[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To characterize HIV-1 env compartmentalization between cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and peripheral blood plasma over all stages of the HIV-1 disease course, and to determine the relationship between the extent of CSF HIV-1 env compartmentalization and clinical neurologic disease status.
Paired blood plasma and CSF specimens were collected from 66 HIV-infected patients cross-sectionally representing all major clinical stages relating to HIV-associated neurologic disease, including primary infection, asymptomatic chronic infection, chronic infection with minor global impairment, and immune deficiency with HIV-associated dementia.
Heteroduplex tracking assays and bulk sequence analysis targeting the V1/V2, C2-V3, and V4/V5 regions of env were performed to characterize the genetic makeup of complex HIV-1 populations in the cross-sectional blood plasma and CSF specimens. The levels of blood plasma/CSF env compartmentalization were quantified and compared across the different clinical stages of HIV-1 neurologic disease.
Blood plasma/CSF env compartmentalization levels varied considerably by disease stage and were generally consistent across all three regions of env characterized. Little or no compartmentalization was observed in non-impaired individuals with primary HIV-1 infection. Compartmentalization levels were elevated in chronically infected patients, but were not significantly different between mildly impaired and non-impaired patients. Patients with HIV-associated dementia showed significantly greater blood plasma/CSF env compartmentalization relative to other groups.
: Increased CSF compartmentalization of the HIV-1 env gene, which may reflect independent HIV-1 replication and evolution within the central nervous system, is specifically associated with HIV-associated dementia and not the less severe forms of HIV-1 neurologic disease.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2009 · AIDS (London, England)
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) invades the central nervous system (CNS) shortly after systemic infection and can result in the subsequent development of HIV-1-associated dementia (HAD) in a subset of infected individuals. Genetically compartmentalized virus in the CNS is associated with HAD, suggesting autonomous viral replication as a factor in the disease process. We examined the source of compartmentalized HIV-1 in the CNS of subjects with HIV-1-associated neurological disease and in asymptomatic subjects who were initiating antiretroviral therapy. The heteroduplex tracking assay (HTA), targeting the variable regions of env, was used to determine which HIV-1 genetic variants in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were compartmentalized and which variants were shared with the blood plasma. We then measured the viral decay kinetics of individual variants after the initiation of antiretroviral therapy. Compartmentalized HIV-1 variants in the CSF of asymptomatic subjects decayed rapidly after the initiation of antiretroviral therapy, with a mean half-life of 1.57 days. Rapid viral decay was also measured for CSF-compartmentalized variants in four HAD subjects (t(1/2) mean = 2.27 days). However, slow viral decay was measured for CSF-compartmentalized variants from an additional four subjects with neurological disease (t(1/2) range = 9.85 days to no initial decay). The slow decay detected for CSF-compartmentalized variants was not associated with poor CNS drug penetration, drug resistant virus in the CSF, or the presence of X4 virus genotypes. We found that the slow decay measured for CSF-compartmentalized variants in subjects with neurological disease was correlated with low peripheral CD4 cell count and reduced CSF pleocytosis. We propose a model in which infiltrating macrophages replace CD4(+) T cells as the primary source of productive viral replication in the CNS to maintain high viral loads in the CSF in a substantial subset of subjects with HAD.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A distinctive feature of chronic human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection is the presence of multiple coexisting genetic variants, or subpopulations, that comprise the HIV-1 population detected in the peripheral blood. Analysis of HIV-1 RNA decay dynamics during the initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has been a valuable tool for modeling the life span of infected cells that produce the bulk HIV-1 population. However, different HIV-1 target cells may have different turnover rates, and it is not clear whether the bulk HIV-1 RNA decay rate actually represents a composite of the decay rates of viral subpopulations compartmentalized in different cellular subsets with different life spans. Using heteroduplex tracking assays targeting the highly variable V3 or V4-V5 regions of the HIV-1 env gene in eight subjects, we found that all detectable coexisting HIV-1 variants in the peripheral blood generally decayed at similar rates during the initiation of HAART, suggesting that all of the variants were produced by cells with similar life spans. Furthermore, single genome amplification and coreceptor phenotyping revealed that in two subjects coexisting HIV-1 variants with distinct CXCR4 or CCR5 coreceptor phenotypes decayed with similar rates. Also, in nine additional subjects, recombination and a lack of genetic compartmentalization between X4 and R5 variants were observed, suggesting an overlap in host cell range. Our results suggest that the HIV-1 env subpopulations detectable in the peripheral blood are produced by cells with similar life spans and are not genetically isolated within particular cell types.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2009 · Journal of Virology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) replication and compartmentalization in the central nervous system, including in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), are associated with severe neurological disease and may contribute to viral persistence during antiretroviral therapy. To understand the relationships between viral populations in multiple compartments, we performed a systematic longitudinal characterization of viral populations in blood plasma and CSF obtained at short time intervals over the full course of infection in 3 macaques infected with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIVsm strain E660).
