David T. Denhardt

Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Нью-Брансуик, New Jersey, United States

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Publications (290)1451.99 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Aortic dissection or rupture resulting from aneurysm causes 1-2% of deaths in developed countries. These disorders are associated with mutations in genes that impact vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) differentiation and contractility or extracellular matrix (ECM) composition and assembly. However, up to 75% of patients with a family history of aortic aneurysms do not have an identified genetic syndrome. To determine the role of the protease MMP17/MT4-MMP in the arterial wall and its possible relevance in human aortic pathology. Screening of patients with inherited thoracic aortic aneurysm and dissections (TAAD) identified a missense mutation (R373H) in the MMP17 gene that prevented expression of the protease in human transfected cells. Using a loss-of-function genetic mouse model, we demonstrated that the lack of Mmp17 resulted in the presence of dysfunctional VSMCs and altered ECM in the vessel wall; and it led to increased susceptibility to angiotensin II-induced thoracic aortic aneurysm (TAA). We also showed that Mmp17-mediated Opn cleavage regulated VSMC maturation via JNK signaling during aorta wall development. Some features of the arterial phenotype were prevented by reexpression of catalytically active Mmp17 or the N-terminal osteopontin (Opn) fragment in Mmp17-null neonates. Mmp17 proteolytic activity regulates VSMC phenotype in the arterial vessel wall, and its absence predisposes to thoracic aortic aneurysm in mice. The rescue of part of the vessel wall phenotype by a lentiviral strategy opens avenues for therapeutic intervention in these life-threatening disorders.
    No preview · Article · May 2015 · Circulation Research
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    ABSTRACT: Rodent hindlimb unloading (HU) by tail-suspension is a model to investigate disuse-induced bone loss in vivo. Previously, we have shown that osteopontin (OPN, also known as Spp1) is required for unloading-induced bone loss. However, how unloading affects OPN expression in the body is not fully understood. Here, we examined OPN expression in peripheral blood of mice subjected to HU. Real-time RT-PCR analysis indicated that OPN expression is increased in circulating peripheral blood cells. This HU-induced increase in OPN mRNA expression was specific in circulating peripheral blood cells, as OPN was not increased in the blood cells in bone marrow. HU-induced enhancement in OPN expression in peripheral blood cells was associated with an increase in the fraction of monocyte/macrophage lineage cells in the peripheral blood. In contrast, HU decreased the fraction size of B-lymphocytes in the peripheral blood. We further examined if B-lymphogenesis is affected in the mice deficient for osteopontin subjected to HU. In bone marrow, HU decreased the population of the B-lymphocyte lineage cells significantly, whereas it did not alter the population of monocyte/macrophage lineage cells. HU also increased the cells in T-lymphocyte lineage in bone marrow. Interestingly, these changes were observed similarly both in OPN-deficient and wild-type mice. These results indicate for the first time that HU increases OPN expression in circulating cells and suppresses bone marrow B-lymphogenesis.
