[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Hexavalent chromium [Cr (VI)] is a well-known human carcinogen associated with the increased risk of lung cancer. However,
the mechanism underlying the Cr (VI)–induced carcinogenesis remains unclear due to the lack of suitable experimental models.
In this study, we developed an in vitro model by transforming nontumorigenic human lung epithelial BEAS-2B cells through long-term exposure to Cr (VI). By utilizing
this model, we found that miR-143 expression levels were dramatically repressed in Cr (VI)–transformed cells. The repression
of miR-143 led to Cr (VI)–induced cell malignant transformation and angiogenesis via upregulation of insulin-like growth factor-1
receptor (IGF-IR) and insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS1) expression. Moreover, we found that interleukin-8 is the major upregulated
angiogenesis factor induced by Cr (VI) through activation of IGF-IR/IRS1 axis followed by activation of downstream ERK/hypoxia-induced
factor-1α/NF-κB signaling pathway. These findings establish a causal role and mechanism of miR-143 in regulating Cr (VI)–induced
malignant transformation and tumor angiogenesis.
Full-text Article · Jun 2013 · Toxicological Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: MiR-145 is known as a tumor suppressor in numerous human cancers. However, its role in tumor angiogenesis remains poorly defined. In this study, we found that miR-145 was significantly downregulated in breast cancer tissues by using 106 cases of normal and cancer tissues as well as in breast cancer cells. MiR-145 exhibited inhibitory role in tumor angiogenesis, cell growth and invasion and tumor growth through the post-transcriptional regulation of the novel targets N-RAS and VEGF-A. In addition, we provide evidence that the expression levels of miR-145 correlate inversely with malignancy stages of breast tumors, although there is no association between miR-145 levels and hormone receptor levels in breast cancer. Taken together, these results demonstrate that miR-145 plays important inhibitory role in breast cancer malignancy by targeting N-RAS and VEGF-A, which may be potential therapeutic and diagnostic targets.
Full-text Article · Jun 2012 · Cell cycle (Georgetown, Tex.)
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: To investigate expression, regulation, potential role and targets of miR-195 and miR-497 in breast cancer.
The expression patterns of miR-195 and miR-497 were initially examined in breast cancer tissues and cell lines by Northern blotting and quantitative real-time PCR. Combined bisulfite restriction analysis and bisulfite sequencing were carried out to study the DNA methylation status of miR-195 and miR-497 genes. Breast cancer cells stably expressing miR-195 and miR-497 were established to study their role and targets. Finally, normal, fibroadenoma and breast cancer tissues were employed to analyze the correlation between miR-195/497 levels and malignant stages of breast tumor tissues.
MiR-195 and miR-497 were significantly downregulated in breast cancer. The methylation state of CpG islands upstream of the miR-195/497 gene was found to be responsible for the downregulation of both miRNAs. Forced expression of miR-195 or miR-497 suppressed breast cancer cell proliferation and invasion. Raf-1 and Ccnd1 were identified as novel direct targets of miR-195 and miR-497. miR-195/497 expression levels in clinical specimens were found to be correlated inversely with malignancy of breast cancer.
Our data imply that both miR-195 and miR-497 play important inhibitory roles in breast cancer malignancy and may be the potential therapeutic and diagnostic targets.
Full-text Article · Feb 2011 · Clinical Cancer Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of endogenous, small non-protein coding single-stranded RNA molecules, which are crucial post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression. Previous studies have shown that miRNAs participate in a wide range of biological functions and play important roles in various human diseases including glioma. However, the role of miRNAs in mediating glioblastoma cell migration and invasion has not been elucidated. Using miRNA microarray, we identified miR-146b as one of the miRNAs that is significantly dysregulated in human glioblastoma tissue. We showed that miR-146b overexpression by transfection with the precursor miR-146b, or knock-down by Locked Nucleic Acid (LNA)-modified anti-miR-146b, has no effect on the growth of human glioblastoma U373 cells. However, precursor miR-146b transfection significantly reduced the migration and invasion of U373 cells, while LNA-anti-miR-146b transfection generated the opposite result. Furthermore, we discovered that a matrix metalloproteinase gene, MMP16, is one of the downstream targets of miR-146b. Taken together, our findings suggest that miR-146b is involved in glioma cell migration and invasion by targeting MMPs, and implicate miR-146b as a metastasis-inhibiting miRNA in glioma.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non-protein-coding RNAs that function as post-transcriptional gene regulators. Recent evidence has shown that miRNA plays a pivotal role in the development of many cancers including glioma, a lethal brain cancer. We have recently compared the miRNA expression profiles between normal brain and glioma tissues from Chinese patients by miRNA microarray and identified a panel of differentially expressed miRNAs. Here, we studied the function of one miRNA, miR-15b, in glioma carcinogenesis and elucidated its downstream targets. Over-expression of miR-15b resulted in cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase while suppression of miR-15b expression resulted in a decrease of cell populations in G0/G1 and a corresponding increase of cell populations in S phase. We further showed that CCNE1 (encoding cyclin E1) is one of the downstream targets of miR-15b. Taken together, our findings indicate that miR-15b regulates cell cycle progression in glioma cells by targeting cell cycle-related molecules.
Full-text Article · Feb 2009 · Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: MicroRNAs are abundant in the brains of vertebrates and some show a brain-specific or brain-enriched expression pattern. Because microRNAs regulate the expression of hundreds of target genes, it is not surprising that they have profoundly important functions in brain development and pathological processes. For example, miR-124 plays an important role in inducing and maintaining neuronal identity through targeting at least two anti-neural factors. MicroRNAs have also been implicated in brain disorders, including brain tumors and neurodegenerative diseases. This review aims to present an overview of the expression profiles and functions of microRNAs in the developing brains of vertebrates.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Diethylnitrosamine (DEN) is a known carcinogen that can alkylate DNA molecules. In rats, DEN-induced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) model is well established. In this study, we used a two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) system and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry to identify the differential expression protein profiles between the DEN-induced HCC and healthy liver cells. Western blotting and semiquantitative RT-PCR were used to further confirm the results. Seventeen differentially expressed spots were identified in DEN-induced HCC cells. Among all, the most prominent upregulated proteins include the members of the glutathione S-transferase super family, aldo-keto reductase superfamily and proteins involved in the response to oxidative stress. Downregulation was observed in 2 proteins that were known to contribute to hepatic dysfunction. This study provides the first comprehensive protein profiling of the DEN-induced HCC in rats. This model simulates the differential protein expression of human HCC and may be useful for further understanding the mechanism of HCC tumorigenesis.
Full-text Article · Jun 2008 · International Journal of Cancer
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: We report the preparation of a non-polymer coated superparamagnetic nanoparticle that is stable and biocompatible both in vitro and in vivo. The non-polymer, betaine, is a natural methylating agent in mammalian liver with active surface property. Upon systemic administration, the nanoparticle has preferential biodistribution in mammalian liver and exhibits good reduction of relaxivity time and negative enhancement for the detection of hepatoma nodules in rats using MRI. Our data demonstrate that the non-polymer coated superparamagnetic nanoparticle should have potential applications in biomedicine.
Full-text Article · Feb 2007 · International Journal of Nanomedicine