[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Legionella pneumophila, the causative agent of Legionnaire disease, uses its type IV secretion system to translocate over 300 effector proteins into host cells. These effectors subvert host cell signaling pathways to ensure bacterial proliferation. Despite their importance for pathogenesis, the roles of most of the effectors are yet to be characterized. Key to understanding the function of effectors is the identification of host proteins they bind during infection. We previously developed a novel tandem affinity purification (TAP) approach using hexahistidine and BirA-specific biotinylation tags for isolating translocated effector complexes from infected cells whose composition were subsequently deciphered by mass spectrometry. Here we further advanced the workflow for the TAP approach and determined the infection dependent interactomes of the effectors SidM and LidA, which were previously reported to promiscuously bind multiple Rab GTPases in vitro. In this study we defined a stringent subset of Rab GTPases targeted by SidM and LidA during infection, comprising of Rab1A, 1B, 6 and 10; in addition, LidA targets Rab14 and 18. Taken together, this study illustrates the power of this approach to profile the intracellular interactomes of bacterial effectors during infection.
Preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Legionella pneumophila is a bacterial pathogen that thrives in alveolar macrophages, causing a severe pneumonia. The virulence of L. pneumophila depends on its Dot/Icm type IV secretion system (T4SS), which delivers more than 300 effector proteins into the host, where
they rewire cellular signaling to establish a replication-permissive niche, the Legionella-containing vacuole (LCV). Biogenesis of the LCV requires substantial redirection of vesicle trafficking and remodeling of
intracellular membranes. In order to achieve this, several T4SS effectors target regulators of membrane trafficking, while
others resemble lipases. Here, we characterized LpdA, a phospholipase D effector, which was previously proposed to modulate
the lipid composition of the LCV. We found that ectopically expressed LpdA was targeted to the plasma membrane and Rab4- and
Rab14-containing vesicles. Subcellular targeting of LpdA required a C-terminal motif, which is posttranslationally modified
by S-palmitoylation. Substrate specificity assays showed that LpdA hydrolyzed phosphatidylinositol, -inositol-3- and -4-phosphate,
and phosphatidylglycerol to phosphatidic acid (PA) in vitro. In HeLa cells, LpdA generated PA at vesicles and the plasma membrane. Imaging of different phosphatidylinositol phosphate
(PIP) and organelle markers revealed that while LpdA did not impact on membrane association of various PIP probes, it triggered
fragmentation of the Golgi apparatus. Importantly, although LpdA is translocated inefficiently into cultured cells, an L. pneumophila ΔlpdA mutant displayed reduced replication in murine lungs, suggesting that it is a virulence factor contributing to L. pneumophila infection in vivo.
No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Infection and immunity
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Gram-negative facultative intracellular pathogen Legionella pneumophila infects a wide range of different protozoa in the environment and also human alveolar macrophages upon inhalation of contaminated aerosols. Inside its hosts, it creates a defined and unique compartment, termed the Legionella-containing vacuole (LCV), for survival and replication. To establish the LCV, L. pneumophila uses its Dot/Icm type IV secretion system (T4SS) to translocate more than 300 effector proteins into the host cell. Although it has become apparent in the past years that these effectors subvert a multitude of cellular processes and allow Legionella to take control of host cell vesicle trafficking, transcription, and translation, the exact function of the vast majority of effectors still remains unknown. This is partly due to high functional redundancy among the effectors, which renders conventional genetic approaches to elucidate their role ineffective. Here, we review the current knowledge about Legionella T4SS effectors, highlight open questions, and discuss new methods that promise to facilitate the characterization of T4SS effector functions in the future.
