary prostate carcinomas. Our results revealed a molecular taxonomy in which 74% of these tumors fell into one of seven subtypes defined by specific gene fusions (ERG, ETV1/4, and FLI1) or mutations (SPOP, FOXA1, and IDH1). Epigenetic profiles showed substantial heterogeneity, including an IDH1 mutant subset with a methylator phenotype. Androgen receptor (AR) activity varied widely and in a subtype-specific manner, with SPOP and FOXA1 mutant tumors having the highest levels of AR-induced transcripts. 25% of the prostate cancers had a presumed actionable lesion in the PI3K or MAPK signaling pathways, and DNA repair genes were inactivated in 19%. Our analysis reveals molecular heterogeneity among primary prostate cancers, as well as potentially actionable molecular defects.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · Cell
  • Itay A Sternberg · Ian Vela · Peter T Scardino
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A major dilemma in the selection of treatment for men with prostate cancer is the difficulty in accurately characterizing the risk posed by the cancer. This uncertainty has led physicians to recommend aggressive therapy for most men diagnosed with prostate cancer and has led to concerns about the benefits of screening and the adverse consequences of excessive treatment. Genomic analyses of prostate cancer reveal distinct patterns of alterations in the genomic landscape of the disease that show promise for improved prediction of prognosis and better medical decision making. Several molecular profiles are now commercially available and are being used to inform medical decisions. This article describes the clinical tests available for distinguishing aggressive from nonaggressive prostate cancer, reviews the new genomic tests, and discusses their advantages and limitations and the evidence for their utility in various clinical settings. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Medicine Volume 67 is January 14, 2016. Please see for revised estimates.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Annual review of medicine
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Many men with elevated prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels in serum do not have aggressive prostate cancer and undergo unnecessary biopsy. Retrospective studies using cryopreserved serum suggest that four kallikrein markers can predict biopsy outcome. Free, intact and total PSA, and kallikrein-related peptidase 2 were measured in cryopreserved blood from 6129 men with elevated PSA (≥3.0ng/mL) participating in the prospective, randomized trial Prostate Testing for Cancer and Treatment. Marker levels from 4765 men providing anticoagulated plasma were incorporated into statistical models to predict any-grade and high-grade (Gleason score ≥7) prostate cancer at 10-core biopsy. The models were corrected for optimism by 10-fold cross validation and independently validated using markers measured in serum from 1364 men. All statistical tests were two-sided. The four kallikreins enhanced prostate cancer detection compared with PSA and age alone. Area under the curve (AUC) for the four kallikreins was 0.719 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.704 to 0.734) vs 0.634 (95% CI = 0.617 to 0.651, P < .001) for PSA and age alone for any-grade cancer, and 0.820 (95% CI = 0.802 to 0.838) vs 0.738 (95% CI = 0.716 to 0.761) for high-grade cancer. Using a 6% risk of high-grade cancer as an illustrative cutoff, for 1000 biopsied men with PSA levels of 3.0ng/mL or higher, the model would reduce the need for biopsy in 428 men, detect 119 high-grade cancers, and delay diagnosis of 14 of 133 high-grade cancers. Models exhibited excellent discrimination on independent validation among men with only serum samples available for analysis. A statistical model based on kallikrein markers was validated in a large prospective study and reduces unnecessary biopsies while delaying diagnosis of high-grade cancers in few men. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · Journal of the National Cancer Institute
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The natural history of prostate cancer is highly variable and difficult to predict accurately. Better markers are needed to guide management and avoid unnecessary treatment. In this study, we validate the prognostic value of a cell cycle progression score (CCP score) independently and in a prespecified linear combination with standard clinical variables, that is, a clinical-cell-cycle-risk (CCR) score. Paraffin sections from 761 men with clinically localized prostate cancer diagnosed by needle biopsy and managed conservatively in the United Kingdom, mostly between 2000 and 2003. The primary end point was prostate cancer death. Clinical variables consisted of centrally reviewed Gleason score, baseline PSA level, age, clinical stage, and extent of disease; these were combined into a single predefined risk assessment (CAPRA) score. Full data were available for 585 men who formed a fully independent validation cohort. In univariate analysis, the CCP score hazard ratio was 2.08 (95% CI (1.76, 2.46), P<10(-13)) for one unit change of the score. In multivariate analysis including CAPRA, the CCP score hazard ratio was 1.76 (95% CI (1.44, 2.14), P<10(-6)). The predefined CCR score was highly predictive, hazard ratio 2.17 (95% CI (1.83, 2.57), χ(2)=89.0, P<10(-20)) and captured virtually all available prognostic information. The CCP score provides significant pretreatment prognostic information that cannot be provided by clinical variables and is useful for determining which patients can be safely managed conservatively, avoiding radical treatment.British Journal of Cancer advance online publication, 23 June 2015; doi:10.1038/bjc.2015.223
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2015 · British Journal of Cancer
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The ability to visualize and spare nerves during surgery is critical for avoiding chronic morbidity, pain, and loss of function. Visualization of such critical anatomic structures is even more challenging during minimal access procedures because the small incisions limit visibility. In this study, we focus on improving imaging of nerves through the use of a new small molecule fluorophore, GE3126, used in conjunction with our dual-mode (color and fluorescence) laparoscopic imaging instrument. GE3126 has higher aqueous solubility, improved pharmacokinetics, and reduced non-specific adipose tissue fluorescence compared to previous myelin-binding fluorophores. Dosing and kinetics were initially optimized in mice. A non-clinical modified Irwin study in rats, performed to assess the potential of GE3126 to induce nervous system injuries, showed the absence of major adverse reactions. Real-time intraoperative imaging was performed in a porcine model. Compared to white light imaging, nerve visibility was enhanced under fluorescence guidance, especially for small diameter nerves obscured by fascia, blood vessels, or adipose tissue. In the porcine model, nerve visualization was observed rapidly, within 5 to 10 minutes post-intravenous injection and the nerve fluorescence signal was maintained for up to 80 minutes. The use of GE3126, coupled with practical implementation of an imaging instrument may be an important step forward in preventing nerve damage in the operating room.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2015 · PLoS ONE
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Genome-wide association studies have identified multiple single-nucleotide polymorphsims (SNPs) associated with prostate cancer (PCa). Although these SNPs have been clearly associated with disease risk, their relationship with clinical outcomes is less clear. Our aim was to assess the frequency of known PCa susceptibility alleles within a single institution ascertainment and to correlate risk alleles with disease-specific outcomes. We genotyped 1354 individuals treated for localised PCa between June 1988 and December 2007. Blood samples were prospectively collected and de-identified before being genotyped and matched to phenotypic data. We investigated associations between 61 SNPs and disease-specific end points using multivariable analysis and also determined if SNPs were associated with PSA at diagnosis. Seven SNPs showed associations on multivariable analysis (P<0.05), rs13385191 with both biochemical recurrence (BR) and castrate metastasis (CM), rs339331 (BR), rs1894292, rs17178655 and rs11067228 (CM), and rs11902236 and rs4857841 PCa-specific mortality. After applying a Bonferroni correction for number of SNPs (P<0.0008), the only persistent significant association was between rs17632542 (KLK3) and PSA levels at diagnosis (P=1.4 × 10(-5)). We confirmed that rs17632542 in KLK3 is associated with PSA at diagnosis. No significant association was seen between loci and disease-specific end points when accounting for multiple testing. This provides further evidence that known PCa risk SNPs do not predict likelihood of disease progression.British Journal of Cancer advance online publication 11 June 2015; doi:10.1038/bjc.2015.199
    No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · British Journal of Cancer

