Hilkka Järventaus

Newcastle University, Newcastle-on-Tyne, England, United Kingdom

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Publications (58)

  • Joanna Roszak · Julia Catalán · Hilkka Järventaus · [...] · Hannu Norppa
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Data available on the genotoxicity of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs) are controversial. Here, we examined the effects of particle size and dispersion status on the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of nanosized and fine ZnO, in the presence and absence of bovine serum albumin (BSA; 0.06%) in human bronchial epithelial BEAS–2 B cells. Dynamic light scattering analysis showed the most homogenous dispersions in water alone for nanosized ZnO and in water with BSA for fine ZnO. After a 48-h treatment, both types of ZnO were cytotoxic within a similar, narrow dose range (1.5–3.0 μg/cm2) and induced micronuclei at a near toxic dose range (1.25–1.75 μg/cm2), both with and without BSA. In the comet assay, nanosized ZnO (1.25–1.5 μg/cm2), in the absence of BSA, caused a statistically significant increase in DNA damage after 3-h and 6-h treatments, while fine ZnO did not. Our findings may be explained by better uptake or faster intracellular dissolution of nanosized ZnO without BSA during short treatments (3–6 h; the comet assay), with less differences between the two ZnO forms after longer treatments ( > 48 h; the in vitro micronucleus test). As ZnO is genotoxic within a narrow dose range partly overlapping with cytotoxic doses, small experimental differences e.g. in the dispersion of ZnO particles may have a substantial effect on the genotoxicity of the nominal doses added to the cell culture.
    Article · May 2016 · Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Biomonitoring methods were applied to workers exposed to high levels of chloronitrobenzenes. The external dose, internal dose, biologically effective dose, and biological effects were determined. Individual susceptibility was assessed by analyzing genetic polymorphisms of glutathione S-transferases M1, P1 and T1, and N-acetyltransferases 1 and 2. When the markers of exposure and susceptibility were compared with the frequency of chromosomal aberrations, clinical blood and urine parameters, and health effects typical of chloronitrobenzenes exposure, only a few of the comparisons were statistically significant. A statistically significantly higher frequency of chromosomal aberrations was detected in workers with a high level of hemoglobin-adducts.
    Article · Apr 2016 · Biomarkers
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Some multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) induce mesothelioma in rodents, straight MWCNTs showing a more pronounced effect than tangled MWCNTs. As primary and secondary genotoxicity may play a role in MWCNT carcinogenesis, we used a battery of assays for DNA damage and micronuclei to compare the genotoxicity of straight (MWCNT-S) and tangled MWCNTs (MWCNT-T) in vitro (primary genotoxicity) and in vivo (primary or secondary genotoxicity). C57Bl/6 mice showed a dose-dependent increase in DNA strand breaks, as measured by the comet assay, in lung cells 24 h after a single pharyngeal aspiration of MWCNT-S (1-200 µg/mouse). An increase was also observed for DNA strand breaks in lung and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells and for micronucleated alveolar type II cells in mice exposed to aerosolized MWCNT-S (8.2-10.8 mg/m(3)) for 4 days, 4 h/day. No systemic genotoxic effects, assessed by the γ-H2AX assay in blood mononuclear leukocytes or by micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MNPCEs) in bone marrow or blood, were observed for MWCNT-S by either exposure technique. MWCNT-T showed a dose-related decrease in DNA damage in BAL and lung cells of mice after a single pharyngeal aspiration (1-200 µg/mouse) and in MNPCEs after inhalation exposure (17.5 mg/m(3)). In vitro in human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells, MWCNT-S induced DNA strand breaks at low doses (5 and 10 µg/cm(2)), while MWCNT-T increased strand breakage only at 200 µg/cm(2). Neither of the MWCNTs was able to induce micronuclei in vitro. Our findings suggest that both primary and secondary mechanisms may be involved in the genotoxicity of straight MWCNTs.