    No preview · Article · May 2014 · Journal of Bone and Mineral Metabolism
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    ABSTRACT: An imbalance between normal adipogenesis and osteogenesis by mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has been shown to be related to various human metabolic diseases, such as obesity and osteoporosis; however, the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. We found that the interaction between osteopontin (OPN), an arginine-glycine-aspartate-containing glycoprotein, and integrin αv/β1 plays a critical role in the lineage determination of MSCs. Although OPN is a well established marker during osteogenesis, its role in MSC differentiation is still unknown. Our study reveals that blockade of OPN function promoted robust adipogenic differentiation, while inhibiting osteogenic differentiation. Re-expression of OPN restored a normal balance between adipogenesis and osteogenesis in OPN(-/-) MSCs. Retarded bone formation by OPN(-/-) MSCs was also verified by in vivo implantation with hydroxyapatite-tricalcium phosphate (HA-TCP), a bone-forming matrix. The role of extracellular OPN in MSC differentiation was further demonstrated by supplementation and neutralization of OPN. Blocking well-known OPN receptors integrin αv/β1 but not CD44, also affected MSC differentiation. Further studies revealed that OPN inhibits the C/EBPs signaling pathway through integrin αv/β1. Consistent with these in vitro results, OPN(-/-) mice had a higher fat to total body weight ratio than did wild-type mice. Therefore, our study demonstrates a novel role for OPN-integrin αv/β1 in regulating MSC differentiation. Stem Cells 2013. (stem1567.pdf)
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2014 · Stem Cells
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    Kathryn J Schunke · Luke Coyle · Gary F Merrill · David T Denhardt
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    ABSTRACT: It is well documented in animal and human studies that therapy with the anti-cancer drug doxorubicin (DOX) induces fibrosis, cardiac dysfunction, and cell death. The most widely accepted mechanism of cardiac injury is through production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which cause mitochondrial damage, sarcomere structural alterations, and altered gene expression in myocytes and fibroblasts. Here we investigated the effects of acetaminophen (APAP, N-acetyl-para-aminophenol) on DOX-induced cardiac injury and fibrosis in the presence or absence of osteopontin (OPN). H9c2 rat heart-derived embryonic myoblasts were exposed to increasing concentrations of DOX ± APAP; cell viability, oxidative stress, and OPN transcript levels were analyzed. We found a dose-dependent decrease in cell viability and a corresponding increase in intracellular oxidants at the tested concentrations of DOX. These effects were attenuated in the presence of APAP. RT-PCR analysis revealed a small increase in OPN transcript levels in response to DOX, which was suppressed by APAP. When male 10–12-week-old mice (OPN+/+ or OPN−/−) were given weekly injections of DOX ± APAP for 4 weeks there was substantial cardiac fibrosis in OPN+/+ and, to a lesser extent, in OPN−/− mice. In both groups, APAP decreased fibrosis to near baseline levels. Activity of the pro-survival GATA4 transcription factor was diminished by DOX in both mouse genotypes, but retained baseline activity in the presence of APAP. These effects were mediated, in part, by the ability of APAP, acting as an anti-inflammatory agent, to decrease intracellular ROS levels, consequently diminishing the injury-induced increase in OPN levels. J. Cell. Physiol. 228: 2006–2014, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Preview · Article · Oct 2013 · Journal of Cellular Physiology
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    Full-text · Dataset · Nov 2012
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    ABSTRACT: The overexpression of osteopontin is associated with various inflammatory liver diseases. Interestingly, each of these diseases is also associated with IL-17 expression. Therefore, we sought to determine whether there is any mechanistic link between osteopontin and IL-17. Herein we show that IL-17 and osteopontin levels were significantly increased in patients with chronic hepatitis B. We found that IL-17 and osteopontin levels increased similarly in mice with concanavalin A-induced hepatitis. Both osteopontin- and IL-17-deficient mice were resistant to concanavalin A-induced hepatic injury. In addition, osteopontin markedly induced IL-17 expression by leukocytes (from humans and mice). This effect could be blocked by a specific antibody against osteopontin. β3 integrin (one of the osteopontin receptors) was critically involved in the induction of IL-17 production by osteopontin. Osteopontin-induced IL-17 expression was mediated through the p38, JNK, and NF-κB pathways. These findings suggest that osteopontin regulates IL-17 production during the pathogenesis of hepatitis and provide new evidence for the critical roles of osteopontin and IL-17 in hepatitis.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2012 · Cytokine
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    ABSTRACT: Apoptosis of chondrocytes in articular cartilage has been observed in rheumatoid arthritis patients. However, molecules involved in such chondrocyte apoptosis in arthritic joints have not been fully understood. We previously observed that apoptosis of chondrocytes is enhanced in a murine arthritis model induced by injection with anti-type II collagen antibodies and lipopolysaccharide (mAbs/LPS), and osteopontin (OPN) deficiency suppresses chondrocyte apoptosis in this arthritis model in vivo. To understand how OPN deficiency renders resistance against chondrocyte apoptosis, we examined the cellular basis for this protection. Chondrocytes were prepared from wild-type and OPN-deficient mouse ribs, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α-induced cell death was examined based on lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release assay and TUNEL assay. TNF-α treatment induced LDH release in wild-type chondrocytes, while OPN deficiency suppressed such LDH release in the cultures of these cells. TNF-α-induced increase in the number of TUNEL-positive cells was observed in wild-type chondrocytes, while OPN deficiency in chondrocytes suppressed the TNF-α induction of TUNEL-positive cells. OPN deficiency suppressed TNF-α-induced increase in caspase-3 activity in chondrocytes in culture. Furthermore, OPN overexpression in chondrocytes enhanced TNF-α-induced apoptosis. These results indicated that the presence of OPN in chondrocytes is involved in the susceptibility of these cells to TNF-α-induced apoptosis.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2012 · Cartilage
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    ABSTRACT: The sympathetic nervous system suppresses bone mass by mechanisms that remain incompletely elucidated. Using cell-based and murine genetics approaches, we show that this activity of the sympathetic nervous system requires osteopontin (OPN), a cytokine and one of the major members of the noncollagenous extracellular matrix proteins of bone. In this work, we found that the stimulation of the sympathetic tone by isoproterenol increased the level of OPN expression in the plasma and bone and that mice lacking OPN (OPN-KO) suppressed the isoproterenol-induced bone loss by preventing reduced osteoblastic and enhanced osteoclastic activities. In addition, we found that OPN is necessary for changes in the expression of genes related to bone resorption and bone formation that are induced by activation of the sympathetic tone. At the cellular level, we showed that intracellular OPN modulated the capacity of the β2-adrenergic receptor to generate cAMP with a corresponding modulation of cAMP-response element binding (CREB) phosphorylation and associated transcriptional events inside the cell. Our results indicate that OPN plays a critical role in sympathetic tone regulation of bone mass and that this OPN regulation is taking place through modulation of the β2-adrenergic receptor/cAMP signaling system.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2011 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
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    ABSTRACT: Osteopontin (OPN) has been implicated in the pathology of several renal conditions. Recently, we demonstrated in vitro that aldosterone has important roles in collagen synthesis by inducing OPN (Irita J, Okura T, Kurata M, Miyoshi K, Fukuoka T, Higaki J. Hypertension 51: 507-513, 2008). The aim of the present study was to clarify the roles of OPN in aldosterone-mediated renal fibrosis by infusing aldosterone into either wild-type (WT) or OPN knockout mice (OPN(-/-)). We used uninephrectomized mice treated with aldosterone and high salt to exacerbate renal fibrosis. After 4 wk of treatment with aldosterone, we showed similar increases in systolic blood pressure in both strains of mice. Urine albumin excretion was greater in aldosterone-infused WT mice than in aldosterone-infused OPN(-/-) mice. Immunohistochemical analysis showed high levels of OPN expression in aldosterone-infused WT mice. Interstitial fibrosis and inflammatory infiltrations were increased in aldosterone-infused WT mice compared with either vehicle-infused WT or aldosterone-infused OPN(-/-) mice. These changes were ameliorated markedly by eplerenone treatment in aldosterone-infused WT mice. Aldosterone-infused WT mice also had increased expression of NADPH oxidase subunits compared with aldosterone-infused OPN(-/-) mice. We observed a marked increase in oxidative stress markers in aldosterone-infused WT mice compared with aldosterone-infused OPN(-/-) mice. These results indicate that OPN is a promoter of aldosterone-induced inflammation, oxidative stress, and interstitial fibrosis in the kidney and suggest that inhibition of OPN may be a potential therapeutic target for prevention of renal injury.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2011 · AJP Renal Physiology
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    ABSTRACT: Parathyroid hormone/parathyroid hormone-related protein receptor (PPR) signaling is known to be involved in tooth development. In bone, extracellular matrix protein osteopontin (OPN) is a negative regulator of PPR signaling in bone formation. However, the role of OPN in modulation of PPR action in tooth development is not understood. Therefore, we examined the tooth in double mutant mice. Constitutively active PPR was expressed specifically in the odontoblasts and osteoblasts (caPPR-tg) in the presence or absence of OPN. Radiographic analysis indicated that the length of the third molar (M3) and the incisor was decreased in the caPPR-tg mice compared to wild type, and such reduction in molar and incisor length was further enhanced in the absence of OPN (caPPR-tg OPN-KO). With respect to histology of incisors, caPPR-tg induced high cellularity and irregularity in odontoblastic shape and this was enhanced by the absence of OPN. These morphological observations suggest that OPN modulates PPR signaling that are involved in tooth formation.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2011 · Tissue and Cell
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    ABSTRACT: Osteopontin (OPN) is a pleiotropic protein implicated in various inflammatory responses including ischemia-reperfusion (I-R) injury. Two distinct forms of the protein have been identified: an extensively studied secreted form (sOPN) and a less-well-known intracellular form (iOPN). Studies have shown that increased OPN expression parallels the time course of macrophage infiltration into injured tissue, a late event in the development of cerebral infarcts. sOPN has been suggested to promote remodeling of the extracellular matrix in the brain; the function of iOPN may be to facilitate certain signal transduction processes. Here, we studied OPN expression in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats subjected to global forebrain I-R injury. We found iOPN in the cytoplasm of both cortices and the hippocampus, but unexpectedly only the right cortex exhibited a marked increase in the iOPN level after 45 min of reperfusion. Acetaminophen, a drug recently shown to decrease apoptotic incidence, caspase-9 activation, and mitochondrial dysfunction during global I-R, significantly inhibited the increase in iOPN protein in the right cortex, suggesting a role for iOPN in the response to I-R injury in the right cortex.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2011 · PLoS ONE
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    ABSTRACT: Substantial evidence indicates that exposure to cigarette smoke is associated with an elevated risk of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA). However, the mechanisms underlying the effects of nicotine on the development or progression of PDA remain to be investigated. Previously, we showed that nicotine promotes the expression of osteopontin c (OPNc), an isoform of OPN protein that confers on cancer cells a migratory phenotype. In this study, we explored the potential prometastatic role of nicotine in PDA through studying its effect on the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and evaluated the role of OPN in mediating these effects. MMP-9 and VEGF mRNA and protein were analyzed in PDA cells treated with or without nicotine (3-300 nM). Transient transfection and luciferase-labeled promoter studies evaluated the effects of OPNc and OPN protein on the transcription and translation of MMP-9 and VEGF. Real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry were used to analyze the mRNA expression levels and localization of OPN, MMP-9, and VEGF proteins in matched invasive human PDA and surrounding nonmalignant tissues. Nicotine significantly enhanced the expression of MMP-9 and VEGF mRNA and protein in PDA cells. Blocking OPN with siRNA or OPN antibody prevented the nicotine-mediated increase of both MMP-9 and VEGF. Transient transfection of OPNc gene in PDA cells or their treatment with recombinant OPN protein significantly (p < 0.05) increased MMP-9 and VEGF mRNA expression levels and induced their promoter activities. In invasive PDA lesions, MMP-9 mRNA levels were significantly (p < 0.005) higher in smokers vs. nonsmokers. VEGF protein co-localized with MMP-9 and OPN in the malignant ducts and correlated well with their higher levels in invasive PDA lesions. Our data show for the first time that cigarette smoking and nicotine may contribute to PDA metastasis through inducing MMP-9 and VEGF and suggest that OPN plays a central role in mediating these effects. The presence of OPN as a downstream effector of nicotine that is capable of mediating its prometastatic effects in PDA cells is novel and could provide a unique therapeutic target to control pancreatic cancer aggressiveness, especially in the cigarette-smoking population.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2010 · Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
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    ABSTRACT: Cigarette smoke and nicotine are among the leading environmental risk factors for developing pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA). We showed recently that nicotine induces osteopontin (OPN), a protein that plays critical roles in inflammation and tumor metastasis. We identified an OPN isoform, OPNc, that is selectively inducible by nicotine and highly expressed in PDA tissue from smokers. In this study, we explored the potential proinflammatory role of nicotine in PDA through studying its effect on the expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 and evaluated the role of OPN in mediating these effects. MCP-1 mRNA and protein in PDA cells treated with or without nicotine (3-300 nmol/L) or OPN (0.15-15 nmol/L) were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Luciferase-labeled promoter studies evaluated the effects of nicotine and OPN on MCP-1 transcription. Intracellular and tissue colocalization of OPN and MCP-1 were examined by immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry. Nicotine treatment significantly increased MCP-1 expression in PDA cells. Interestingly, blocking OPN with siRNA or OPN antibody abolished these effects. Transient transfection of the OPNc gene in PDA cells or their treatment with recombinant OPN protein significantly (P < .05) increased MCP-1 mRNA and protein and induced its promoter activity. MCP-1 was found in 60% of invasive PDA lesions, of whom 66% were smokers. MCP-1 colocalized with OPN in PDA cells and in the malignant ducts, and correlated well with higher expression levels of OPN in the tissue from patients with invasive PDA. Our data suggest that cigarette smoking and nicotine may contribute to PDA inflammation by inducing MCP-1 and provide a novel insight into a unique role for OPN in mediating these effects.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2010 · Surgery
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying particle-induced osteolysis, we focused on osteopontin (OPN), a cytokine and cell-attachment protein that is associated with macrophage chemoattractant and osteoclast activation. We compared OPN protein levels in human periprosthetic osteolysis tissues with those in osteoarthritis (OA) synovial tissues. To investigate the functions of OPN during particle-induced osteolysis in vivo, titanium particles were implanted onto the calvaria of OPN-deficient mice and their wild-type (WT) littermates. Mice were killed on day 10 and evaluated immunohistologically. The effects of OPN deficiency on the secretion of inflammatory cytokines were examined using cultured bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs). BMMs from OPN-deficient and WT mice were cultured with titanium particles for 12 hours, and the concentrations of inflammatory cytokines in the conditioned media were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Expression of OPN protein was enhanced in human periprosthetic osteolysis tissues as compared with OA synovial tissues. In the particle-induced model of osteolysis of the calvaria, bone resorption was significantly suppressed by OPN deficiency via inhibition of osteoclastogenesis, whereas an inflammatory reaction was observed regardless of the genotype. Results of immunostaining indicated that OPN protein was highly expressed in the membrane and bone surface at the area of bone resorption in WT mice. When BMMs were exposed to titanium particles, the concentration of proinflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-1alpha (IL-1alpha), IL-1beta, and IL-6, as well as chemotactic factors, such as monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 and macrophage inflammatory protein 1alpha, in the conditioned medium were significantly reduced by OPN deficiency. Whereas phagocytic activity of BMMs was not attenuated by OPN deficiency, phagocytosis-mediated NF-kappaB activation was impaired in OPN-deficient BMMs. These data indicated that OPN was implicated in the development of particle-induced osteolysis via the orchestration of pro-/antiinflammatory cytokines secreted from macrophages. OPN plays critical roles in wear debris-induced osteolysis, suggesting that OPN is a candidate therapeutic target for periprosthetic osteolysis.
    Full-text · Article · May 2010 · Arthritis & Rheumatology
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the bioactivity of hydroxyapatite films composed of hexagonal single crystals that display {1010} and {0001} crystallographic faces. The effect of engineered [0001] crystallographic orientation was investigated in parallel. Films were deposited by triethyl phosphate/ethylenediamine-tetraacetic acid doubly regulated hydrothermal crystallization on Ti6Al4V substrates (10, 14, 24 h). Bioactivity was investigated by analysis of MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblast spreading using scanning electron microscopy and quantitative analysis of cell metabolic activity (Alamar Blue) (0-28 days). Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction were used to evaluate the ability of films to support the differentiation of MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblasts into matrix-secreting, mineralizing osteoblasts. Results demonstrated that all films enabled MC3T3-E1 cells to spread, grow, and differentiate into matrix-secreting osteoblasts, which deposited biomineral that could not be removed after extraction of organic material. Differences in [0001] HA crystallographic orientation were not, however, found to significantly affect bioactivity. Based on these results, it is concluded that these hydrothermal hydroxyapatite films are non-toxic, bioactive, osteoconductive, and biomineral bonding. The lack of a relationship between reported hydroxyapatite crystallographic face specific protein adsorption and bulk HA bioactivity are discussed in terms of crystallographic texture, surface roughness, assay robustness, and competitive protein adsorption.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2010 · Journal of Materials Science Materials in Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the effects of loss of osteopontin (OPN) in the development of neovascularization in corneal stroma in mice. Cell culture study was also conducted to clarify the effects of OPN in transforming growth factor (TGF) beta1-driven cell signaling and expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Ocular fibroblasts from wild-type and OPN-null mice were used to study the role of OPN in TGFbeta1 signal and VEGF expression. The effect of the absence of OPN on corneal neovascularization was evaluated in mice. In ocular fibroblast culture, loss of OPN attenuated TGFbeta1 signals (Smad3 and p38) and reduced expression of VEGF. Loss of OPN attenuated neovascularization in corneal stroma in mice. OPN is involved in VEGF expression in cultured fibroblasts and is required for neovascularization in corneal stroma in vivo.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2009 · Investigative ophthalmology & visual science
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    ABSTRACT: Osteopontin (OPN) is a secreted phosphoprotein that confers on cancer cells a migratory phenotype. We demonstrated recently that nicotine, a major risk factor in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA), increases OPN expression in PDA cells. An OPN splice variant, OPNc, supports anchorage independence and maybe the most potent OPN isoform to convey metastatic behavior. In this study, we tested the effect of nicotine on OPNc expression and analyzed the correlation between total OPN/OPNc levels and patients' smoking history. Real-time polymerase chain reaction and ultraviolet light illumination of ethidium-bromide staining were used to examine the mRNA expression in tissue and in PDA cells treated with or without nicotine (3-300 nmol/L). OPN and OPNc were localized by immunohistochemistry, and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to analyze OPN serum levels. Nicotine treatment of PDA cells selectively induced de novo expression of OPNc. OPNc was found in 87% of invasive PDA lesions, of which 73% were found in smokers. The levels of OPNc correlated well with higher expression levels of total OPN in the tissue and serum from patients with invasive PDA. Our data suggest that smoking and nicotine may contribute to PDA metastatic potential through promoting OPNc expression. Although the direct role of OPNc in PDA progression is not defined, OPNc may have value as a diagnostic and prognostic marker, especially in invasive PDA.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2009 · Surgery
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the role of osteopontin (OPN) in the development of osteoarthritis (OA) under in vivo and in vitro conditions. Both instability-induced and aging-associated OA models were generated using OPN-deficient (OPN-/-) and control wild-type (WT) mice. An in vitro cartilage degradation model was also used, to evaluate the effect of OPN on proteoglycan loss from joint cartilage. OPN deficiency exacerbated both aging-associated and instability-induced OA. Both structural changes and an increased loss of proteoglycan from cartilage tissue were augmented in the absence of OPN. OPN deficiency also led to the induction of matrix metalloproteinase 13 (MMP-13), which degrades a major component of the cartilage matrix protein type II collagen. Both the loss of proteoglycan and the induction of the collagen-degrading enzyme MMP-13 facilitated the development of OA. OPN plays a pivotal role in the progression of both instability-induced and aging-associated spontaneous OA. OPN is a critical intrinsic regulator of cartilage degradation via its effects on MMP-13 expression and proteoglycan loss.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2009 · Arthritis & Rheumatology
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    ABSTRACT: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) is a lethal disease with etiological association with cigarette smoking. Nicotine, an important component of cigarettes, exists at high concentrations in the bloodstream of smokers. Osteopontin (OPN) is a secreted phosphoprotein that confers on cancer cells a migratory phenotype and activates signaling pathways that induce cell survival, proliferation, invasion, and metastasis. Here, we investigated the potential molecular basis of nicotine's role in PDA through studying its effect on OPN. Nicotine significantly (p < 0.02) increased OPN mRNA and protein secretion in PDA cells through activation of the OPN gene promoter. The OPN mRNA induction was inhibited by the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist, mechamylamine. Further, the tyrosine kinase inhibitor genistein inhibited the nicotine-mediated induction of OPN, suggesting that mitogen activated protein kinase signaling mechanism is involved. Nicotine activated the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, but not p38 or c-Jun NH2-terminal MAP kinases. Inhibition of ERK1/2 activation reduced the nicotine-induced OPN synthesis. Rats exposed to cigarette smoke showed a dose-dependent increase in pancreatic OPN that paralleled the rise of pancreatic and plasma nicotine levels. Analysis of cancer tissue from invasive PDA patients, the majority of whom were smokers, showed the presence of significant amounts of OPN in the malignant ducts and the surrounding pancreatic acini. Our data suggest that nicotine may contribute to PDA pathogenesis through upregulation of OPN. They provide the first insight into a nicotine-initiated signal transduction pathway that regulates OPN as a possible tumorigenic mechanism in PDA.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2009 · International Journal of Cancer
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    ABSTRACT: Osteopontin (OPN), a multifunctional acidic glycoprotein, expressed by osteoblasts within the endosteal region of the bone marrow (BM) suppresses the proliferation of hemopoietic stem and progenitor cells and also regulates their lodgment within the BM after transplantation. Herein we demonstrate that OPN cleavage fragments are the most abundant forms of this protein within the BM. Studies aimed to determine how hemopoietic stem cells (HSCs) interact with OPN revealed for the first time that murine and human HSCs express alpha(9)beta(1) integrin. The N-terminal thrombin cleavage fragment of OPN through its binding to the alpha(9)beta(1) and alpha(4)beta(1) integrins plays a key role in the attraction, retention, regulation, and release of hemopoietic stem and progenitor cells to, in, and from their BM niche. Thrombin-cleaved OPN (trOPN) acts as a chemoattractant for stem and progenitor cells, mediating their migration in a manner that involves interaction with alpha(9)beta(1) and alpha(4)beta(1) integrins. In addition, in the absence of OPN, there is an increased number of white blood cells and, specifically, stem and progenitor cells in the peripheral circulation.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2009 · Blood

Publication Stats

19k Citations
1,451.99 Total Impact Points


  • 1990-2015
    • Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey
      • • Department of Cell Biology and Neuroscience
      • • Division of Life Sciences
      • • Federated Departments of Biological Sciences
      Нью-Брансуик, New Jersey, United States
    • University of Maryland, Baltimore
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
  • 2010
    • Thomas Jefferson University
      • Department of Surgery
      Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 1972-2006
    • McGill University
      • Department of Biochemistry
      Montréal, Quebec, Canada
  • 2005
    • Baylor College of Medicine
      Houston, Texas, United States
  • 1999-2004
    • Tokyo Medical and Dental University
      • Department of Molecular Pharmacology
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
    • State University of New York
      New York, New York, United States
  • 2003
    • Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin
      Berlín, Berlin, Germany
  • 2002
    • University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign
      Urbana, Illinois, United States
  • 2001
    • Washington University in St. Louis
      San Luis, Missouri, United States
    • Boston University
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 1977-1995
    • The University of Western Ontario
      • • Department of Oncology
      • • Department of Biochemistry
      London, Ontario, Canada
  • 1966-1971
    • Harvard University
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
  • 1968
    • Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory
      Cold Spring Harbor, New York, United States
  • 1965
    • California Institute of Technology
      Pasadena, California, United States