Publication Stats

44k Citations
4,946.87 Total Impact Points


  • 2015
    • Queen Mary, University of London
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 1999-2015
    • Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center
      • • Department of Surgery
      • • Department of Pathology
      • • Epidemiology & Biostatistics Group
      New York, New York, United States
    • Texas A&M University - Galveston
      Galveston, Texas, United States
  • 2010-2012
    • Gracie Square Hospital, New York, NY
      New York, New York, United States
    • University of Ottawa
      • Department of Surgery
      Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
  • 2011
    • CUNY Graduate Center
      New York, New York, United States
  • 2007-2010
    • University of Turku
      Turku, Varsinais-Suomi, Finland
    • University of Helsinki
      • Department of Chemistry
      Helsinki, Uusimaa, Finland
  • 2008-2009
    • Columbia University
      New York, New York, United States
    • Weill Cornell Medical College
      • Department of Urology
      New York City, New York, United States
  • 2002-2008
    • University of Hamburg
      Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany
    • Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam
      Rotterdam, South Holland, Netherlands
    • University Medical Center Hamburg - Eppendorf
      • Department of Urology
      Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany
    • Medical University of South Carolina
      • Department of Urology
      Charleston, SC, United States
  • 2005
    • State University of New York Downstate Medical Center
      • Department of Urology
      Brooklyn, NY, United States
  • 1983-2004
    • Baylor College of Medicine
      • Department of Urology
      Houston, Texas, United States
  • 1997
    • Case Western Reserve University
      Cleveland, Ohio, United States
  • 1991-1997
    • Houston Methodist Hospital
      Houston, Texas, United States
  • 1995
    • Prostate Cancer Research Institute
      Los Angeles, California, United States
  • 1994
    • Houston medical Center
      Ворнер Робинс, Georgia, United States
    • Loyola University Medical Center
      • Department of Urology
      مايوود، إلينوي, Illinois, United States
  • 1993
    • National Cancer Institute (USA)
      Maryland, United States