    Full-text Article · Jan 2016 · Nanotoxicology
  • G Sabbioni · O Sepai · H Norppa · [...] · Y Y Liu
    Dataset · Nov 2015
  • G Sabbioni · O Sepai · H Norppa · [...] · Y Y Liu
    Dataset · Nov 2015
  • Julia Catalán · Marit Ilves · Hilkka Järventaus · [...] · Hannu Norppa
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nanocellulosics are among the most promising innovations for a wide-variety of applications in materials science. Although nanocellulose is presently produced only on a small scale, its possible toxic effects should be investigated at this early stage. The aim of the present study was to examine the potential genotoxicity and immunotoxicity of two celluloses in vitro - cellulose nanocrystals (CNC; mean fibril length 135 nm, mean width 7.3 nm) and a commercially available microcrystalline (non-nanoscale) cellulose (MCC; particle size ∼50 µm). Both celluloses showed 55% cytotoxicity at approximately 100 µg/ml after 4-h, 24-h, and 48-h treatment of human bronchial epithelial BEAS 2B cells, as determined by luminometric detection of ATP and cell count (dead cells identified by propidium iodide). Neither of the materials was able to induce micronuclei (MN) in binucleate or mononucleate BEAS 2B cells after a 48-h treatment (2.5–100 µg/ml). In human monocyte-derived macrophages, MCC induced a release (measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; ELISA) of the pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and (after lipopolysaccharide-priming) interleukin 1β (IL-1β) after a 6-h exposure to a dose of 300 µg/ml, but CNC (30–300 µg/ml) did not. In conclusion, our results show that nanosized CNC is neither genotoxic nor immunotoxic under the conditions tested, whereas non-nanosized MCC is able to induce an inflammatory response. More studies are needed, especially in vivo, to further assess if CNC and other nanocelluloses induce secondary genotoxic effects mediated by inflammation. Environ. Mol. Mutagen., 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Article · Mar 2015 · Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although some types of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been described to induce mesothelioma in rodents and genotoxic effects in various cell systems, there are few previous studies on the genotoxicity of CNTs in mesothelial cells. Here, we examined in vitro DNA damage induction by short multi-wall CNTs (MWCNTs; 10-30nm×1-2μm) and single-wall CNTs (SWCNTs;>50% SWCNTs, ∼40% other CNTs;<2nm×1-5μm) in human mesothelial (MeT-5A) cells and bronchial epithelial (BEAS 2B) cells, using the single cell gel electrophoresis (comet) assay and the immunoslot blot assay for the detection of malondialdehyde (M(1)dG) DNA adducts. In BEAS 2B cells, we also studied the induction of micronuclei (MN) by the CNTs using the cytokinesis-block method. The cells were exposed to the CNTs (5-200μg/cm(2), corresponding to 19-760μg/ml) for 24 and 48h in the comet assay and for 48 and 72h in the MN and M(1)dG assays. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed more MWCNT fibres and SWCNT clusters in BEAS 2B than MeT-5A cells, but no significant differences were seen in intracellular dose expressed as area of SWCNT clusters between TEM sections of the cell lines. In MeT-5A cells, both CNTs caused a dose-dependent induction of DNA damage (% DNA in comet tail) in the 48-h treatment and SWCNTs additionally in the 24-h treatment, with a statistically significant increase at 40μg/cm(2) of SWCNTs and (after 48h) 80μg/cm(2) of both CNTs. SWCNTs also elevated the level of M(1)dG DNA adducts at 1, 5, 10 and 40μg/cm(2) after the 48-h treatment, but both CNTs decreased M(1)dG adduct level at several doses after the 72-h treatment. In BEAS 2B cells, SWCNTs induced a statistically significant increase in DNA damage at 80 and 120μg/cm(2) after the 24-h treatment and in M(1)dG adduct level at 5μg/cm(2) after 48h and 10 and 40μg/cm(2) after 72h; MWCNTs did not affect the level of DNA damage but produced a decrease in M(1)dG adducts in the 72-h treatment. The CNTs did not affect the level of MN. In conclusion, MWCNTs and SWCNTs induced DNA damage in MeT-5A cells but showed a lower (SWCNTs) or no (MWCNTs) effect in BEAS 2B cells, suggesting that MeT-5A cells were more sensitive to the DNA-damaging effect of CNTs than BEAS 2B cells, despite the fact that more CNT fibres or clusters were seen in BEAS 2B than MeT-5A cells. M1dG DNA adducts were induced by SWCNTs but decreased after a 3-day exposure to MWCNTs and (in MeT-5A cells) SWCNTs, indicating that CNTs may lead to alterations in oxidative effects within the cells. Neither of the CNTs was able to produce chromosomal damage (MN).
