[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Intracellular transport of karyophilic cargos comprises translocation to the nuclear envelope and subsequent nuclear import. Small cargos such as isolated proteins can reach the nuclear envelope by diffusion but movement of larger structures depends on active translocation, typically using microtubules. Centripetal transport ends at the perinuclear microtubule organizing centre called the spindle pole body (SPB) in yeast. Previously, we found by two hybrids that the karyophilic lentiviral-encoded integrase (IN) interacts with two yeast microtubule-associated proteins, Dyn2p (dynein light chain protein) and Stu2p, a centrosomal protein (de Soultrait et al., 2002). Thus, to investigate the hinge between cytoplasmic retrograde transport and nuclear import, we decided to analyse HIV-1 IN trafficking in yeast as the model, since each of these biological mechanisms is evolutionarily conserved in eukaryotic cells. Here, we found an accumulation of IN at the SPB in yeast via Stu2p colocalization. Disruption of the microtubule network by nocodazole or IN expression in a dynein 2-deficient yeast strain prevented IN accumulation in the nuclear periphery and additionally inhibited IN transport into the nucleus. By mutagenesis, we showed that trafficking of IN towards the SPB requires the C-terminus of the molecule. Taking our findings together, we proposed a model in which IN nuclear import seems to depend on an essential intermediate step in the SPB. We found that Dyn2p and Stu2p play an important role in driving IN toward MTOC and could optimize nuclear entry of the retroviral enzyme. Our results suggest a new hypothesis in keeping with the current HIV-1 intracellular trafficking model.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: HIV-1 integrase (IN) is the key enzyme catalyzing the proviral DNA integration step. Although the enzyme catalyzes the integration
step accurately in vitro, whether IN is sufficient for in vivo integration and how it interacts with the cellular machinery remains unclear. We set up a yeast cellular integration system
where integrase was expressed as the sole HIV-1 protein and targeted the chromosomes. In this simple eukaryotic model, integrase
is necessary and sufficient for the insertion of a DNA containing viral LTRs into the genome, thereby allowing the study of
the isolated integration step independently of other viral mechanisms. Furthermore, the yeast system was used to identify
cellular mechanisms involved in the integration step and allowed us to show the role of homologous recombination systems.
We demonstrated physical interactions between HIV-1 IN and RAD51 protein and showed that HIV-1 integrase activity could be
inhibited both in the cell and in vitro by RAD51 protein. Our data allowed the identification of RAD51 as a novel in vitro IN cofactor able to down regulate the activity of this retroviral enzyme, thereby acting as a potential cellular restriction
factor to HIV infection.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2006 · Nucleic Acids Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 integrase catalyzes the integration of proviral DNA into the infected cell genome, so it is an important potential target for antiviral drug design. In an attempt to search for peptides that specifically interact with integrase (IN) and inhibit its function, we used an in vitro selection procedure, the phage display technique. A phage display library of random heptapeptides was used to screen for potential peptide ligands of HIV-1 IN. Several phage clones were identified that specifically bound IN. Two of the selected peptides (FHNHGKQ and HLEHLLF) exhibited a high affinity for IN and were chemically synthesized. High affinity was confirmed by a displacement assay which showed that these two synthetic peptides were able to compete with the phages expressing the corresponding peptide. These agents were assayed on the in vitro IN activities. While none of them inhibited the 3'-processing reaction, the FHNHGKQ peptide was found to be an inhibitor of the strand transfer reaction. Despite its high affinity for IN, the HLEHLLF peptide selected and assayed under the same conditions was unable to inhibit this reaction. We showed that the FHNHGKQ peptide inhibits specifically the strand transfer activity by competing with the target DNA for binding to IN. These IN-binding agents could be used as a base for developing new anti-integrase compounds as well as for structural studies of the still unknown three-dimensional structure of the entire integrase molecule.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: HIV‐1 integrase (IN) catalyzes the integration of the proviral DNA into the cellular genome. The catalytic triad D64, D116 and E152 of HIV‐1 IN is involved in the reaction mechanism and the DNA binding. Since the integration and substrate binding processes
are not yet exactly known, we studied the role of amino acids localized in the catalytic site. We focused our interest on
the V151E152S153 region. We generated random mutations inside this domain and selected mutated active INs by using the IN‐induced yeast lethality
assay. In vitro analysis of the selected enzymes showed that the IN nuclease activities (specific 3′‐processing and non‐sequence‐specific
endonuclease), the integration and disintegration reactions and the binding of the various DNA substrates were affected differently.
