Lawrence G. Calhoun

University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Charlotte, North Carolina, United States

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Publications (113)158.95 Total impact

  • Kanako Taku · Arnie Cann · Richard G Tedeschi · Lawrence G Calhoun
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    ABSTRACT: Posttraumatic growth (PTG), psychological growth as a result of personal struggle with trauma, is hypothesized to occur when a highly stressful life event, such as a natural disaster, forces people to reexamine their core beliefs. To the authors' knoweldge, the present study is the first investigation in Japanese people examining the role of core beliefs, intrusive rumination, and deliberate rumination in PTG. Hypotheses that the level of reexamination of core beliefs, intrusive rumination, and deliberate rumination correlate with the seismicity of an earthquake and that the challenge to core beliefs is the major determinant of PTG were tested. Japanese undergraduate students who experienced the Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011 (N = 314) participated in this study and completed the Japanese version of the Core Beliefs Inventory (CBI), the Event-Related Rumination Inventory (ERRI), and the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory (PTGI). Results indicated that core beliefs were less likely to be challenged and that ruminations were less likely to be activated in Japanese people who were in the southern area with an approximate Richter magnitude of 4 or lower. PTG was more likely to occur when core beliefs were reexamined following the earthquake. Also, younger participants and those who recalled having engaged in both deliberate and intrusive rumination reported more PTG. Future studies should investigate which aspects of trauma can trigger or suppress the reexamination of one's core beliefs, for they are likely to be the major determinants of PTG, and should look at change longitudinally. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
    No preview · Article · May 2015 · Psychological Trauma Theory Research Practice and Policy
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    ABSTRACT: The Posttraumatic Growth Inventory (PTGI) is the most commonly used measure of positive psychological change that can result from negotiating a traumatic experience. While the PTGI has strong internal reliability, validity studies are still sparse. The present research details trauma survivors' understanding of items comprising the PTGI in order to qualitatively assess content validity. Participants were 14 trauma survivors who completed the PTGI and participated in a semistructured interview. Thematic analysis was conducted on participants' transcribed interviews. One latent theme was identified reflecting that questions were consistently understood. A relationship was found between the constituent themes identified and the five factors of the PTGI. Participants answered the PTGI statements in a way that is consistent with the purpose of the instrument, with only a small discrepancy found when some participants used the PTGI scale to indicate when a decrease in an element of the inventory had been experienced. Overall results supported the content validity of the PTGI.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2013 · Journal of Loss and Trauma
  • Jessica M. Groleau · Lawrence G. Calhoun · Arnie Cann · Richard G. Tedeschi
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    ABSTRACT: Disruptions to core beliefs, rumination, and finding meaning have been associated with the development of posttraumatic distress (Janoff–Bulman, 1992, 2006). These variables have also contributed to the development of posttraumatic growth, which is the experience of a positive life change as the result of a traumatic experience (Tedeschi & Calhoun, 1996). A new variable, centrality of event, has recently been implicated in both processes (Boals & Schuettler, 2011), although it remains unclear if centrality of event is a unique contributor to posttraumatic outcomes beyond the influence of other variables known to do so. The present study examined the unique contribution of centrality of event to the development of both posttraumatic distress and posttraumatic growth. Centrality of event was a unique predictor of both variables. This seemingly paradoxical finding underscores the need for further research in this area, particularly concerning the perceived valence of a major event that may be interpreted as central. Clinicians may usefully attend to centrality when working with individuals who have experienced a potentially traumatic event. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved)
    No preview · Article · Sep 2013 · Psychological Trauma Theory Research Practice and Policy
  • Lawrence G. Calhoun · Richard G. Tedeschi
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    ABSTRACT: There is evidence suggesting that the struggle with highly challenging circumstances (e.g., earthquakes, fires, major transportation accidents) can produce significant positive changes for persons coping with trauma. The authors have termed these changes "posttraumatic growth" (PTG). PTG is positive change that an individual experiences as a result of the struggle with a traumatic event. Although similar to concepts such as hardiness and resilience, which describe persons who, in spite of exposure to highly stressful life circumstances, nevertheless withstand or bounce back psychologically without developing deficiencies or psychological problems, PTG refers to something different. The experience of posttraumatic growth is one in which the individual describes significant positive changes arising from the struggle. The kinds of PTG reported tend to fall into 3 general categories: (1) changes in one's sense of self, (2) changes in relationships with others, and (3) changes in one's spirituality or religion. This chapter describes these 3 general domains of growth, and then discusses how a PTG growth perspective might be applied in the context of posttraumatic interventions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
    No preview · Article · Oct 2012
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    Kanako Taku · Ryan P. Kilmer · Arnie Cann · Richard G. Tedeschi · Lawrence G. Calhoun
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    ABSTRACT: Despite a growing body of literature examining posttraumatic growth (PTG; positive change resulting from the struggle with trauma) in adult populations from various cultures, the emerging research base involving youth includes few studies exploring the construct in youth from Eastern cultures. This study examined PTG and perceived growth in the absence of trauma among Japanese youth. A total of 408 youth (215 boys, 193 girls), with a mean age of 13.38 years (SD = .93), from one public junior high school in the suburbs of Tokyo were recruited. They reported whether they had experienced any trauma in the past year and completed measures assessing psychological growth using the Revised Posttraumatic Growth Inventory for Children, subjective severity, and cognitive processing using the adapted Rumination Scale. Results using one-way ANOVA showed that greater growth was reported by those who experienced trauma, and the objective severity of the adversity was reliably related to perceived growth. Chi-square tests revealed that those who did not experience adversity had more difficulty identifying growth. These results suggest that the youth-reported growth does not simply reflect normative maturation. Multiple regression analysis, using participants who reported at least one traumatic event, indicated that deliberate cognitive processing appears to play an important role in PTG. Cultural and developmental aspects of these findings, as well as implications for research and applied work are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2012 · Psychological Trauma Theory Research Practice and Policy
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    ABSTRACT: A model of the processes leading to posttraumatic growth and to life satisfaction following exposure to trauma was tested. Two types of repeated thought, deliberate and intrusive, posttraumatic symptoms, posttraumatic growth, and meaning in life, were assessed as predictors of general life satisfaction. Challenges to core beliefs were shown to be related to both intrusive and deliberate rumination. The two forms of rumination were in turn differentially related to posttraumatic growth and posttraumatic distress. Distress and posttraumatic growth were independently and oppositely related to meaning in life and to life satisfaction. Overall, the best fitting model was supportive of proposed posttraumatic growth models. Additional exploratory analyses examined participant groupings, based of self-reported category of resolution of the traumatic experience, and differences supportive of proposed underlying processes were found. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2012 · Psychological Trauma Theory Research Practice and Policy
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    ABSTRACT: An acute leukemia diagnosis can be an extremely stressful experience for most patients. Posttraumatic growth (PTG) is positive psychological change experienced following a struggle with highly challenging life circumstances. The current study is the first longitudinal investigation of predictors of PTG and distress in adult acute leukemia patients undergoing induction chemotherapy. Findings suggest that these patients report PTG, and levels of PTG appear to increase over the weeks following leukemia diagnosis and induction chemotherapy. Variables associated with higher total PTG scores over time included greater number of days from baseline, younger age, and greater challenge to core beliefs. Variables associated with higher distress included greater number of days from baseline, greater perceived cancer threat, higher symptom severity, and lower spiritual well-being. Results underscore the critical role that examination of one's core beliefs may play in the development of PTG over time.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2012 · Journal of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings
  • L.G. Calhoun · R.G. Tedeschi

