Eva Hevia

University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, Scotland, United Kingdom

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Publications (109)706.17 Total impact


  • No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · ChemInform
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    ABSTRACT: By exploring the reactivity of sodium butyl-magnesiate () supported by the bulky chelating silyl(bisamido) ligand {Ph2Si(NAr*)2}(2-) (Ar* = 2,6-iPr2-C6H3) towards Quinoxaline (Qx), the ability of this bimetallic system to effectively promote SET processes has been disclosed. Thus executes the single-electron reduction of Qx affording complex () whose structure in the solid state contains two quinaxolyl radical anions Qx˙ stabilised within a dimeric magnesiate framework. Combining multinuclear NMR and EPR measurements with DFT calculations, new insights into the constitution of in solution and its magnetic behaviour have been gained. Further evidence on the SET reactivity of was found when it was reacted with nitroxyl radical TEMPO which furnished contacted ion pair sodium magnesiate [(Ph2Si(NAr*)2)Mg(TEMPO(-))Na(THF)3] () where both metals are connected by an alkoxide bridge, resulting from reduction of TEMPO. The role that the different ligands present in can play in these new SET reactions has also been assessed. Using an amination approach, the Bu group in can be replaced by the more basic amide TMP allowing the isolation of () which was characterised by multinuclear NMR and X-ray crystallography. (1)H NMR monitoring of the reaction of with Qx showed its conversion to , leaving the hydrogen atoms of the heterocycle untouched. Contrastingly, using sodium homoalkyl magnesiate [NaMg(CH2SiMe3)3] () led to the chemoselective C2 alkylation of this heterocycle, suggesting that the presence of the steric stabiliser {Ph2Si(NAr*)2}(2-) on the mixed-metal reagent is required in order to facilitate the Qx reduction.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Dalton Transactions
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    ABSTRACT: Herein the sodium alkylmagnesium amide [Na4 Mg2 (TMP)6 (nBu)2 ] (TMP=2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidide), a template base as its deprotonating action is dictated primarily by its 12 atom ring structure, is studied with the common N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) IPr [1,3-bis(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)imidazol-2-ylidene]. Remarkably, magnesiation of IPr occurs at the para-position of an aryl substituent, sodiation occurs at the abnormal C4 position, and a dative bond occurs between normal C2 and sodium, all within a 20 atom ring structure accommodating two IPr(2-) . Studies with different K/Mg and Na/Mg bimetallic bases led to two other magnesiated NHC structures containing two or three IPr(-) monoanions bound to Mg through abnormal C4 sites. Synergistic in that magnesiation can only work through alkali-metal mediation, these reactions add magnesium to the small cartel of metals capable of directly metalating a NHC.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Angewandte Chemie International Edition
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    ABSTRACT: Developing new green solvents in designing chemical products and processes or successfully employing the already existing ones is one of the key subjects in green chemistry and is especially important in organometallic chemistry, which is an interdisciplinary field. Can we advantageously also use unconventional reaction media in place of current harsh organic solvents for polar organometallic compounds? This microreview critically analyses the state of the art with regard to this topic and showcases recent developments and breakthroughs that are becoming new research directions in this field. Because metals cover a vast swath of the Periodic Table the content is organised into three sections discussing the reactivity of organometallic compounds of s-, p- and d-block elements in unconventional solvents.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · European Journal of Organic Chemistry
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    ABSTRACT: By a comparison of two alternative bimetallic approaches, two different types of sodium ferrate complexes have been realized. Reaction of NHC IPr with mixed Na/Fe bimetallic compounds gives donor−acceptor coordination products. In contrast, illustrating how metal pairs can also work in an stepwise synergistic manner, sequential treatment of IPr with a sodium alkyl followed by the addition of an iron bis(amide) affords a novel ferrate containing a anionic NHC ligand, resulting from an indirect ferration process.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · Inorganic Chemistry