Our results support the hypothesis that the three reactions may involve different DNA binding sites, enzyme conformations
or mechanisms. We also show that the V151E152S153 region involvement in the integration reaction is more important than for the 3′‐processing activity and can be involved
in the recognition of DNA. The IN mutants may lead to the development of new tools for studying the integration reaction,
and could serve as the basis for the discovery of integration‐specific inhibitors.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2004 · Nucleic Acids Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) integrase (IN) catalyzes the insertion of the viral genome into the host cell DNA, an essential reaction during the retroviral cycle. We described previously that expression of HIV-1 IN in some yeast strains may lead to the emergence of a lethal phenotype which was not observed when the catalytically crucial residues D, D, (35)E were mutated. The lethal effect in yeast seems to be related to the mutagenic effect of the recombinant HIV-1 IN, most probably via the non-sequence-specific endonucleolytic activity carried by this enzyme. This non-sequence-specific endonuclease activity was further characterized. Although the enzyme was active on DNA substrates devoid of viral long terminal repeat (LTR) sequences, the presence of LTR regions stimulated significantly this activity. Genetic experiments were designed to show that both the mutagenic effect and the level of recombination events were affected in cells expressing the active retroviral enzyme, while expression of the mutated inactive IN D116A has no significant effect. A close interaction was demonstrated between integrase activity and in vivo/in vitro recombination process, suggesting that retroviral integration and recombination mechanism are linked in the infected cell. Our results show that the yeast system is a powerful cellular model to study the non-sequence-specific endonucleolytic activity of IN. Its characterization is essential since this activity might represent a very important step in the retroviral infectious cycle and would provide further insights into the function of IN. Indeed, effectors of this activity should be sought as potential antiviral agents since stimulation of this enzymatic activity would induce the destruction of early synthesized proviral DNA.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The retroviruses are a large, diverse family of enveloped RNA viruses defined by their structure, composition and replicative properties. The hallmark of the family is its replicative strategy, essential steps of which include reverse transcription of the viral RNA and the subsequent integration of this DNA into the genome of the cell. These steps are performed by two viral-encoded enzymes, reverse transcriptase (RT), which possesses DNA polymerase and ribonuclease H (RNase H) activities, and integrase (IN). These enzymes are excellent targets for retroviral therapy since they are essential for viral replication. Numerous substances capable of inhibiting the DNA polymerase activity of HIV-1 RT are available, while few specific inhibitors of RNase H activity have been described. IN is absolutely necessary for stable and productive infection of cells. Some IN inhibitors have been recently reported and are available demonstrating the potential of IN as an antiviral target. This paper is an overview of the inhibitors of RNase H and IN and describes the most promising inhibitors.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) integrase (IN) mediates the insertion of viral DNA into the human genome. In addition to IN, cellular and viral proteins are associated to proviral DNA in the so-called preintegration complex (PIC). We previously reported that the expression of HIV-1 IN in yeast leads to the emergence of a lethal phenotype. This effect may be linked to the IN activity on infected human cells where integration requires the cleavage of genomic DNA. To isolate and characterize potential cellular partners of HIV-1 IN, we used it as a bait in a two-hybrid system with a yeast genomic library. IN interacted with proteins belonging to the microtubule network, or involved in the protein synthesis apparatus. We focused our interest on one of the selected inserts, L2, which corresponds to the C-end half of the yeast STU2p, a microtubule-associated protein (MAP). STU2p is an essential component of the yeast spindle pole body (SPB), which is able to bind microtubules in vitro. After expressing and purifying L2 as a recombinant protein, we showed its binding to IN by ELISA immunodetection. L2 was also able to inhibit IN activity in vitro. In addition, the effect of L2 was tested using the "lethal yeast phenotype". The coexpression of IN and the L2 peptide abolished the lethal phenotype, thus showing important in vivo interactions between IN and L2. The identification of components of the microtubule network associated with IN suggest a role of this complex in the transport of HIV-1 IN present in the PIC to the nucleus, as already described for other human viruses.
