[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The human embryonic, fetal and adult β-like globin genes provide a paradigm for tissue- and developmental stage-specific gene regulation. The fetal γ-globin gene is expressed in fetal erythroid cells but is repressed in adult erythroid cells. The molecular mechanism underlying this transcriptional switch during erythroid development is not completely understood. Here, we used a combination of in vitro and in vivo assays to dissect the molecular assemblies of the active and the repressed proximal γ-globin promoter complexes in K562 human erythroleukemia cell line and primary human fetal and adult erythroid cells. We found that the proximal γ-globin promoter complex is assembled by a developmentally regulated, general transcription activator NF-Y bound strongly at the tandem CCAAT motifs near the TATA box. NF-Y recruits to neighboring DNA motifs the developmentally regulated, erythroid transcription activator GATA-2 and general repressor BCL11A, which in turn recruit erythroid repressor GATA-1 and general repressor COUP-TFII to form respectively the NF-Y/GATA-2 transcription activator hub and the BCL11A/COUP-TFII/GATA-1 transcription repressor hub. Both the activator and the repressor hubs are present in both the active and the repressed γ-globin promoter complexes in fetal and adult erythroid cells. Through changes in their levels and respective interactions with the co-activators and co-repressors during erythroid development, the activator and the repressor hubs modulate erythroid- and developmental stage-specific transcription of γ-globin gene.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Retrotransposons including endogenous retroviruses and their solitary long terminal repeats (LTRs) compose >40% of the human genome. Many of them are located in intergenic regions far from genes. Whether these intergenic retrotransposons serve beneficial host functions is not known. Here we show that an LTR retrotransposon of ERV-9 human endogenous retrovirus located 40-70 kb upstream of the human fetal gamma- and adult beta-globin genes serves a long-range, host function. The ERV-9 LTR contains multiple CCAAT and GATA motifs and competitively recruits a high concentration of NF-Y and GATA-2 present in low abundance in adult erythroid cells to assemble an LTR/RNA polymerase II complex. The LTR complex transcribes intergenic RNAs unidirectionally through the intervening DNA to loop with and modulate transcription factor occupancies at the far downstream globin promoters, thereby modulating globin gene switching by a competitive mechanism.
Preview · Article · Jul 2010 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the human ε−globin gene locus, the HS2 enhancer in the Locus Control Region regulates transcription of the embryonic ε-globin gene located over 10 kb away. The mechanism of long-range HS2 enhancer function was not fully established. Here we
show that the HS2 enhancer complex containing the enhancer DNA together with RNA polymerase II (pol II) and TBP tracks along
the intervening DNA, synthesizing short, polyadenylated, intergenic RNAs to ultimately loop with the ε-globin promoter. Guided by this facilitated tracking and transcription mechanism, the HS2 enhancer delivers pol II and TBP
to the cis-linked globin promoter to activate mRNA synthesis from the target gene. An insulator inserted in the intervening DNA between
the enhancer and the promoter traps the enhancer DNA and the associated pol II and TBP at the insulator site, blocking mid-stream
the facilitated tracking and transcription mechanism of the enhancer complex, thereby blocking long-range enhancer function.
Preview · Article · Feb 2007 · Nucleic Acids Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The solitary ERV-9 long terminal repeat (LTR) located upstream of the HS5 site in the human beta-globin locus control region exhibits prominent enhancer activity in embryonic and erythroid cells. The LTR enhancer contains 14 tandemly repeated subunits with recurrent CCAAT, GTGGGGA, and GATA motifs. Here we showed that in erythroid K562 cells these DNA motifs bound the following three transcription factors: ubiquitous NF-Y and hematopoietic MZF1 and GATA-2. These factors and their target DNA motifs exhibited a hierarchy of DNA/protein and protein/protein binding affinities: NF-Y/CCAAT > NF-Y/GATA-2 > NF-Y/MZF1 > MZF1/GTGGGGA; GATA-2/GATA. Through protein/protein interactions, NF-Y bound at the CCAAT motif recruited MZF1 and GATA-2, but not Sp1 and GATA-1, and stabilized their binding to the neighboring GTGGGGA and GATA sites to assemble a novel LTR enhancer complex, NF-Y/MZF1/GATA-2. In the LTR-HS5-epsilonp-GFP plasmid integrated into K562 cells, mutation of the CCAAT motif in the LTR enhancer to abolish NF-Y binding inactivated the enhancer, closed down the chromatin structure of the epsilon-globin promoter, and silenced transcription of the green fluorescent protein gene. The results indicated that NF-Y bound at the CCAAT motifs assembled a robust LTR enhancer complex, which could act over the intervening DNA to remodel the chromatin structure and to stimulate the transcription of the downstream gene locus.
Preview · Article · Nov 2005 · Journal of Biological Chemistry