    Full-text Article · Nov 2013 · Toxicology
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are widely utilized in various consumer products and medical devices, especially due to their antimicrobial properties. However, several studies have associated these particles with toxic effects, such as inflammation and oxidative stress in vivo and cytotoxic and genotoxic effects in vitro. Here, we assessed the genotoxic effects of AgNPs coated with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) (average diameter 42.5±14.5nm) on human bronchial epithelial BEAS 2B cells in vitro. AgNPs were dispersed in Bronchial Epithelial Growth Medium (BEGM) with 0.6mg/ml bovine serum albumin (BSA). The AgNP were partially well-dispersed in the medium and only limited amounts (ca. 0.02μg Ag(+)/L) could be dissolved after 24h. The zeta potential of the AgNPs was found to be highly negative in pure water but was at least partially neutralized in BEGM with 0.6mg BSA/ml. Cytotoxicity was measured by cell number count utilizing Trypan Blue exclusion and by an ATP-based luminescence cell viability assay. Genotoxicity was assessed by the alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis (comet) assay, the cytokinesis-block micronucleus (MN) assay, and the chromosomal aberration (CA) assay. The cells were exposed to various doses (0.5-48μg/cm(2) corresponding to 2.5-240μg/ml) of AgNPs for 4 and 24h in the comet assay, for 48h in the MN assay, and for 24 and 48h in the CA assay. DNA damage measured by the percent of DNA in comet tail was induced in a dose-dependent manner after both the 4-h and 24-h exposures to AgNPs, with a statistically significant increase starting at 16μg/cm(2) (corresponding to 60.8μg/ml) and doubling of the percentage of DNA in tail at 48μg/cm(2). However, no induction of MN or CAs was observed at any of the doses or time points. The lack of induction of chromosome damage by the the PVP-coated AgNPs is possibly due to the coating which may protect the cells from direct interaction with the AgNPs, either by reducing ion leaching from the particles or by causing extensive agglomeration of the nanoparticles, with a possible reduction of the cellular uptake.
    Full-text Article · Nov 2013 · Toxicology
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In vitro studies have suggested that nanosized titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) is genotoxic. The significance of these findings with respect to in vivo effects is unclear, as few in vivo studies on TiO(2) genotoxicity exist. Recently, nanosized TiO(2) administered in drinking water was reported to increase, e.g., micronuclei (MN) in peripheral blood polychromatic erythrocytes (PCEs) and DNA damage in leukocytes. Induction of micronuclei in mouse PCEs was earlier also described for pigment-grade TiO(2) administered intraperitoneally. The apparent systemic genotoxic effects have been suggested to reflect secondary genotoxicity of TiO(2) due to inflammation. However, a recent study suggested that induction of DNA damage in mouse bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells after intratracheal instillation of nanosized or fine TiO(2) is independent of inflammation. We examined here, if inhalation of freshly generated nanosized TiO(2) (74% anatase, 26% brookite; 5 days, 4 h/day) at 0.8, 7.2, and (the highest concentration allowing stable aerosol production) 28.5 mg/m(3) could induce genotoxic effects in C57BL/6J mice locally in the lungs or systematically in peripheral PCEs. DNA damage was assessed by the comet assay in lung epithelial alveolar type II and Clara cells sampled immediately following the exposure. MN were analyzed by acridine orange staining in blood PCEs collected 48 h after the last exposure. A dose-dependent deposition of Ti in lung tissue was seen. Although the highest exposure level produced a clear increase in neutrophils in BAL fluid, indicating an inflammatory effect, no significant effect on the level of DNA damage in lung epithelial cells or micronuclei in PCEs was observed, suggesting no genotoxic effects by the 5-day inhalation exposure to nanosized TiO(2) anatase. Our inhalation exposure resulted in much lower systemic TiO(2) doses than the previous oral and intraperitoneal treatments, and lung epithelial cells probably received considerably less TiO(2) than BAL cells in the earlier intratracheal study.