No preview · Article · Jun 2002 · Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The retroviral encoded protein integrase (IN) is required for the insertion of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) proviral DNA into the host genome. In spite of the crucial role played by IN in the retroviral life cycle, which makes this enzyme an attractive target for the development of new anti-AIDS agents, very few inhibitors have been described and none seems to have a potential use in anti-HIV therapy. To obtain potent and specific IN inhibitors, we used the two-hybrid system to isolate short peptides. Using HIV-1 IN as a bait and a yeast genomic library as the source of inhibitory peptides (prey), we isolated a 33-mer peptide (I33) that bound tightly to the enzyme. I33 inhibited both in vitro IN activities, i.e. 3' end processing and strand transfer. Further analysis led us to select a shorter peptide, EBR28, corresponding to the N-terminal region of I33. Truncated variants showed that EBR28 interacted with the catalytic domain of IN interfering with the binding of the DNA substrate. Alanine single substitution of each EBR28 residue (alanine scanning) allowed the identification of essential amino acids involved in the inhibition. The EBR28 NMR structure shows that this peptide adopts an alpha-helical conformation with amphipathic properties. Additionally, EBR28 showed a significant antiviral effect when assayed on HIV-1 infected human cells. Thus, this potentially important short lead peptide may not only be helpful to design new anti-HIV agents, but also could prove very useful in further studies of the structural and functional characteristics of HIV-1 IN.
Full-text · Article · May 2002 · Journal of Molecular Biology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The rapid spread of the AIDS epidemic has stimulated the search for new agents able to arrest the replication of the causative virus, HIV. The best strategy for AIDS treatment involves a combination therapy using inhibitors of reverse transcriptase and protease. However, the emergence of HIV-1 strains resistant to these drugs and their cytotoxicity requires the synthesis and the biochemical and cellular characterization of new antiviral drugs, as well as the development of newer strategies and viral targets. In addition to reverse transcriptase and protease, other retroviral enzymes acting in the replicative cycle of HIV-1 are potential targets for chemotherapeutic intervention. Like all retroviruses, HIV-1 requires the integration of the proviral double-stranded DNA, arising from the reverse transcription step, into the host chromosome for its efficient replication, maintenance of a stably infected state and productive infection. DNA integration is carried out by integrase so this enzyme represents a key area in developing new anti-retroviral therapy. Another novel enzymatic target concerns the RNase H activity associated with the retroviral reverse transcriptase, since a functional RNase H is essential for retroviral replication. Inhibitors against HIV-1 integrase and RNase H having potential therapeutical propeties have not yet been described. We focus this review on the properties of inhibitors of reverse transcriptase and integrase. Some of these antiviral agents have been known for several years while others are emerging as new promising strategies based on the use of oligonucleotides with special emphasis on the SELEX approach, peptides and retrovirucides.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2002 · Current Pharmaceutical Design
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Integration of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) proviral DNA in the nuclear genome is catalyzed by the retroviral integrase (IN). In addition to IN, viral and cellular proteins associated in the high-molecular-weight preintegration complex have been suggested to be involved in this process. In an attempt to define host factors interacting with IN, we used an in vitro system to identify cellular proteins in interaction with HIV-1 IN. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae was chosen since (i) its complete sequence has been established and the primary structure of all the putative proteins from this eucaryote has been deduced, (ii) there is a significant degree of homology between human and yeast proteins, and (iii) we have previously shown that the expression of HIV-1 IN in yeast induces a lethal phenotype. Strong evidences suggest that this lethality is linked to IN activity in infected human cells where integration requires the cleavage of genomic DNA. Using IN-affinity chromatography we identified four yeast proteins interacting with HIV-1 IN, including the yeast chaperonin yHSP60, which is the counterpart of human hHSP60. Yeast lethality induced by HIV-1 IN was abolished when a mutated HSP60 was coexpressed, therefore suggesting that both proteins interact in vivo. Besides interacting with HIV-1 IN, the hHSP60 was able to stimulate the in vitro processing and joining activities of IN and protected this enzyme from thermal denaturation. In addition, the functional human HSP60-HSP10 complex in the presence of ATP was able to recognize the HIV-1 IN as a substrate.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2002 · Journal of Virology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Retroviral integrase (IN) catalyzes the integration of double-stranded viral DNA into the host cell genome. The reaction can be divided in two steps: 3'-end processing and DNA strand transfer. Here we studied the effect of short oligonucleotides (ODNs) on human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) IN. ODNs were either specific, with sequences representing the extreme termini of the viral long terminal repeats, or nonspecific. All ODNs were found to competitively inhibit the processing reaction with Ki values in the nM range for the best inhibitors. Our studies on the interaction of IN with ODNs also showed that: (i) besides the 3'-terminal GT, the interaction of IN with the remaining nucleotides of the 21-mer specific sequence was also important for an effective interaction of the enzyme with the substrate; (ii) in the presence of specific ODNs the activity of the enzyme was enhanced, a result which suggests an ODN-induced conformational change of HIV-1 IN.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: While the molecular basis of HIV-1 AZT resistance has been widely studied, a biochemical explanation of this process is not well known. No significant changes in the binding affinity of reverse transcriptase (RT) mutants for AZT-triphosphate has been found. Here we analyzed the interaction of wild type and AZT-resistant mutant forms of HIV-1 RT with different primers. Site-directed mutagenesis was used to introduce point mutations on the retroviral enzyme. Primers were either synthetic oligonucleotides or tRNA(Lys3) derivatives containing d(pT)n or r(pU)n at the 3' end. In all cases, determination of kinetic parameters was done in the presence or absence of compounds known to modify protein conformation, such as dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), urea, and Triton X-100. Although we found similar K(m) values for all RTs, there was generally an increase in the affinity when enzymes were tested in the presence of DMSO, urea, and Triton X-100. Then, we analyzed the nucleation and elongation steps of the polymerization process. The efficiency of formation of the first base pair was determined by measuring K(m1), the affinity between RT and the 3' terminal nucleotide of the primer. An important difference was found: in the presence of DMSO, urea, and Triton X-100, the K(m1) values for mutated enzymes were higher than those of wild type RTs. Thus, the presence of compounds able to change protein conformation led to a marked destabilization of the interaction of mutated RTs with the 3' terminal nucleotide of the primer. From these results, it can be hypothesized that resistance to AZT is not due to the direct influence of mutations on RT, but rather to conformational changes of the mutated RT in complex with the template-primer altering the ability of the enzyme to select or reject an incoming dNTP.
No preview · Article · Dec 1998 · Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The topography and functional implications of the complex formed in vitro between human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) reverse transcriptase (RT) and its primer tRNALys3 were studied in this work. On the basis of previous results showing the high affinity both of the native primer, tRNALys3, as well as that of mismatched short oligonucleotide primers for HIV-1 RT, we synthesized chimeric primers containing tRNALys3 linked to U and T residues of different lengths. We found that the affinity of the oligonucleotide primers for HIV-1 RT is dramatically increased when linked to primer tRNA. Our results also show that in the tRNA.RT complex, before annealing tRNALys3 to the retroviral RNA genome, the 3'-terminal nucleotide of tRNALys3 is positioned at a distance of one nucleotide unit away from the template in the active polymerization site of the enzyme.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) reverse transcriptase (RT) initiates reverse transcription from tRNALys3. HIV-1 RT is a heterodimer consisting of two polypeptides, p66 and p51. In this work, the possible role of each subunit of RT in the interaction with its natural primer tRNALys3 was studied. Two recombinant forms of HIV-1 RT, heterodimer p66/p51 and homodimer p51/p51, were used. Previously we have expressed and purified recombinant RT p51/p51 which possesses DNA polymerase activity [El Dirani-Diab, R., Andreola, M. L., Nevinsky, G., Tharaud, D., Barr, P. J., Litvak, S. & Tarrago-Litvak, L. (1992) FEBS Lett. 301, 23−28]. Here we show that HIV-1 RT p51/p51 displays certain properties very similar to the p66/p51 recombinant enzyme. The homodimer was able to anneal tRNALys3 to the primer-binding site of the HIV-1 RNA template leading to a functional complex capable of synthesizing cDNA. Further, the p51/p51 enzyme behaved like RT p66/p51 concerning the strong inhibition produced by a non-nucleoside RT inhibitor. These data show that for RT p51/p51, one of the subunits of the homodimer adopts a conformation similar to the catalytic subunit (p66) present in the heterodimeric form.
Part of this work was devoted to the study of the complex between the recombinant forms of HIV-1 RT and its primer tRNA. Each enzymatic form was cross-linked to tRNALys3 in the presence of a platinum derivative, giving different ribonucleoprotein complexes of molecular masses higher than 100 kDa, suggesting that primer tRNA may interact with both subunits in the heterodimeric enzyme. After RNase A treatment of the complex RT p66/p51 tRNA, the label was mainly found to migrate with the p66 subunit, although some cross-linking was also found associated to the p51 subunit. These results show that the p66 and p51 subunits of RT interact with tRNALys3. Moreover, cross-linking of tRNALys3 with HIV-1 RT p66/p51 in the presence of a DNA template containing the primer-binding-site sequence yielded an enzymatically active complex.
Full-text · Article · Jan 1998 · European Journal of Biochemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The recognition of primer tRNA by retroviral reverse transcriptase is a crucial step in the replication of retroviruses. In the complex formed by HIV-1 reverse transcriptase and its natural primer tRNALys3, the heterodimeric enzyme, p66/p51, binds two molecules of tRNALys3 with different affinities. The same complex but in the presence of a non-complementary template, poly(A), gave higher Kd values. Preincubation of the reverse transcriptase with tRNA at concentrations comparable to the Kd2 value results in different levels of stimulation of the DNA polymerase activity: 300% in the absence and 70-80% in the presence of poly(A). The activation of the catalytically active p66 subunit is most probably mediated through tRNA interaction with the site of reverse transcriptase presenting the lower affinity. In this article, we describe the results obtained with new chemically reactive derivatives of tRNA bearing three or seven hydrophobic residues. Incubation of reverse transcriptase with tRNA derivatives, in the presence or absence of poly(A), leads to covalent binding of the reagents and inactivation of the enzymatic activity. However, during the initial step of the modification reaction, in the absence of poly(A), a slight stimulation of reverse transcriptase by tRNA derivatives took place, followed by a decrease in the enzymatic activity due to the covalent binding of tRNA derivatives to reverse transcriptase. In the presence of poly(A), enzyme inactivation occurs according to pseudo-first-order reaction kinetics. The affinities of tRNA derivatives for the p66/p51 heterodimer estimated from affinity modification data (Kd values) and from the inhibition of polymerization reaction (Ki values) were determined. Each analog of tRNA presented two Kd and two Ki values.