Complex viral genetic populations in blood plasma and CSF were characterized using a heteroduplex tracking assay targeted to the V1/V2 hypervariable region of env. To identify signs of neurological disease, monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 levels in CSF and CD68(+) monocyte/macrophage infiltration in brain tissues were quantified.
Two patterns of blood/CSF viral dynamics were apparent as infection progressed: concordant blood/CSF viral evolution and discordant blood/CSF viral evolution. Perivascular CD68(+) cells in autopsy brain tissue and elevated CSF MCP-1 levels accompanied blood/CSF viral population discordance but not concordance.
Two distinct patterns of blood/CSF viral population dynamics can be observed in SIV-infected macaques, and the patterns may be associated with different neurological disease outcomes.
Preview · Article · Nov 2007 · The Journal of Infectious Diseases
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Using DNA heteroduplex tracking assays, we characterized human immunodeficiency virus type 1 env V4/V5 genetic populations in multiple blood plasma samples collected over an average of 7 months from 24 chronically infected
human subjects. We observed complex and dynamic V4/V5 genetic populations in most subjects. Comparisons of V4/V5 and V1/V2
population changes over the course of the study showed that major shifts in genetic populations frequently occurred in one
region but not the other, and these observations were independently confirmed in one subject by single-genome sequencing.
These results suggest that the V1/V2 and V4/V5 regions of env often evolve independently during chronic infection.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2007 · Journal of Virology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neurodevelopmental abnormalities associated with HIV infection have been described since the first reports of pediatric AIDS in the 1980s. Before antiretroviral therapy (ART) became widely available, progressive HIV-1 encephalopathy (PHE) was reported in the US in 13-35% of children with HIV-1 infection and in 35-50% of children with AIDS. Introduction of ART can prevent PHE and reverse PHE present at ART initiation, but a high prevalence of residual problems has been described. Even though 90% of HIV-infected children live in the developing world, few children have access to ART and little is known regarding the neurological manifestations of perinatal HIV infection in those regions. Mechanisms of pediatric HIV-1 neuropathogenesis and factors associated with neurodevelopmental abnormalities in perinatally infected children are not yet fully understood. Studies have demonstrated that HIV-1 enters the CNS soon after infection and may persist in this compartment over the entire course of HIV-1 infection. The CNS is a distinct viral reservoir, differing from peripheral compartments in target cells and antiretroviral penetration. Neurotropic HIV-1 likely develops distinct genotypic characteristics in response to this unique environment. We reviewed the literature on pediatric neuroAIDS and identified gaps in the current knowledge.
No preview · Article · Feb 2007 · European Journal of Paediatric Neurology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Noroviruses are important agents of human gastroenteritis characterized by extensive sequence variation in the major capsid structural protein that likely encodes critical antigenic determinants of protective immunity. The lack of an infection model has limited detailed characterizations of viral antigenic relationships and identification of the essential components for protective immunity. This information would contribute to efficacious vaccine design against a broad array of norovirus strains. To understand the extent of heterotypic norovirus antibody specificity to inter- and intra-genogroup strains and its applicability to vaccine design, we collected sera from humans infected with different norovirus strains and from mice inoculated with alphavirus vectors expressing strain-specific recombinant norovirus-like particles (VLPs). We used VLPs that were assembled from Norwalk virus (NV), Hawaii virus (HV), Snow Mountain virus (SM) and Lordsdale virus (LV) as antigens to define and compare heterotypic antibody responses in humans and mice. We also examined if these heterotypic antibodies could block specific binding of ABH histo-blood group antigens, putative receptors for norovirus binding and entry, to norovirus VLPs. Furthermore, we examined the effect of multivalent inocula on the specificity, titer, and ligand blockade properties of systemic and mucosal norovirus-specific antibodies in mice. Our studies suggest that infection with one of several different genogroup I (GI) strains in humans induces heterotypic antibodies that block NV binding to ABH antigens, although comparable findings were not evident following infection with genogroup (GII) strains. Additionally, inoculating mice with vaccine cocktails encoding multiple norovirus VLPs enhances heterotypic and ligand attachment-blocking antibody responses against the LV strain not included in the cocktail. These data suggest that multivalent vaccination may provide better protection from a broader range of noroviruses than monovalent vaccination.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) invades the central nervous system (CNS) during primary infection and persists in this compartment by unknown mechanisms over the course of infection. In this study, we examined viral population dynamics in four asymptomatic subjects commencing antiretroviral therapy to characterize cellular sources of HIV-1 in the CNS. The inability to monitor viruses directly in the brain poses a major challenge in studying HIV-1 dynamics in the CNS. Studies of HIV-1 in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) provide a useful surrogate for the sampling of virus in the CNS, but they are complicated by the fact that infected cells in local CNS tissues and in the periphery contribute to the population pool of HIV-1 in CSF. We utilized heteroduplex tracking assays to differentiate CSF HIV-1 variants that were shared with peripheral blood plasma from those that were compartmentalized in CSF and therefore presumably derived from local CNS tissues. We then tracked the relative decline of individual viral variants during the initial days of antiretroviral therapy. We found that HIV-1 variants compartmentalized in CSF declined rapidly during therapy, with maximum half-lives of approximately 1 to 3 days. These kinetics emulate the decline in HIV-1 produced from short-lived CD4+ T cells in the periphery, suggesting that a similarly short-lived, HIV-infected cell population exists within the CNS. We propose that short-lived CD4+ T cells trafficking between the CNS and the periphery play an important role in amplifying and maintaining HIV-1 populations in the CNS during the asymptomatic phase of infection.