Preview · Article · May 2015 · Canadian Journal of Microbiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Salmonella Typhi, the causative agent of typhoid fever, is a monophyletic, human-restricted bacterium that exhibits limited phenotypic variation. S. Typhi from Indonesia are a notable exception, with circulating strains expressing diverse flagella antigens including Hj, Hd and Hz66. Hypothesizing that S. Typhi flagella plays a key role during infection, we constructed an S. Typhi fliC mutant and otherwise isogenic S. Typhi strains expressing the Hj, Hd, Hz66 flagella antigens. Phenotyping revealed differences in flagellum structure, strain motility and immunogenicity, but not in the ability of flagellated isolates to induce TLR5 activity. Invasion assays using epithelial and macrophage cell lines revealed differences in the ability of these S. Typhi derivatives to invade cells or induce cellular restructuring in the form of ruffles. Notably, the Hj variant induced substantial ruffles that were not fully dependent on the GTPases that contribute to this process. These data highlight important differences in the phenotypic properties of S. Typhi flagella variation and how they impact on the pathogenesis of S. Typhi.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2015 · Scientific Reports
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The hallmark of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) infection is the formation of actin-rich pedestal-like structures, which are generated following phosphorylation of the bacterial effector Tir by cellular Src and Abl family tyrosine kinases. This leads to recruitment of the Nck-WIP-N-WASP complex that triggers Arp2/3-dependent actin polymerization in the host cell. The same phosphorylation-mediated signalling network is also assembled downstream of the Vaccinia virus protein A36 and the phagocytic Fc-gamma receptor FcγRIIa. Here we report that the EPEC type-III secretion system effector EspJ inhibits autophosphorylation of Src and phosphorylation of the Src substrates Tir and FcγRIIa. Consistent with this, EspJ inhibits actin polymerization downstream of EPEC, Vaccinia virus and opsonized red blood cells. We identify EspJ as a unique adenosine diphosphate (ADP) ribosyltransferase that directly inhibits Src kinase by simultaneous amidation and ADP ribosylation of the conserved kinase-domain residue, Src E310, resulting in glutamine-ADP ribose.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2014 · Nature Communications
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The enteric pathogens enteropathogenic Escherichia coli and enterohemorrhagic E. coli employ a T3SS to manipulate the host inflammatory response during infection. Previously, it has been reported that EPEC, in a T3SS-dependent manner, induces an early pro-inflammatory response through activation of NF-κB via ERK1/2 and PKCζ. However, no effector has yet been attributed to the activation of NF-κB during infection. At later time points post infection NF-κB signalling is inhibited through the translocation of multiple effectors including NleE and NleC. Here we report that the highly conserved non-LEE encoded effector F (NleF) shows both diffuse and mitochondrial localization during ectopic expression. Moreover, NleF induces nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65 and the expression of IL-8 following ectopic expression and during EPEC infection. Furthermore, the pro-inflammatory activity and localization of NleF was dependent on the C-terminal amino acids LQCG. Whilst the C-terminal domain of NleF was previously shown to be essential for interaction with caspase-4, -8 and -9; the pro-inflammatory activity of NleF was independent of caspase-4, -8 or -9 interaction. In conclusion EPEC, through the T3SS-dependent translocation of NleF, induces a pro-inflammatory response in an NF-κB dependent manner in the early stages of infection.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · Infection and Immunity
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Citrobacter rodentium is a mucosal pathogen of mice that shares several pathogenic mechanisms with enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) and enterohaemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC), which are two clinically important human gastrointestinal pathogens. Thus, C. rodentium has long been used as a model to understand the molecular basis of EPEC and EHEC infection in vivo. In this Review, we discuss recent studies in which C. rodentium has been used to study mucosal immunology, including the deregulation of intestinal inflammatory responses during bacteria-induced colitis and the role of the intestinal microbiota in mediating resistance to colonization by enteric pathogens. These insights should help to elucidate the roles of mucosal inflammatory responses and the microbiota in the virulence of enteric pathogens.