    Full-text Article · Nov 2011 · Mutation Research/Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis
  • Julia Catalán · Hilkka Järventaus · Minnamari Vippola · [...] · Hannu Norppa
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract We examined if three commercially available nanomaterials - short singlewall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), short multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and nanosized titanium dioxide anatase (TiO(2); primary particle size <25 nm) - can induce structural chromosomal aberrations (CAs) in cultures of isolated human lymphocytes. To find a suitable sampling time, the cells were treated with 6.25-300 μg/ml of the nanomaterials for 24, 48 and 72 h. The 48-h treatment was the most effective, inducing a dose-dependent increase in chromosome-type CAs (all materials) and chromatid-type CAs (SWCNTs and TiO(2) anatase). The 72-h treatment yielded a positive result with SWCNTs. None of the treatments significantly affected cell count or the mitotic index. Our results suggest that with nanomaterials a continuous treatment for about two cell cycles is needed for CA induction, possibly reflecting access of nanomaterials to the nucleus during the first mitosis or delayed secondary genotoxic effect associated with the inflammatory process.
    Article · Oct 2011 · Nanotoxicology
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Toluene diisocyanate (TDI) and 4,4'-methylenediphenyl diisocyanate (MDI), used in the production of polyurethane foam, are well known for their irritating and sensitizing properties. Contradictory results have been obtained on their genotoxicity. We investigated the genotoxicity and protein binding of inhaled TDI and MDI in mice by examining micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (PCEs) in bone marrow and peripheral blood and TDI- and MDI-derived adducts in hemoglobin. Male C57Bl/6J mice (8 per group) were exposed head-only to TDI vapour (mean concentrations 1.1, 1.5, and 2.4mg/m(3); the mixture of isomers contained, on the average, 63% 2,4-TDI and 37% 2,6-TDI) or MDI aerosol (mean concentrations 10.7, 20.9 and 23.3mg/m(3)), during 1h/day for 5 consecutive days. Bone marrow and peripheral blood were collected 24h after the last exposure. Inhalation of TDI caused sensory irritation (SI) in the upper respiratory tract, and cumulative effects were observed at the highest exposure level. Inhalation of MDI produced SI and airflow limitation, and influx of inflammatory cells into the lungs. Hemoglobin adducts detected in the exposed mice resulted from direct binding to globin of 2,4- and 2,6-TDI and MDI, and dose-dependent increases were observed especially for 2,4-TDI-derived adducts. Adducts originating from the diamines of TDI (toluene diamine) or MDI (methylene dianiline) were not observed. No significant increase in the frequency of micronucleated PCEs was detected in the bone marrow or peripheral blood of the mice exposed to TDI or MDI. The ratio of PCEs and normochromatic erythrocytes (NCEs) was reduced at the highest concentration of MDI, and a slight reduction of the PCE/NCE ratio, dependent on cumulative inhaled dose, was also seen with TDI. Our results indicate that inhalation of TDI or MDI (1h/day for 5 days), at levels that induce toxic effects and formation of TDI- or MDI-specific adducts in hemoglobin, does not have detectable genotoxic effects in mice, as studied with the micronucleus assay.