    No preview · Article · Jan 2012
  • R.G. Tedeschi · L.G. Calhoun

    No preview · Chapter · Jan 2012
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    Lawrence G. Calhoun · Arnie Cann · Richard G. Tedeschi

    Full-text · Article · Jan 2012

  • No preview · Chapter · Jan 2012
  • L.G. Calhoun · R.G. Tedeschi
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    ABSTRACT: From the authors who pioneered the concept of posttraumatic growth comes Posttraumatic Growth in Clinical Practice, a book that brings the study of growth after trauma into the twenty-first century. Clinicians will find a framework that’s easy to use and flexible enough to be tailored to the needs of particular clients and specific therapeutic approaches. And, because it utilizes a model of relating described as "expert companionship," clinicians learn how to become most empathically effective in helping a variety of trauma survivors. Clinicians will come away from this book having learned how to assess posttraumatic growth, how to address it in treatment, and they’ll also have a basic grasp of the ways the changes they’re promoting will be received in various cultural contexts. Case examples show how utilizing a process developed from an empirically-based model of posttraumatic growth can promote important personal changes in the aftermath of traumatic events.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2012

  • No preview · Chapter · Jan 2012
  • Cassie M. Lindstrom · Arnie Cann · Lawrence G. Calhoun · Richard G. Tedeschi
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    ABSTRACT: The relationship of challenge to core beliefs, rumination, disclosure, and some sociocultural elements to posttraumatic growth (PTG) were explored. Participants were college students enrolled in psychology classes who reported having experienced a stressful event within the past 2 years and who completed measures in groups. Findings suggested that challenge to core beliefs was the main predictor of PTG, and that a very large proportion of the sample had encountered themes of PTG in their sociocultural contexts. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
    No preview · Article · Mar 2011 · Psychological Trauma Theory Research Practice and Policy
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    ABSTRACT: Cognitive processes in the aftermath of experiencing a major life stressor play an important role in the impact of the event on the person. Intrusive thoughts about the event are likely to be associated with continued distress, while deliberate rumination, aimed at understanding and problem-solving, should be predictive of posttraumatic growth (PTG). The Event Related Rumination Inventory (ERRI), designed to measure these two styles of rumination, is described and validation information is provided. Using a college student sample screened for having experienced highly stressful life events, data were obtained (N=323) to conduct an exploratory factor analysis that supported the two factors of the ERRI. Separate confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) on two additional samples (Ns=186 and 400) supported a two-factor model. The two ERRI factors were validated by comparison with related variables and by assessing their contributions to predicting distress and PTG in two samples (Ns=198 and 202) that had been combined to conduct the second CFA. Data indicate the ERRI has solid psychometric properties, captures variance not measured by stable differences in cognitive styles, and the separate factors are related to posttraumatic distress and growth as predicted by existing models of PTG.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2010 · Anxiety, stress, and coping
  • Lawrence G. Calhoun · Richard G. Tedeschi · Arnie Cann · Emily A. Hanks
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    ABSTRACT: Recent theory and research have drawn attention to the need to better understand the positive changes, termed posttraumatic growth, that often occur in bereaved individuals; even as negative emotions related to grief persist. We describe five dimensions of posttraumatic growth and present a model for understanding how the loss of a close other can eventually lead to a recognition of important positive personal changes. Loss, especially unexpected loss, disrupts an individual's beliefs about the world and initiates a process of rebuilding an understanding. During this process, many people come to realise their own strengths, appreciate the impact of their relationships, and have new spiritual insights. A strategy for facilitating growth during clinical work also is described.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2010 · Psychologica Belgica
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    Arnie Cann · Lawrence G. Calhoun · Richard G. Tedeschi · David T. Solomon
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    ABSTRACT: Positive changes (posttraumatic growth [PTG]) and negative changes (posttraumatic depreciation [PTD]) were assessed using the PTGI-42 with persons reporting changes from a stressful event. PTG and PTD were uncorrelated, and PTG was much greater than PTD. PTG was positively related to disruption of core beliefs and recent deliberate rumination and negatively related to recent intrusive rumination. PTD was positively related to intrusive rumination. Quality of life and meaning in one's life were positively related to PTG, negatively related to PTD, and an interaction indicated that PTG moderated the impact of PTD on both, indicating that PTG and PTD may separately contribute to current well-being.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2010 · Journal of Loss and Trauma
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    ABSTRACT: A meta-analysis was conducted to examine the direction and magnitude of gender differences in self-reported posttraumatic growth. Results from 70 studies (N = 16,076) revealed a small to moderate gender difference (g = .27, 95% CI = .21 −.32), with women reporting more posttraumatic growth than men. Moderator analyses were then conducted to identify possible sources of these differences. The following moderators were examined: mean age of sample, measure used, nature of the stressful event, language of the measure, and type of sample (i.e., community samples, college students, or mixed). The only significant moderator was age, with women reporting incrementally more posttraumatic growth as the mean age of the sample increased (B = .004, p < .01, SE = .001, Q = 9.13). To check for publication bias, effect sizes were compared across published and unpublished research. The size of the gender difference was not significantly different between published (g = .30, 95% CI = .23 − .38) and unpublished (g = .22, 95% CI = .12 −.31) studies. The present findings indicate that modest, but reliable gender differences exist in posttraumatic growth even when unpublished data are included in the analyses. Possible explanations for these findings and suggestions for future research are discussed.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2010 · Psychology of Women Quarterly
  • Lawrence G. Calhoun · Richard G. Tedeschi

    No preview · Chapter · Jan 2010
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    ABSTRACT: On August 29, 2005, Hurricane Katrina made landfall along the Central Gulf Coast region of the United States. The storm and its aftermath resulted in the most severe, damaging, and costly natural and unnatural disaster in the nation's history—as evidenced by the size of the region affected, the loss of life, the extensive destruction of property, and the thousands displaced. More than 2 years postdisaster, many families still lived in temporary housing and had limited access to basic services; in fact, many continue to struggle to meet basic needs. Furthermore, the mental health needs of many survivors remain largely unmet—and disproportionately so for marginalized, disenfranchised segments of the affected population. The magnitude of Hurricane Katrina and the associated shortcomings in disaster planning and relief interventions have provided mental health and social service professionals, as well as policymakers, with critical information for the improved handling of future disasters. The present volume examines key lessons learned and offers a blueprint for better meeting the needs of children, families, and communities postdisaster through well-timed, targeted responses and interventions. Broadly guided by a bioecological framework, it highlights significant issues in postdisaster work; considers the range of risks, resources, and factors related to postdisaster adaptation; emphasizes community-level provision of resources, services, and supports; and provides actionable recommendations and practical applications for future disaster preparedness, response, and recovery. The editors' and contributors' experiences with children, caregivers, educators, and practitioners in Louisiana and Mississippi lend a compassionate perspective to the analysis of research and further underscore the significance of the recommendations put forth. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
    No preview · Article · Jan 2010