No preview · Article · Aug 2014 · Nature Reviews Microbiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Unlabelled:
Legionella pneumophila, the causative agent of Legionnaires' disease, uses the Dot/Icm type IV secretion system (T4SS) to translocate more than 300 effectors into host cells, where they subvert host cell signaling. The function and host cell targets of most effectors remain unknown. PieE is a 69-kDa Dot/Icm effector containing three coiled-coil (CC) regions and 2 transmembrane (TM) helices followed by a fourth CC region. Here, we report that PieE dimerized by an interaction between CC3 and CC4. We found that ectopically expressed PieE localized to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and induced the formation of organized smooth ER, while following infection PieE localized to the Legionella-containing vacuole (LCV). To identify the physiological targets of PieE during infection, we established a new purification method for which we created an A549 cell line stably expressing the Escherichia coli biotin ligase BirA and infected the cells with L. pneumophila expressing PieE fused to a BirA-specific biotinylation site and a hexahistidine tag. Following tandem Ni(2+) nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) and streptavidin affinity chromatography, the effector-target complexes were analyzed by mass spectrometry. This revealed interactions of PieE with multiple host cell proteins, including the Rab GTPases 1a, 1b, 2a, 5c, 6a, 7, and 10. Binding of the Rab GTPases, which was validated by yeast two-hybrid binding assays, was mediated by the PieE CC1 and CC2. In summary, using a novel, highly specific strategy to purify effector complexes from infected cells, which is widely applicable to other pathogens, we identified PieE as a multidomain LCV protein with promiscuous Rab GTPase-binding capacity.
The respiratory pathogen Legionella pneumophila uses the Dot/Icm type IV secretion system to translocate more than 300 effector proteins into host cells. The function of most effectors in infection remains unknown. One of the bottlenecks for their characterization is the identification of target proteins. Frequently used in vitro approaches are not applicable to all effectors and suffer from high rates of false positives or missed interactions, as they are not performed in the context of an infection. Here, we determine key functional domains of the effector PieE and describe a new method to identify host cell targets under physiological infection conditions. Our approach, which is applicable to other pathogens, uncovered the interaction of PieE with several proteins involved in membrane trafficking, in particular Rab GTPases, revealing new details of the Legionella infection strategy and demonstrating the potential of this method to greatly advance our understanding of the molecular basis of infection.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Enteropathogenic and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EPEC/EHEC) manipulate many cell processes by injecting effector proteins from the bacteria into the host cell via a Type III secretion system. In this paper we report that the effector protein EspG disrupts recycling endosome function. In particular, we found that following transferrin binding and endocytosis EspG reduces recycling of the transferrin receptor (TfR), the prototypical recycling protein, from an intracellular location to the cell surface, resulting in an accumulation of TfR within the cell. The surface levels of three receptors (TfR, Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) and β1 integrin) were tested and found to be reduced dependent on EspG translocation. Furthermore, disruption of recycling endosome function and the reduced surface presentation of receptors was dependent on the previously reported RabGAP activity and ARF binding ability of EspG. This paper therefore supports the previous hypothesis that EspG acts as an enzyme scaffold perturbing cell signalling events, in this case altering recycling endosome function and cell surface receptor levels during infection.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · Cellular Microbiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We evaluated the protective effects of fermented dairy products (FDPs) in an infection model, using the mouse pathogen Citrobacter rodentium (CR). Treatment of mice with FDP formulas A, B, and C or a control product did not affect CR colonization, organ specificity,
or attaching and effacing lesion formation. Fermented dairy product A (FDP-A), but neither the supernatant from FDP-A nor
β-irradiated (IR) FDP-A, caused a significant reduction in colonic crypt hyperplasia and CR-associated pathology. Profiling
the gut microbiota revealed that IR-FDP-A promoted higher levels of phylotypes belonging to Alcaligenaceae and a decrease
in Lachnospiraceae (Ruminococcus) during CR infection. Conversely, FDP-A prevented a decrease in Ruminococcus and increased Turicibacteraceae (Turicibacter). Importantly, loss of Ruminococcus and Turicibacter has been associated with susceptibility to dextran sodium sulfate–induced colitis. Our results demonstrate that viable bacteria in FDP-A reduced CR-induced colonic crypt hyperplasia and prevented the loss