Full-text · Article · Oct 1996 · European Journal of Biochemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: HIV-1 RT is able to catalyze DNA synthesis starting from mononucleotides used both as minimal primers and as nucleotide substrates (de novo synthesis) in the presence of a complementary template. The rate of this process is rather slow when compared to the polymerization primed by an oligonucleotide. The addition of tRNA(Lys,3) to this system increased the de novo synthesis rate by 2-fold. Addition of low concentrations of agents able to modify protein conformation, such as urea, dimethylsulfoxide and Triton X-100, can activate the de novo synthesis by a factor 2 to 5. A dramatic synergy is observed in the presence of the three compounds since the stimulating effect of tRNA increases 10-15 times. These results suggest that compounds activating RT are able to induce a conformational change of the enzyme which results in a higher specific activity. Primer tRNA seems to play an important role in HIV-1 RT modification(s) leading to a polymerase having a higher affinity for the primer or the dTTP, but not for the template. The specificity of RT for the template is not influenced by changes in the kinetics or in the thermodynamic parameters of the polymerization reaction.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the interaction between HIV-1 RT and tRNA(Lys3) each subunit of the heterodimer interacts with tRNA showing a different affinity: Kd (p66) = 23 nM, Kd (p51) = 140 nM. Preincubation of heterodimeric RT with tRNA, at concentrations similar to that of the Kd value for p51, leads to an increase of the catalytic activity on poly(A)-oligo(dT). These results were compared to those using different tRNA analogs: oxidized tRNA, tRNAs lacking one, two or three nucleotides from the 3'-end, or ribo- and deoxyribonucleotides mimicking the anticodon loop sequence. In all cases, tRNA analogs were weaker activators of HIV-1 RT than natural tRNA. A possible mechanism of RT p66/p51 activation by tRNA and its analogs, mediated through the p51 subunit, is discussed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Myelin membrane prepared from mouse sciatic nerve possesses both kinase and substrates to incorporate [32P]PO4(3-) from [gamma-32P]ATP into protein constituents. Among these, P0 glycoprotein is the major phosphorylated species. To identify the phosphorylated sites, P0 protein was in vitro phosphorylated, purified, and cleaved by CNBr. Two 32P-phosphopeptides were isolated by HPLC. The exact localization of the sequences around the phosphorylated sites was determined. The comparison with rat P0 sequence revealed, besides a Lys172 to Arg substitution, that in the first peptide, two serine residues (Ser176 and Ser181) were phosphorylated, Ser176 appearing to be modified subsequently to Ser181. In the second peptide, Ser197, Ser199, and Ser204 were phosphorylated. All these serines are clustered in the C-terminal region of P0 protein. This in vitro study served as the basis for the identification of the in vivo phosphorylation sites of the C terminal region of P0. We found that, in vivo, Ser181 and Ser176 are not phosphorylated, whereas Ser197, Ser199, Ser204, Ser208, and Ser214 are modified to various extents. Our results strongly suggest that the phosphorylation of these serine residues alters the secondary structure of this domain. Such a structural perturbation could play an important role in myelin compaction at the dense line level.
No preview · Article · Mar 1995 · Journal of Neurochemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The fundamental role played by reverse transcriptase in the replication of retroviruses has stimulated the study of the mechanism of action of this enzyme. The reverse transcriptase of the type 1 human immunodeficiency virus forms a stable complex with its cognate transfer RNA replication primer (tRNA(Lys3)). Here, we outline the role of this enzyme in the selection of its primer tRNA, the annealing of primer tRNA to the complementary region of the retroviral genome, and the first attempts to use the reverse-transcriptase-tRNA complex as a new target for antiviral agents.
No preview · Article · Apr 1994 · Trends in Biochemical Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The precursor homodimeric p66/p66 form of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 reverse transcriptase (HIV-1 RT) possesses the DNA polymerase and RNase H activities involved in the synthesis of the double-stranded provirus DNA. Reverse transcription is initiated from tRNALys in the case of HIV-1. The present study confirmed that interactions between HIV-1 RT and tRNALys induce protein conformational changes and demonstrated that these interactions stimulate the enzymatic activities associated with the p66 subunit. Thus, the p66/p66 form of the enzyme is strongly stimulated in both DNA polymerase and RNase H activities. Preincubation of the enzyme with tRNA is an obligatory step to obtain the stimulatory effect. The affinity of template, primer, or substrate for RT p66/p66 did not change when the enzyme was preincubated with tRNALys at stimulatory concentrations; the interaction of tRNA with p66/p66 has an effect only on the maximal rate of polymerization. It is further shown that the RNase H domain of RT is much more accessible to protease attack than the DNA polymerase active site.
Full-text · Article · Oct 1992 · Journal of Biological Chemistry