    Full-text Article · Mar 2011 · Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Complex chemical mixtures are transported by train from Russia to Finland for further shipment. Here, we studied if exposure to genotoxic components among these substances could affect chromosomal aberrations (CAs) in peripheral lymphocytes of workers handling the tank cars. An initial survey among 48 railroad workers and 39 referents (male smokers and nonsmokers) showed an elevation of CAs. A campaign was started to reduce exposures through preventive measures. Five years later, 51 tank car workers and 40 age-matched referents (all nonsmoking men) were studied for CAs and genetic polymorphisms of xenobiotic metabolism (EPHX1, GSTM1, GSTP1, GSTT1, NAT1, NAT2), DNA repair (ERCC2, ERCC5, XPA, XPC, XRCC1, XRCC3), and folate metabolism (MTHFR, MTR). No increase in CAs was seen in the exposed group, suggesting that the preventive measures had been successful. However, a positive association existed between exposure duration and CA level among the exposed subjects. The level of chromosome-type breaks was actually lower in the exposed workers than the referents, particularly among MTHFR wild-type homozygotes or XRCC3 codon 241 variant allele carriers, suggesting modulation of CA frequency by folate metabolism and DNA repair. An interaction was observed between the occupational exposure and MTHFR, EPHX1, and MTR genotypes in determining CA level. The NAT2, ERCC2 exon 10, and XRCC1 codon 194 polymorphisms also affected CA frequency. Our findings suggest that handling of tank cars containing complex chemical mixtures poses a genotoxic risk, which may be reduced by preventive measures. Several genetic polymorphisms seem to modify the genotoxic effect or baseline CA level.
    Full-text Article · May 2009 · Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
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    Hanna K Lindberg · Ghita C-M Falck · Hilkka Järventaus · Hannu Norppa
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Micronuclei (MN), used as a biomarker of effect in exposure to genotoxic carcinogens, derive from chromosomes and chromosomal fragments lagging behind in anaphase. The two types of MN are usually distinguished from each other by centromeric fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), centromere-positive (C(+)) MN representing entire chromosomes and centromere-negative (C(-)) MN chromosomal fragments. The incorporation of various types of chromosomal fragments and chromosomes and chromatids to MN is still poorly understood. We used directly labelled pancentromeric and pantelomeric DNA probes to examine the contents of MN in cultured binucleate lymphocytes of four unexposed, healthy subjects (two men and two women) 35-56 years of age. The presence and number of telomeric and centromeric signals was evaluated in 200 MN (50 MN per subject). These data were used to estimate the proportion of MN harbouring terminal/interstitial fragments, acentric/centric fragments, chromatid-type/chromosome-type fragments and entire chromatids/chromosomes. The majority of the C(+) MN (96% in men and 86% in women) found contained telomeric (T(+)) sequences. Most of the C(+) T(+) MN had one centromere and two or one telomere signals, suggesting that single chromatids were more frequently involved in MN than both sister chromatids. Among the C(-) MN, telomere signals were found in 91% (men) and 79% (women), showing that fragments in MN were mostly terminal. Most C(-) T(+) MN had one telomere signal, indicating higher prevalence for chromatid-type than chromosome-type terminal fragments. Combined centromeric and telomeric FISH is expected to increase the sensitivity of detecting exposure-related effects, when the exposure induces specific types of MN and its effect is low. This approach could particularly have use in discriminating between MN harbouring chromatid- and chromosome-type fragments in studies of human exposure to chemical clastogens and ionizing radiation.
    Full-text Article · Jun 2008 · Mutagenesis
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    Hanna K Lindberg · Virpi Väänänen · Hilkka Järventaus · [...] · Hannu Norppa
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: As the use of recycled materials and industrial by-products in asphalt mixtures is increasing, we investigated if recycled additives modify the genotoxicity of fumes emitted from asphalt. Fumes were generated in the laboratory at paving temperature from stone-mastic asphalt (SMA) and from SMA modified with waste plastic (90% polyethylene, 10% polypropylene) and tall oil pitch (SMA-WPT). In addition, fumes from SMA, SMA-WPT, asphalt concrete (AC), and AC modified with waste plastic and tall oil pitch (AC-WPT) were collected at paving sites. The genotoxicity of the fumes was studied by analysis of DNA damage (measured in the comet assay) and micronucleus formation in human bronchial epithelial BEAS 2B cells in vitro and by counting mutations in Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98 and YG1024. DNA damage was also assessed in buccal leukocytes from road pavers before and after working with SMA, SMA-WPT, AC, and AC-WPT. The chemical composition of the emissions was analysed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The SMA-WPT fume generated in the laboratory induced a clear increase in DNA damage in BEAS 2B cells without metabolic activation. The laboratory-generated SMA fume increased the frequency of micronucleated BEAS 2B cells without metabolic activation. None of the asphalt fumes collected at the paving sites produced DNA damage with or without metabolic activation. Fumes from SMA and SMA-WPT from the paving sites increased micronucleus frequency without metabolic activation. None of the asphalt fumes studied showed mutagenic activity in Salmonella. No statistically significant differences in DNA damage in buccal leukocytes were detected between the pre- and post-shift samples collected from the road pavers. However, a positive correlation was found between DNA damage and the urinary metabolites of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) after work shift, which suggested an association between occupational exposures during road paving and genotoxic effects. Our results indicate that fumes from SMA and SMA-WPT contain direct-acting genotoxic components.