of key bacterial genera that may contribute to disease pathology.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2014 · The Journal of Infectious Diseases
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mucus production by goblet cells of the large intestine serves as a crucial antimicrobial protective mechanism at the interface between the eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells of the mammalian intestinal ecosystem. However, the regulatory pathways involved in goblet cell-induced mucus secretion remain largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that the NLRP6 inflammasome, a recently described regulator of colonic microbiota composition and biogeographical distribution, is a critical orchestrator of goblet cell mucin granule exocytosis. NLRP6 deficiency leads to defective autophagy in goblet cells and abrogated mucus secretion into the large intestinal lumen. Consequently, NLRP6 inflammasome-deficient mice are unable to clear enteric pathogens from the mucosal surface, rendering them highly susceptible to persistent infection. This study identifies an innate immune regulatory pathway governing goblet cell mucus secretion, linking nonhematopoietic inflammasome signaling to autophagy and highlighting the goblet cell as a critical innate immune player in the control of intestinal host-microbial mutualism. PAPERCLIP:
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC), enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), and Shigella use a type 3 secretion system (T3SS) to inject dozens of effector proteins into the host cell. The effectors manipulate host cell processes including the host cytoskeleton, immune response, cell survival, and gut integrity. EPEC and EHEC share a large number of common effectors and some homologous effectors can be found in Shigella, however there is also considerable variability within and between pathotypes. For many effectors detailed molecular mechanisms of action have been described by identifying host interacting partners, homologous proteins, or enzymatic activities. However, understanding effector biology within the context of infection with multiple effectors, various cell populations, and host genetic differences remains a challenge.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Polymorphisms in the intracellular pattern recognition receptor gene NLRP3 (NLR family, pyrin domain containing 3) have been associated with susceptibility to Crohn's disease, a type of inflammatory bowel disease. Following tissue damage or infection, NLRP3 triggers the formation of inflammasomes, containing NLRP3, ASC (apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD domain), and caspase-1, that mediate secretion of interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18. However, the precise role of NLRP3 inflammasomes in mucosal inflammation and barrier protection remains unclear. Here we show that upon infection with the attaching/effacing intestinal pathogen Citrobacter rodentium, Nlrp3(-/-) and Asc(-/-) mice displayed increased bacterial colonization and dispersion, more severe weight loss, and exacerbated intestinal inflammation. Analyses of irradiation bone marrow chimeras revealed that protection from disease was mediated through Nlrp3 activation in nonhematopoietic cells and was initiated very early after infection. Thus, early activation of Nlrp3 in intestinal epithelial cells limits pathogen colonization and prevents subsequent pathology, potentially providing a functional link between NLRP3 polymorphisms and susceptibility to inflammatory bowel disease.Mucosal Immunology advance online publication, 27 November 2013; doi:10.1038/mi.2013.94.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2013 · Mucosal Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Legionella pneumophila, the causative agent of a severe pneumonia named Legionnaires' disease, is an important human pathogen that infects and replicates within alveolar macrophages. Its virulence depends on the Dot/Icm type IV secretion system (T4SS), which is essential to establish a replication permissive vacuole known as the Legionella containing vacuole (LCV). L. pneumophila infection can be modeled in mice however most mouse strains are not permissive, leading to the search for novel infection models. We have recently shown that the larvae of the wax moth Galleria mellonella are suitable for investigation of L. pneumophila infection. G. mellonella is increasingly used as an infection model for human pathogens and a good correlation exists between virulence of several bacterial species in the insect and in mammalian models. A key component of the larvae's immune defenses are hemocytes, professional phagocytes, which take up and destroy invaders. L. pneumophila is able to infect, form a LCV and replicate within these cells. Here we demonstrate protocols for analyzing L. pneumophila virulence in the G. mellonella model, including how to grow infectious L. pneumophila, pretreat the larvae with inhibitors, infect the larvae and how to extract infected cells for quantification and immunofluorescence microscopy. We also describe how to quantify bacterial replication and fitness in competition assays. These approaches allow for the rapid screening of mutants to determine factors important in L. pneumophila virulence, describing a new tool to aid our understanding of this complex pathogen.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2013 · Journal of Visualized Experiments