Preview · Article · Aug 2005 · Journal of Virology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Noroviruses are genetically diverse, uncultivable, positive-sense RNA viruses and are the most common cause of epidemic acute gastroenteritis in humans in the United States. Recent studies of norovirus attachment in vitro by using recombinant virus-like particles (VLPs) suggest that various norovirus strains exhibit different patterns of attachment to ABH histo-blood group antigens, which are carbohydrate epitopes present in high concentrations on mucosal cell surfaces of the gut. However, attachment of live norovirus strains to histo-blood group antigens has not been investigated to date. Utilizing a newly designed magnetic bead-virus capture method, we characterized histo-blood group antigen attachment properties of various norovirus strains obtained from clinical stool specimens to compare the attachment properties of wild-type virus and VLPs and to further map norovirus attachment. Consistent with previous reports using VLPs, various strains of noroviruses exhibited different patterns of attachment to histo- blood group antigens. Norwalk virus bound specifically to H type 1, H type 3, and Le(b). Two genogroup II noroviruses, one representing the Toronto genotype and the other from a novel genotype, bound specifically to Le(b). A Desert Shield-like strain did not attach to H types 1, 2, or 3, H type 1 and 3 precursors, Le(a), or Le(b). Surprisingly, wild-type Snow Mountain virus (SMV) attached specifically to H type 3, which contradicted previous findings with SMV VLPs. On further investigation, we found that stool components promote this attachment, providing the first known observation that one or more components of human feces could promote and enhance norovirus attachment to histo-blood group antigens.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2004 · Journal of Virology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Attachment of Norwalk (NV), Snow Mountain (SMV), and Hawaii (HV) virus-like particles (VLPs) to specific ABH histo-blood group
antigens was investigated by using human saliva and synthetic biotinylated carbohydrates. The three distinct Norwalk-like
viruses (NLVs) have various capacities for binding ABH histo-blood group antigens, suggesting that different mechanisms for
NLV attachment likely exist. Importantly, antisera from NV-infected human volunteers, as well as from mice inoculated with
packaged Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus replicons expressing NV VLPs, blocked the ability of NV VLPs to bind synthetic
H type 1, Leb, and H type 3, suggesting a potential mechanism for antibody-mediated neutralization of NV.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2003 · Journal of Virology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Norwalk virus (NV) capsid protein was expressed using Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus replicon particles (VRP-NV1).
VRP-NV1 infection resulted in large numbers of recombinant NV-like particles that were primarily cell associated and were
indistinguishable from NV particles produced from baculoviruses. Mutations located in the N-terminal and P1 domains of the
NV capsid protein ablated capsid self-assembly in mammalian cells.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2002 · Journal of Virology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Norwalk-like viruses (NLVs) are a diverse group of single-stranded, nonenveloped, positive-polarity RNA viruses and are the leading cause of epidemic acute gastroenteritis in the United States. In this study, the major capsid gene of Norwalk virus, the prototype NLV, has been cloned and expressed in mammalian cells using a Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) replicon expression system. Upon infection of baby hamster kidney (BHK) cells with VEE replicon particles (VRPs), the Norwalk virus capsid proteins self-assemble to generate high titers of Norwalk virus-like particles (VLPs) that are morphologically and antigenically analogous to wild-type Norwalk virus. Mice inoculated subcutaneously with VRPs expressing the Norwalk virus capsid protein (VRP-NV1) developed systemic and mucosal immune responses to Norwalk VLPs, as well as heterotypic antibody responses to the major capsid protein from another genogroup I NLV strain (NCFL) isolated from a recent outbreak. A second Norwalk virus capsid clone (NV2) containing three amino acid codon mutations from the NV1 clone was also expressed using VEE replicons (VRP-NV2), but upon infection of BHK cells failed to confer VLP self-assembly. Mice inoculated with VRP-NV2 elicited reduced systemic and mucosal immune responses to Norwalk VLPs, demonstrating the importance and potential utility of endogenous VLP presentation for maximum immune induction. Inoculation with either VRP-NV1 or VRP-NV2 resulted in serum antibody responses far superior to the induction in mice dosed orally with VLPs that were prepared using the VEE-NV1 replicon construct, a regimen similar to current models for NLV vaccination. Expression of NLV VLPs in mammalian cells offers a powerful approach for the design of novel NLV vaccines, either alone or in combination with current vaccination models.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2002 · Journal of Virology