    Full-text Article · Jun 2008 · Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis
  • G Sabbioni · O Sepai · H Norppa · [...] · Y Y Liu
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT) is an important occupational and environmental pollutant. In TNT-exposed humans, notable toxic manifestations have included aplastic anaemia, toxic hepatitis, cataracts, hepatomegaly, and liver cancer. Therefore, methods were developed to biomonitor workers exposed to TNT. The workers were employed in a typical ammunition factory in China. The external dose (air levels and skin exposure), the internal dose (urinary metabolites), the biologically effective dose (haemoglobin adducts, urinary mutagenicity), biological effects (chromosomal aberrations and health effects), and individual susceptibility (genotypes of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes) were determined. Haemoglobin-adducts of TNT, 4-amino-2,6-dinitrotoluene (4ADNT) and 2-amino-4,6-dinitrotoluene (2ADNT), and the urinary metabolites of TNT, 4ADNT and 2ADNT, were found in all workers and in some controls. The levels of the haemoglobin-adducts or the urinary metabolites correlated weakly with the skin or air levels of TNT. The urinary mutagenicity determined in a subset of workers correlated strongly with the levels of 4ADNT and 2ADNT in urine. The haemoglobin-adducts correlated moderately with the urinary metabolites and with the urinary mutagenicity. The genotypes of glutathione S-transferases (GSTM1, GSTT1, GSTP1) and N-acetyltransferases (NAT1, NAT2) were determined. In general, the genotypes did not significantly influence the haemoglobin-adduct levels and the urine metabolite levels. However, TNT-exposed workers who carried the NAT1 rapid acetylator genotype showed an increase in urinary mutagenicity and chromosomal aberrations as compared with slow acetylators. The haemoglobin adduct 4ADNT was significantly associated with a risk of hepatomegaly, splenomegaly and cataract; urine metabolites and genotypes were not associated with health effects. These results indicate that a set of well-selected biomarkers may be more informative regarding exposure and effect than routinely performed chemical measurements of pollutants in the air or on the skin.
    Dataset · Nov 2007
  • Hanna K Lindberg · Xu Wang · Hilkka Järventaus · [...] · Michael Fenech
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Micronuclei are formed from chromosomes and chromosomal fragments that lag behind in anaphase and are left outside daughter nuclei in telophase. They may also be derived from broken anaphase bridges. Nuclear buds, micronucleus-like bodies attached to the nucleus by a thin nucleoplasmic connection, have been proposed to be generated similarly to micronuclei during nuclear division or in S-phase as a stage in the extrusion of extra DNA, possibly giving rise to micronuclei. To better understand these phenomena, we have characterized the contents of 894 nuclear buds and 1392 micronuclei in normal and folate-deprived 9-day cultures of human lymphocytes using fluorescence in situ hybridization with pancentromeric and pantelomeric DNA probes. Such information has not earlier been available for human primary cells. Surprisingly, there appears to be no previous data on the occurrence of telomeres in micronuclei (or buds) of normal human cells in general. Our results suggest that nuclear buds and micronuclei have partly different mechanistic origin. Interstitial DNA without centromere or telomere label was clearly more prevalent in nuclear buds (43%) than in micronuclei (13%). DNA with only telomere label or with both centromere and telomere label was more frequent in micronuclei (62% and 22%, respectively) than in nuclear buds (44% and 10%, respectively). Folate deprivation especially increased the frequency of nuclear buds and micronuclei harboring telomeric DNA and nuclear buds harboring interstitial DNA but also buds and micronuclei with both centromeric and telomeric DNA. According to the model we propose, that micronuclei in binucleate lymphocytes primarily derive from lagging chromosomes and terminal acentric fragments during mitosis. Most nuclear buds, however, are suggested to originate from interstitial or terminal acentric fragments, possibly representing nuclear membrane entrapment of DNA that has been left in cytoplasm after nuclear division or excess DNA that is being extruded from the nucleus.