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Successful infection by enteric bacterial pathogens depends on the ability of the bacteria to colonize the gut, replicate in host tissues and disseminate to other hosts. Pathogens such as Salmonella, Shigella and enteropathogenic and enterohaemorrhagic (EPEC and EHEC, respectively) Escherichia coli use a type III secretion system (T3SS) to deliver virulence effector proteins into host cells during infection that promote colonization and interfere with antimicrobial host responses. Here we report that the T3SS effector NleB1 from EPEC binds to host cell death-domain-containing proteins and thereby inhibits death receptor signalling. Protein interaction studies identified FADD, TRADD and RIPK1 as binding partners of NleB1. NleB1 expressed ectopically or injected by the bacterial T3SS prevented Fas ligand or TNF-induced formation of the canonical death-inducing signalling complex (DISC) and proteolytic activation of caspase-8, an essential step in death-receptor-induced apoptosis. This inhibition depended on the N-acetylglucosamine transferase activity of NleB1, which specifically modified Arg 117 in the death domain of FADD. The importance of the death receptor apoptotic pathway to host defence was demonstrated using mice deficient in the FAS signalling pathway, which showed delayed clearance of the EPEC-like mouse pathogen Citrobacter rodentium and reversion to virulence of an nleB mutant. The activity of NleB suggests that EPEC and other attaching and effacing pathogens antagonize death-receptor-induced apoptosis of infected cells, thereby blocking a major antimicrobial host response.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Dot/Icm type IV secretion system (T4SS) of Legionella pneumophila is crucial for the pathogen to survive in protozoa and cause human disease. Although more than 275 effector proteins are
delivered into the host cell by the T4SS, the function of the majority is unknown. Here we have characterized the Dot/Icm
effector LtpD. During infection, LtpD localized to the cytoplasmic face of the membrane of the Legionella-containing vacuole (LCV). In A549 lung epithelial cells, ectopically expressed LtpD localized to large vesicular structures
that contained markers of endosomal compartments. Systematic analysis of LtpD fragments identified an internal 17-kDa fragment,
LtpD471-626, which was essential for targeting ectopically expressed LtpD to vesicular structures and for the association of translocated
LtpD with the LCV. LtpD471-626 bound directly to phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate [PtdIns(3)P] in vitro and colocalized with the PtdIns(3)P markers FYVE and SetA in cotransfected cells. LtpD was also found to bind the host cell
enzyme inositol (myo)-1 (or 4)-monophosphatase 1, an important phosphatase involved in phosphoinositide production. Analysis of the role of LtpD
in infection showed that LtpD is involved in bacterial replication in THP-1 macrophages, the larvae of Galleria mellonella, and mouse lungs. Together, these data suggest that LtpD is a novel phosphoinositide-binding L. pneumophila effector that has a role in intracellular bacterial replication.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2013 · Infection and immunity
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This protocol outlines the steps required to longitudinally monitor a bioluminescent bacterial infection using composite 3D diffuse light imaging tomography with integrated μCT (DLIT-μCT) and the subsequent use of this data to generate a four dimensional (4D) movie of the infection cycle. To develop the 4D infection movies and to validate the DLIT-μCT imaging for bacterial infection studies using an IVIS Spectrum CT, we used infection with bioluminescent C. rodentium, which causes self-limiting colitis in mice. In this protocol, we outline the infection of mice with bioluminescent C. rodentium and non-invasive monitoring of colonization by daily DLIT-μCT imaging and bacterial enumeration from feces for 8 days. The use of the IVIS Spectrum CT facilitates seamless co-registration of optical and μCT scans using a single imaging platform. The low dose μCT modality enables the imaging of mice at multiple time points during infection, providing detailed anatomical localization of bioluminescent bacterial foci in 3D without causing artifacts from the cumulative radiation. Importantly, the 4D movies of infected mice provide a powerful analytical tool to monitor bacterial colonization dynamics in vivo.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2013 · Journal of Visualized Experiments