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    ABSTRACT: Advancing the rational design of main-group N-heterocyclic carbene complexes, this study reports the synthesis, X-ray crystallographic and NMR spectroscopic characterisation of a novel series of Ga complexes containing neutral or anionic NHC ligands using the unsaturated carbene IPr (IPr= 1,3-bis-(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)imidazole-2-ylidene). Starting from normal adduct GaR3∙IPr (1) (R = CH2SiMe3), the addition of polar organolithium reagent LiR led to the formation of NHC-stabilised gallate species IPr∙LiGaR4 (2), resulting from co-complexation of the single-metal species. Contrastingly, reversing the order of addition of these organometallic reagents, by treating unsaturated free IPr, first with LiR followed by GaR3, furnished novel heteroleptic gallate (THF)2Li[:C{[N(2,6-iPr2C6H3)]2CHCGa(CH2SiMe3)3}] (3), which contains an anionic NHC ligand acting as an unsymmetrical bridge between the two metals, coordinating through its abnormal C4 position to Ga and through its normal C2 position to Li. Electrophilic interception studies of 3 using methyl triflate (MeOTf), methanol and imidazolium salt (IMes∙HCl) led to the isolation and structural elucidation of the two novel neutral abnormal NHC (aNHC) complexes [CH3C{[N(2,6-iPr2C6H3)]2CHCGa(CH2SiMe3)3}] (4) and aIPr∙GaR3 (5) (aIPr = HC{[N(2,6-iPr2C6H3)]2CHC). These studies disclose the preference of the anionic IPr ligand present in 3 to react with electrophiles via its C2 position, leaving its Ga-C4 bond intact. Compounds 1, 3 and 5 constitute a rare example of a series of normal, anionic and abnormal complexes incorporating the same metal-coligand partnership. Abnormal complex 5 can also be accessed by a thermally induced rearrangement of its normal isomer 1. Combining NMR spectroscopic and kinetic studies with DFT calculations, new light has been shed on this intriguing transformation, which suggests that it occurs via a dissociative mechanism, highlighting the importance of the donor ability of the solvent used in these thermal isomerisations as well as the steric bulk of the substituents on the NHC and the Ga reagent. These findings intimate that relief of the steric hindrance around Ga by forming an abnormal complex is a key driving force behind these rearrangements
    No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · Chemical Science
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    ABSTRACT: This study explores the synthetic utility of homo(aryl) lithum zincate reagents [LiZnPh3] (2) and [Li2ZnPh4] (3), made by cocomplexation of variable amounts of their monometallic components LiPh and ZnPh2 (1), as chemoselective nucleophilic arylating reagents. Lithium zincates 2 and 3 were both characterized by multinuclear (1H, 13C, and 7Li) NMR spectroscopy, and in the case of 2, a classical reagent in heterobimetallic chemistry, the molecular structure of its OnBu2 solvate [LiZnPh3(OnBu2)2] 2·2OBu2 has been established by X-ray crystallography. Using the synthetically relevant N-heterocyclic molecule acridine (acr, NC13H9), a new zincate-mediated arylating approach is demonstrated which allows the chemoselective arylation of acr at its C9 position, affording 9,10-dihydro-9-phenylacridine (4) in 95% yield using microwave irradiation (125 °C, 20 min). These conditions are in contrast with previous transition-metal-catalyzed methodologies using ZnPh2 as an arylating reagent, which require significantly longer reaction times (130 °C, 20 h). Oxidation of 4 with DDQ furnished 9-phenylacridine (5) in a 71% yield. New insights into the constitution of the intermediate organometallic species involved in these reactions prior to the hydrolysis step have been gained by trapping homometallic [(THF)3Li(NC13H9-Ph)] (6). Interestingly the reaction of acr with 3 equiv of PhLi/TMEDA led to the isolation of a different product, namely the novel paramagnetic [(THF)(TMEDA)Li{NC13H8-Ph}•–] (7), which contains a radical anion of 9-phenylacridine. The structure of the donor–acceptor complex [(acr)ZnPh2] (8) has also been included as a result of the reaction of 1 with acr.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2015 · Organometallics
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    ABSTRACT: Using bis(amide) Zn(HMDS)2 (HMDS= 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexamethyldisilazide) as a precursor, this study explores the synthesis of N-heterocyclic carbene stabilized mixed amido-hydride zinc complexes using two alternative hydride sources, namely dimethylamine borane (DMAB) and phenylsilane PhSiH3. Hydride-rich zinc cluster Zn4(HMDS)2H6•2IPr (1) (IPr= 1,3-bis(2,6-di-isopropylphenylimidazol-2-ylidene), which can be envisaged as a co-complex of IPr•ZnH2 and (HMDS)ZnH, is obtained when DMAB is employed, with the concomitant formation of heteroleptic bis(amido)borane [HB(NMe2)(HMDS)] and H2 evolution. NMR studies in d8-THF show that although the bulky carbene IPr does not bind to the zinc bis(amide), its presence in the reaction media is required in order to stabilise hemiamide (apropos zinc), 1. Reactions using the slightly less sterically demanding NHC IXy (IXy = 1,3-bis-(2,6-dimethylphenyl)-imidazol-2-ylidene) led to the isolation and structural elucidation of the carbene adduct Zn(HMDS)2•IXy (2). Contrastingly, mixtures of equimolar amounts of PhSiH3 and the bis(amide) (60oC, 3 h, hexane) led to the isolation of monomeric heteroleptic hydride (HMDS)ZnH•IPr (3). NMR studies, including DOSY experiments, revealed that while the integrity of 3 is retained in polar d8-THF solutions, in lower polarity C6D6 it displays a much more complex solution behaviour, being in equilibrium with the homoleptic species ZnH2•IPr, Zn(HMDS)2 and IPr
    No preview · Article · Mar 2015 · Dalton Transactions
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    ABSTRACT: Reaction of ferrocene with 1 or 2 molar equiv of the synergistic-operative bimetallic sodium zincate base TMEDA·Na(μ-TMP)(μ-tBu)Zn(tBu) yields mainly mono- or dizincated complexes TMEDA·Na(μ-TMP)[μ-(C5H4)Fe(C5H5)]ZntBu (1) and [TMEDA·Na(μ-TMP)Zn(tBu)]2(C5H4)2Fe (2). Likewise, the separated pairing of Li(TMP) and (TMP)AliBu2 in the presence of THF can mono- or dimetalate ferrocene in a synergistic two-step lithiation/trans-metal-trapping protocol to give THF·Li(μ-TMP)[μ-(C5H4)Fe(C5H5)]Al(iBu)2 (4) or [THF·Li(μ-TMP)Al(iBu)2]2(C5H4)2Fe (5). In the absence of Lewis donating cosolvents, a 4-fold excess of the sodium zincate appears to produce an unprecedented 4-fold zincated ferrocene of formula Na4(TMP)4Zn4(tBu)4[(C5H3)2Fe] (3), whereas when donor solvent is withheld from the lithium/aluminum pairing, only dimetalation of ferrocene is possible. Tetrametalation seems to be inhibited by the in situ generation of TMP(H) via amido basicity, which then acts as a Lewis donor toward lithium, preventing inverse-crown formation and preferentially forming the Lewis acid-Lewis base adduct [TMP(H)·Li(μ-TMP)Al(iBu)2]2(C5H4)2Fe (6). With the exception of 3, all aforementioned complexes have been characterized by X-ray crystallography, while 1-6 have also been studied by solution NMR spectroscopic studies.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2015 · Organometallics
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    ABSTRACT: Using structurally defined potassium- tetra(alkyl)magnesiates, a new straightforward methodology to promote regioselective Mg-H exchange reactions of a wide range of aromatic and heteroaromatic substrates is disclosed. Contacted ion pair intermediates are likely to be involved, with K being the key to facilitate the magnesiation processes.
    Preview · Article · Sep 2014 · Chemical Communications
  • Eva Hevia
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    No preview · Article · Sep 2014 · Dalton Transactions
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    ABSTRACT: The lithium TMP-aluminate bases “LiTMP·Al(iBu)3” 1 and “LiTMP·Al(TMP)(iBu)2” 2, where TMP is 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidide, have recently come under the spotlight as “aluminating” reagents in that they can perform aluminium-hydrogen exchange on a wide variety of aromatic substrates. Previous studies have intimated that 1 existed as a single species in THF solution formulated as [(THF)·Li(μ-TMP)(μ-iBu)Al(iBu)2] 1·THF, having a contacted ion pair structure as evidenced by an X-ray crystallographic study of isolated crystals. But here using anisole as a case substrate it is revealed that pre-crystallised 1·THF cannot deprotonate anisole at all whether in hexane or THF solution contradicting earlier in situ applications of 1 which revealed near quantitative metallation of anisole. NMR spectroscopic studies of 1 made in situ in THF solution ascribe this reactivity distinction from 1·THF to complex equilibria involving five major species in LiTMP·THF, Al(iBu)3·THF, [{Li(THF)4}+{Al(TMP)(iBu)3}−] 1·(THF)4, [(THF)·Li(μ-TMP)(μ-OC4H7)Al(iBu)2], 4, and (TMP)Al(iBu)2·THF. Reagent 2 in contrast is found to exist as only two separated homometallic species in LiTMP·THF and (TMP)Al(iBu)2·THF in THF solution. The constitutions of 1 and 2 in non-polar hexane solution are also revealed. With the aid of DFT calculations, discussion focuses on the fact that none of the aluminate species present in THF solutions of 1 or 2 can deprotonate/metallate anisole, instead the metallation processes appear to be LiTMP lithiations followed immediately by trapping by an alkylaluminium complex, in a metal exchange which drives the reaction to the product (arylaluminated) side.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2014 · Chemical Science
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    ABSTRACT: Expanding the synthetic potential of Mg–Zn hybrid organyl reagents (generated via transmetallation reactions), this study uncovers a versatile approach, involving a sequence of direct Zn–I exchange and Pd catalysed cross-coupling reactions which grants access to a wide range of asymmetric bis(aryls). By combining X-ray crystallography with ESI-MS and non-deuterium NMR spectroscopic studies, new light is shed on the heterobimetallic constitution of the intriguing organometallic species [(THF)4MgCl2Zn(tBu)Cl] (1) and [{Mg2Cl3(THF)6}+{ZntBu3}−] (2), formed through transmetallation of tBuMgCl with n equivalent amounts of ZnCl2 (n = 1 and 3 respectively). Operating by cooperative effects, alkyl-rich hybrid 2 can effectively promote direct Zn–I exchange reactions with aromatic halides in short periods of time at room temperature in THF solution. The structural elucidation of key organometallic intermediates involved in some of these Zn–I exchanges, provides new reactivity insights into how these bimetallic systems operate. Thus, while the reaction of 2 with 3 equivalents of 2-iodoanisole (3b) gives magnesium dizincate [{Mg(THF)6}2+{Zn(o-C6H4-OMe)3}2−] (4) which demonstrates the 3-fold activation of the tBu groups attached to Zn in 2, using 2-iodobenzonitrile (3i), only two tBu groups react with the substrate, affording [(THF)4MgCl(NC-o-C6H4)ZnI(o-C6H4-CN)(THF)] (7). In 7 Mg and Zn are connected by an aryl bridge, suggesting that the formation of contacted ion-pair hybrids may have a deactivating effect on the outcome of the Zn–I exchange process. A wide range of homoleptic tris(aryl) zincate intermediates have been prepared in situ and used as precursors in Pd catalysed cross-coupling reactions, affording bis(aryls) 6a–s in excellent yields under mild reaction conditions without the need of any additive or polar cosolvent such as NMP or DMI.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2014 · Chemical Science
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    ABSTRACT: Using an interlocking co-complexation approach, a homologous series of unsolvated alkali-metal zincates [MZn(CH2SiMe3)3] (M = Li , Na , K ) was prepared by reacting equimolar amounts of Zn(CH2SiMe3)2 with the relevant alkali-metal alkyl M(CH2SiMe3) employing non-coordinating hexane as a solvent. X-ray crystallographic studies reveal that these heterobimetallic compounds exhibit unprecedented supramolecular assemblies made up exclusively of a three-fold combination of M-CH2, Zn-CH2 and MMe interactions. Revealing an important alkali-metal effect, displays a linear chain structure; whereas and form much more intricate 3D and 2D coordination networks respectively. Shedding new light into the formation of these solvent-free zincates, DFT calculations indicate that the infinite degree of aggregation observed in plays a major role in thermodynamically driving the co-complexation reactions of their homometallic precursors. NMR spectroscopic studies suggest that in C6D6 solution exist as discrete contacted ion-pair species, where the alkali-metal is partially solvated by molecules of deuterated solvent. The supramolecular assemblies of can be easily deaggregated by adding the polydentate N-donors PMDETA (N,N,N',N'',N''-pentamethyldiethylenetriamine) or TMEDA (N,N,N',N'-tetramethylethylenediamine), affording monomeric [(PMDETA)LiZn(CH2SiMe3)3] () and [(TMEDA)2NaZn(CH2SiMe3)3] ().
    No preview · Article · Jun 2014 · Dalton Transactions
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    ABSTRACT: Despite their enormous synthetic relevance, the use of polar organolithium and Grignard reagents is greatly limited by their requirements of low temperatures in order to control their reactivity as well as the need of dry organic solvents and inert atmosphere protocols to avoid their fast decomposition. Breaking new ground on the applications of these commodity organometallics in synthesis under more environmentally friendly conditions, this work introduces deep eutetic solvents (DESs) as a green alternative media to carry out chemoselective additions of ketones in air at room temperature. Comparing their reactivities in DES with those observed in pure water suggest that a kinetic activation of the alkylating reagents is taking place, favoring nucleophilic addition over the competitive hydrolysis, which can be rationalized through formation of halide-rich magnesiate or lithiate species.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · Angewandte Chemie International Edition
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    ABSTRACT: Despite their enormous synthetic relevance, the use of polar organolithium and Grignard reagents is greatly limited by their requirements of low temperatures in order to control their reactivity as well as the need of dry organic solvents and inert atmosphere protocols to avoid their fast decomposition. Breaking new ground on the applications of these commodity organometallics in synthesis under more environmentally friendly conditions, this work introduces deep eutetic solvents (DESs) as a green alternative media to carry out chemoselective additions of ketones in air at room temperature. Comparing their reactivities in DES with those observed in pure water suggest that a kinetic activation of the alkylating reagents is taking place, favoring nucleophilic addition over the competitive hydrolysis, which can be rationalized through formation of halide-rich magnesiate or lithiate species.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2014 · Angewandte Chemie
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    ABSTRACT: The pivalates RZnOPiv⋅Mg(OPiv)X⋅n LiCl (OPiv=pivalate; R=aryl; X=Cl, Br, I) stand out amongst salt-supported organometallic reagents, because apart from their effectiveness in Negishi cross-coupling reactions, they show more resistance to attack by moist air than conventional organometallic compounds. Herein a combination of synthesis, coupling applications, X-ray crystallographic studies, NMR (including DOSY) studies, and ESI mass spectrometric studies provide details of these pivalate reagents in their own right. A p-tolyl case system shows that in [D8 ]THF solution these reagents exist as separated Me(p-C6 H4 )ZnCl and Mg(OPiv)2 species. Air exposure tests and X-ray crystallographic studies indicate that Mg(OPiv)2 enhances the air stability of aryl zinc species by sequestering H2 O contaminants. Coupling reactions of Me(p-C6 H4 )ZnX (where X=different salts) with 4-bromoanisole highlight the importance of the presence of Mg(OPiv)2 . Insight into the role of LiCl in these multicomponent mixtures is provided by the molecular structure of [(THF)2 Li2 (Cl)2 (OPiv)2 Zn].
    No preview · Article · Mar 2014 · Angewandte Chemie International Edition
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    ABSTRACT: Exploring the reactivity of sodium butylmagnesiate reagent [{Na(THF)6}(+){(Ph2Si(NAr*)2)Mg(Bu)(THF)}(-)] () supported by the bulky chelating silyl(bisamido) ligand {Ph2Si(NAr*)2}(2-) (Ar* = 2,6-iPr2-C6H3) towards N-methylbenzimidazole (bIm(Me)), pyrrole and 2,6-diisopropylaniline (NH2Ar*), this study provides new insights into the ability of this bimetallic base to facilitate direct Mg-H exchange reactions as well as to exhibit polybasicity. Thus effectively promotes the deprotomagnesiation of bIm(Me) under mild reaction conditions to give the α-metallated intermediate [{Na(THF)5}2(+){(Ph2Si(NAr*)2)Mg(bIm(Me)*)}2(-)] () (bIm(Me)* = 2-N-methylbenzimidazolyl). Analysis of crystallographic and NMR data of combined with DFT calculations show that the metallated C in the bIm(Me)* ligands possesses a significant carbenic character. Contrasting with previous studies of benzothiazole (btz), does not react with an excess of bIm(Me) even under forcing refluxing conditions. Contrastingly, the amination reactions of equimolar amounts of with pyrrole and 2,6-diisopropylaniline allowed the isolation of [{(Ph2Si(NAr*)(NHAr*))Mg(NC4H4)2(THF)Na(THF)2}] () and [{Na(THF)6}(+){(Ph2Si(NAr*)(NHAr*))Mg(NHAr*)2(THF)}(-)] () respectively as crystalline solids. Highlighting the ability of to act as a polybasic reagent, and are formed as the result of the deprotonation of two molecules of the relevant amine via its butyl group and one amido arm of the silyl(bisamido) ligand. Similarly, the reactions of with 3 molar equivalents of the relevant amine yielded homoleptic tris(amido) compounds [(THF)2NaMg(NC4H4)3] () and [{Na(THF)6}(+){Mg(NHAr*)3}(-)] (), with the concomitant formation of bis(amine) Ph2Si(NHAr)2, as a result of the complete amination of using its three basic sites. The structures in the solid state of and were elucidated by X-ray crystallography. Despite their similar constitution, these heteroleptic tris(amido)magnesiates adopt contrasting structures, with the former displaying a contacted ion-pair structure, where Na and Mg are connected by two bridging pyrrolyl anions, whereas the latter gives rise to a solvent-separated ion pair motif. To the best of our knowledge represents the first crystallographically characterized magnesium compound containing an anionic non-substituted form of pyrrole. Noticeably, Mg interacts exclusively with the N atoms of the pyrrolyl ligands, forming strong σ-bonds, whereas Na prefers to engage with the π-systems of both NC4-rings.
    Preview · Article · Nov 2013 · Dalton Transactions
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    ABSTRACT: Lithium 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidide (LiTMP), one of the most important polar organometallic reagents both in its own right and as a key component of ate compositions, has long been known for its classic cyclotetrameric (LiTMP)4 solid-state structure. Made by a new approach through transmetalation of Zn(TMP)2 with tBuLi in n-hexane solution, a crystalline polymorph of LiTMP has been uncovered. X-ray crystallographic studies at 123(2) K revealed this polymorph crystallises in the hexagonal space group P63 /m and exhibited a discrete cyclotrimeric (C3h ) structure with a strictly planar (LiN)3 ring containing three symmetrically equivalent TMP chair-shaped ligands. The molecular structure of (LiTMP)4 was redetermined at 123(2) K, because its original crystallographic characterisation was done at ambient temperature. This improved redetermination confirmed a monoclinic C2/c space group with the planar (LiN)4 ring possessing pseudo (non-crystallographic) C4h symmetry. Investigation of both metalation and transmetalation routes to LiTMP under different conditions established that polymorph formation did not depend on the route employed but rather the temperature of crystallisation. Low-temperature (freezer at -35 °C) cooling of the reaction solution favoured (LiTMP)3 ; whereas high-temperature (bench) storage favoured (LiTMP)4 . Routine (1) H and (13) C NMR spectroscopic studies in a variety of solvents showed that (LiTMP)3 and (LiTMP)4 exist in equilibrium, whereas (1) H DOSY NMR studies gave diffusion coefficient results consistent with their relative sizes.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2013 · Chemistry - A European Journal
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    ABSTRACT: Aiming to shed new light on the stability and constitution of the organometallic intermediates involved in direct ortho-metalation processes, using trifluoromethylbenzene (1) as a case study, this paper investigates the deprotonation of 1 using group 1 alkyl bases tBuLi and nBuNa in the presence of the Lewis donors TMEDA (N,N,N′,N′-tetramethylethylenediamine), THF, and PMDETA (N,N,N′,N″,N″-pentamethyldiethylenetriamine). A systematic and comprehensive study combining structural, spectroscopic, and theoretical studies reveals that these donors strongly influence the final outcome of the reactions, not only by activating the alkali-metal bases and facilitating deprotonation of 1 but also by tuning the regioselectivity of the reaction. Thus, while using tBuLi/TMEDA, ortho-metalation of 1 is preferred, switching to THF gives a complex mixture of products with the meta-regioisomer being the major species crystallizing from hexane solution. This donor effect is significantly reduced when nBuNa is employed, as ortho-regioselectivity is observed almost exclusively using THF, TMEDA, or PMDETA. DFT calculations computing the relative energies of the ortho-, meta-, and para-regioisomers obtained from these metalating systems have also been carried out. Reinforcing the experimental findings, these theoretical studies show that although in all cases the product of ortho-metalation is the most thermodynamically preferred, the energy difference between the three possible modeled regioisomers is much larger for the Na systems than for the Li ones. The structures of key reaction intermediates [(TMEDA)·Li(C6H4-CF3)]2 (2), [(TMEDA)·Na(C6H4-CF3)]2 (3), and [(PMDETA)·Na(C6H4-CF3)]2 (4) have been elucidated by X-ray crystallographic studies. All compounds exhibit a similar dimeric arrangement with a four-atom core constituting a {MCMC} ring. Interestingly for Na derivatives 3 and 4 unusual Na···F dative interactions are found, which appear to contribute to the overall stability of these compounds, therefore favoring ortho-metalation of 1, as the meta or para structures do not contain these additional interactions.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2013 · Organometallics