    Article · May 2007 · Mutation Research/Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT) is an important occupational and environmental pollutant. In TNT-exposed humans, notable toxic manifestations have included aplastic anaemia, toxic hepatitis, cataracts, hepatomegaly, and liver cancer. Therefore, methods were developed to biomonitor workers exposed to TNT. The workers were employed in a typical ammunition factory in China. The external dose (air levels and skin exposure), the internal dose (urinary metabolites), the biologically effective dose (haemoglobin adducts, urinary mutagenicity), biological effects (chromosomal aberrations and health effects), and individual susceptibility (genotypes of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes) were determined. Haemoglobin-adducts of TNT, 4-amino-2,6-dinitrotoluene (4ADNT) and 2-amino-4,6-dinitrotoluene (2ADNT), and the urinary metabolites of TNT, 4ADNT and 2ADNT, were found in all workers and in some controls. The levels of the haemoglobin-adducts or the urinary metabolites correlated weakly with the skin or air levels of TNT. The urinary mutagenicity determined in a subset of workers correlated strongly with the levels of 4ADNT and 2ADNT in urine. The haemoglobin-adducts correlated moderately with the urinary metabolites and with the urinary mutagenicity. The genotypes of glutathione S-transferases (GSTM1, GSTT1, GSTP1) and N-acetyltransferases (NAT1, NAT2) were determined. In general, the genotypes did not significantly influence the haemoglobin-adduct levels and the urine metabolite levels. However, TNT-exposed workers who carried the NAT1 rapid acetylator genotype showed an increase in urinary mutagenicity and chromosomal aberrations as compared with slow acetylators. The haemoglobin adduct 4ADNT was significantly associated with a risk of hepatomegaly, splenomegaly and cataract; urine metabolites and genotypes were not associated with health effects. These results indicate that a set of well-selected biomarkers may be more informative regarding exposure and effect than routinely performed chemical measurements of pollutants in the air or on the skin.
    Full-text Article · Feb 2007 · Biomarkers
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    G Sabbioni · O Sepai · H Norppa · [...] · Y Y Liu
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT) is an important occupational and environmental pollutant. In TNT-exposed humans, notable toxic manifestations have included aplastic anaemia, toxic hepatitis, cataracts, hepatomegaly, and liver cancer. Therefore, methods were developed to biomonitor workers exposed to TNT. The workers were employed in a typical ammunition factory in China. The external dose (air levels and skin exposure), the internal dose (urinary metabolites), the biologically effective dose (haemoglobin adducts, urinary mutagenicity), biological effects (chromosomal aberrations and health effects), and individual susceptibility (genotypes of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes) were determined. Haemoglobin-adducts of TNT, 4-amino-2,6-dinitrotoluene (4ADNT) and 2-amino-4,6-dinitrotoluene (2ADNT), and the urinary metabolites of TNT, 4ADNT and 2ADNT, were found in all workers and in some controls. The levels of the haemoglobin-adducts or the urinary metabolites correlated weakly with the skin or air levels of TNT. The urinary mutagenicity determined in a subset of workers correlated strongly with the levels of 4ADNT and 2ADNT in urine. The haemoglobin-adducts correlated moderately with the urinary metabolites and with the urinary mutagenicity. The genotypes of glutathione S-transferases (GSTM1, GSTT1, GSTP1) and N-acetyltransferases (NAT1, NAT2) were determined. In general, the genotypes did not significantly influence the haemoglobin-adduct levels and the urine metabolite levels. However, TNT-exposed workers who carried the NAT1 rapid acetylator genotype showed an increase in urinary mutagenicity and chromosomal aberrations as compared with slow acetylators. The haemoglobin adduct 4ADNT was significantly associated with a risk of hepatomegaly, splenomegaly and cataract; urine metabolites and genotypes were not associated with health effects. These results indicate that a set of well-selected biomarkers may be more informative regarding exposure and effect than routinely performed chemical measurements of pollutants in the air or on the skin.
    Full-text Article · Jan 2007 · Biomarkers
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    Julia Catalán · Ghita C-M Falck · Hilkka Järventaus · [...] · Hannu Norppa
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the biomonitoring of human genotoxic effects, micronuclei (MN) usually are scored in phytohaemagglutinin-stimulated cultured lymphocytes. MN also can be examined in uncultured lymphocytes, which facilitates the analysis of genotoxic damage incurred in vivo. Characterization of MN in cultured lymphocytes by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) has shown a clear over-representation of the X and Y chromosomes in the MN of males. However, it is not known if this phenomenon also occurs in vivo. The purpose of the present study was to assess the frequency and composition of MN formed in vivo from immunomagnetically isolated uncultured T-lymphocytes of men. To evaluate the possible effects of genotoxic exposure on in vivo MN, we examined 17 railroad workers occupationally exposed to complex chemical mixtures and 14 referents, all nonsmokers. The results showed similar total frequencies of micronucleated cells among the exposed workers and the referents. When the MN were characterized by FISH, there were no significant differences between the exposed and referents with regards to the frequency of centromere-positive or centromere-negative MN. Centromeric label was observed in 69% of all MN, indicating that most of the MN contained whole chromosomes (or chromatids). 80% of the centromere-positive MN harbored autosomes, 12% Y chromosomes, and 8% X chromosomes. The occurrence of the Y- and X-chromosomes in MN was, respectively, 5.5- and 3.8-times greater than would be expected assuming an equal contribution by all chromosomes. Thus, sex chromosomes appear to be over-represented in lymphocyte MN of men in vivo, confirming previous results obtained in vitro.
    Full-text Article · Jun 2006 · Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nitrotoluenes, such as 2-nitrotoluene, 2,4-dinitrotoluene (24DNT), and 26DNT, are carcinogenic in animal experiments. Humans are exposed to such chemicals in the workplace and in the environment. It is therefore important to develop methods to biomonitor people exposed to nitrotoluenes to prevent the potential harmful effects. For the present study, workers exposed to high levels of these chemicals were investigated. The external dose (air levels), the internal dose (urine metabolites), the biologically effective dose [hemoglobin (Hb) adducts and urine mutagenicity], and biological effects (chromosomal aberrations and health effects) were determined. Individual susceptibility was assessed by determining genetic polymorphisms of enzymes assumed to function in nitrotoluene metabolism, namely glutathione S-transferases (GSTM1, GSTT1, GSTP1), N-acetyltransferases (NAT1, NAT2), and sulfotransferases (SULT1A1, SULT1A2). The levels of urinary metabolites did not correlate with the air levels. The urinary mutagenicity levels determined in a subset of workers correlated with the levels of a benzylalcohol metabolite of DNT. The Hb-adducts correlated with the urine metabolites but not with the air levels. The frequency of chromosomal aberrations (gaps included) was increased (P < 0.05) in the exposed workers in comparison with a group of factory controls and correlated with the level of 24DNT Hb-adducts in young subjects (<31 years). The GSTM1-null genotype was significantly more prevalent in the controls than in the exposed group, which probably reflected an elevated susceptibility of the GSTM1-null genotype to adverse health effects of DNT exposure, such as nausea (odds ratio, 8.8; 95% confidence interval, 2.4-32.2). A statistically significant effect was seen for SULT1A2 genotype on a 24DNT Hb-adduct; GSTP1 genotype on a 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene Hb-adduct; and SULT1A1, SULT1A2, NAT1, GSTT1, and GSTP1 genotypes on chromosomal aberrations in the exposed workers.
    Full-text Article · Apr 2006 · Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention