[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Petrosaviaceae is a monocotyledonous plant family that comprises two genera: the autotrophic Japonolirion and the mycoheterotrophic Petrosavia. Accordingly, this plant family provides an excellent system to examine specificity differences in mycobionts between autotrophic and closely related mycoheterotrophic plant species. We investigated mycobionts of Japonolirion osense, the sole species of the monotypic genus, from all known habitats of this species by molecular identification and detected 22 arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal phylotypes in Archaesporales, Diversisporales, and Glomerales. In contrast, only one AM fungal phylotype in Glomerales was predominantly detected from the mycoheterotrophic Petrosavia sakuraii in a previous study. The high mycobiont diversity in J. osense and in an outgroup plant, Miscanthus sinensis (Poaceae), indicates that fungal specificity increased during the evolution of mycohetrotrophy in Petrosaviaceae. Furthermore, some AM fungal sequences of J. osense showed >99 % sequence similarity to the dominant fungal phylotype of P. sakuraii, and one of them was nested within a clade of P. sakuraii mycobionts. These results indicate that fungal partners are not necessarily shifted, but rather selected for in the course of the evolution of mycoheterotrophy. We also confirmed the Paris-type mycorrhiza in J. osense.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · Journal of Plant Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We attempted to introduce ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi onto seedlings of Dipterocarpus alatus (Dipterocarpaceae) by soil inocula collected from tree stands of D. alatus. Top soils collected from beneath the trees of D. alatus in a dry evergreen forest and a 15-year-old plantation were inoculated onto germinating seeds of D. alatus. After 7 months of seedling cultivation, ECM fungal communities in the seedlings were investigated based on the sequences of ITS rDNA. The ECM fungi detected were divided into 19 phylotypes by molecular analysis. Most of the phylotypes were identified as ECM fungal taxa, i.e., Clavulina, Laccaria, Lactarius, Tomentella, Pyronemataceae, and Tricholomataceae. Accordingly, we can confirm that soil inoculation is a simple method to induce ECM formation with diverse fungi in pot cultured seedlings, which would be useful for introducing diverse ECM fungi to dipterocarp plantations.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2014 · Journal of Forest Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Communities of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi were investigated in Stipa krylovii, Leymus chinensis (Poaceae), Allium bidentatum (Liliaceae), and Astragalus brevifolius (Fabaceae) in the Mongolian steppe to examine the effect of plant species on the communities in this study. The AM fungal communities were examined by molecular analysis based on the partial sequences of a small subunit of the ribosomal RNA gene. The sequences obtained were divided into 23 phylotypes by the sequence similarity >98%. Many of the AM fungal phylotypes included AM fungi previously detected in high-altitude regions in the Tibet and Loes plateaus, which suggested that these AM fungi may have wide distribution with stressful conditions of aridity and coldness. Among the 23 phylotypes, 12 phylotypes were found in all four plants, and 87.4% of the all obtained sequences were affiliated into these 12 types. For the distribution of the AM fungal phylotypes, overlapping of the phylotypes among the four plant species were significantly higher than that simulated by random chance. These results suggested that AM fungal communities were less diversified among the examined plant species.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated communities of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in the fine roots of Pyrus pyrifolia var. culta, and Plantago asiatica to consider the relationship between orchard trees and herbaceous plants in AMF symbioses. The AMF communities were analyzed on the basis of the partial fungal DNA sequences of the nuclear small subunit ribosomal RNA gene (SSU rDNA), which were amplified using the AMF-specific primers AML1 and AML2. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the obtained AMF sequences were divided into 23 phylotypes. Among them, 12 phylotypes included AMF from both host plants, and most of the obtained sequences (689/811) were affiliated to them. Canonical correspondence analysis showed that the host plant species did not have a significant effect on the distribution of AMF phylotypes, whereas the effects of sampling site, soil total C, soil total N and soil-available P were significant. It was also found that the mean observed overlaps of AMF phylotypes between the paired host plants in the same soil cores (27.1% of phylotypes shared) were significantly higher than the mean 1,000 simulated overlaps (14.2%). Furthermore, the same AMF sequences (100% sequence identity) were detected from both host plants in 8/12 soil cores having both roots. Accordingly, we concluded that Py. pyrifolia and Pl. asiatica examined shared some AMF communities, which suggested that understory herbaceous plants may function as AMF inoculum sources for orchard trees.
Preview · Article · Apr 2013 · Microbes and Environments
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We examined arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi colonizing the roots of Stipa krylovii, a grass species dominating the grasslands of the steppe zone in Hustai and Uvurkhangai in Mongolia. The AM fungal communities of the collected S. krylovii roots were examined by molecular analysis based on the partial sequences of a small subunit of ribosomal RNA gene as well as AM fungal colonization rates. Almost all AM fungi detected were in Glomus-group A, and were divided into 10 phylotypes. Among them, one phylotype forming a clade with G. intraradices and G. irregulare was the most dominant. Furthermore, it was also found that most of the phylotypes include AM fungi previously detected in high altitude regions in the Eurasian Continent. Significant correlations were found among soil total N, total plant biomass and AM fungal colonization ratio, which suggested that higher plant biomass may be required for the proliferation of AM fungi in the environment. Meanwhile, redundancy analysis on AM fungal distribution and environmental variables suggested that the effect of plant biomass and most soil chemical properties on the AM fungal communities were not significant.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We examined the colonization rate and communities of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in the roots of Pyrus pyrifolia var. culta (Japanese pear) in orchards to investigate the effect of phosphorus (P) fertilization on AMF. Soil cores containing the roots of Japanese pear were collected from 13 orchards in Tottori Prefecture, Japan. Soil-available P in the examined orchards was 75.7 to 1,200 mg kg(-1), showing the extreme accumulation of soil P in many orchards. The AMF colonization rate was negatively correlated with soil-available P (P <0.01). AMF communities were examined on the basis of the partial fungal DNA sequences of the nuclear small-subunit ribosomal RNA gene (SSU rDNA) amplified by AMF-specific primers AML1 and AML2. The obtained AMF sequences were divided into 14 phylotypes, and the number of phylotypes (species richness) was also negatively correlated with soil-available P (P <0.05). It was also suggested that some AM fungi may be adapted to high soil-available P conditions. Redundancy analysis showed the significant effects of soil pH, available P in soil, and P content in leaves of P. pyrifolia var. culta trees on AMF distribution. These results suggested that the accumulation of soil-available P affected AMF communities in the roots of Japanese pear in the orchard environment.
Preview · Article · Dec 2012 · Microbes and Environments
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mixotrophy, obtaining carbon by mycoheterotrophy and photosynthesis, has been suggested in Cephalanthera species (Orchidaceae) by analyses on stable isotopes of carbon. In this study, we examined the growth of Cephalanthera falcata in pot cultured tripartite symbioses with Thelephoraceae fungi and Quercus serrata. Mycorrhizal fungi were isolated from roots of C. falcata in natural habitats. Two fungal isolates identified as Thelephoraceae were cultured and inoculated to fine roots of non-mycorrhizal seedlings of Q. serrata (Fagaceae). After the ectomycorrhizal formation, non-mycorrhizal seedlings of C. falcata were co-planted. The pots with tripartite symbioses were cultured in greenhouse for 30 months, and growth of C. falcata seedlings was examined. Fresh weight of C. falcata seedlings was significantly increased by the tripartite symbioses even in those with no shoot, thus providing further evidence for the mycoheterotrophic nature of this orchid. The achievement of seedling culture in tripartite symbioses would be valuable for conserving many forest orchids and for conducting experiments to understand their physiology and ecology.
No preview · Article · Sep 2012 · Journal of Plant Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The community structure of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi associated with Ixeris repens was studied in coastal vegetation near the Tottori sand dunes in Japan. I. repens produces roots from a subterranean stem growing near the soil surface which provides an opportunity to examine the effects of an environmental gradient related to distance from the sea on AM fungal communities at a regular soil depth. Based on partial sequences of the nuclear large subunit ribosomal RNA gene, AM fungi in root samples were divided into 17 phylotypes. Among these, five AM fungal phylotypes in Glomus and Diversispora were dominant near the seaward forefront of the vegetation. Redundancy analysis of the AM fungal community showed significant relationships between the distribution of phylotypes and environmental variables such as distance from the sea, water-soluble sodium in soil, and some coexisting plant species. These results suggest that environmental gradients in the coastal vegetation can be determinants of the AM fungal community.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Astraeus odoratus is an edible
ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungus found in natural dipterocarp forests. The effcacy of two different
inoculum types of this fungus, namely, spore suspension and cultured mycelium in inducing ECM
formation on pot-cultured seedlings of Dipterocarpus alatus was studied. Both types of inocula increased
ECM formation. A positive correlation was found between the ECM rate and seedling growth. Both
inoculation methods could be used to produce ECM seedlings of D. alatus.
No preview · Article · Mar 2012 · Journal of Tropical Forest Science
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lecanorchis is a nonphotosynthetic plant genus in Vanilloideae, Orchidaceae. Because of the distribution of many Lecanorchis taxa in various climate conditions, we hypothesized that mycorrhizal diversity and specificity are different among the different taxa of Lecanorchis. In the present study, identities of mycorrhizal fungi were examined for 90 individuals of 10 Lecanorchis taxa at 26 sites from Niigata to Okinawa Prefectures in Japan. Phylogenetic analyses of Lecanorchis taxa based on the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the nuclear ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA) divided the examined Lecanorchis taxa into three groups, groups A, B, and C. ITS rDNA sequences suggested that fungi associating with Lecanorchis were ectomycorrhiza-forming fungi in Lactarius, Russula, Atheliaceae, and Sebacina, with Lactarius and Russula dominant. Our results suggested some degree of mycorrhizal specialization among Lecanorchis taxa. Interestingly, the Lecanorchis group C had some specific relationships with Lactarius, whereas less specificity was found in the relationships with Russula. However, observed specificity results may be biased by geographic opportunity, and we suggest further research to assess whether Lecanorchis species are limited to the associations we observed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: • We investigated the fungal symbionts and carbon nutrition of a Japanese forest photosynthetic orchid, Platanthera minor, whose ecology suggests a mixotrophic syndrome, that is, a mycorrhizal association with ectomycorrhiza (ECM)-forming fungi and partial exploitation of fungal carbon. • We performed molecular identification of symbionts by PCR amplifications of the fungal ribosomal DNA on hyphal coils extracted from P. minor roots. We tested for a (13)C and (15)N enrichment characteristic of mixotrophic plants. We also tested the ectomycorrhizal abilities of orchid symbionts using a new protocol of direct inoculation of hyphal coils onto roots of Pinus densiflora seedlings. • In phylogenetic analyses, most isolated fungi were close to ECM-forming Ceratobasidiaceae clades previously detected from a few fully heterotrophic orchids or environmental ectomycorrhiza surveys. The direct inoculation of fungal coils of these fungi resulted in ectomycorrhiza formation on P. densiflora seedlings. Stable isotope analyses indicated mixotrophic nutrition of P. minor, with fungal carbon contributing from 50% to 65%. • This is the first evidence of photosynthetic orchids associated with ectomycorrhizal Ceratobasidiaceae taxa, confirming the evolution of mixotrophy in the Orchideae orchid tribe, and of ectomycorrhizal abilities in the Ceratobasidiaceae. Our new ectomycorrhiza formation technique may enhance the study of unculturable orchid mycorrhizal fungi.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Structure and fungal identities were examined in the mycorrhizal roots of Schizocodon soldanelloides var. magnus (Diapensiaceae) to determine the mycorrhizal category. Previous studies had suggested the mycorrhizae of Diapensiaceae could
be categorized as ericoid, but the mycorrhizal fungi have never been identified. The diameter of the fine lateral roots, in
which coiled hyphae were found in epidermal cells, was mostly less than 100 μm. Molecular analyses identified the fungal isolates
to be Helotiales and Oidiodendron. From the structure and fungal identities, we confirmed that the mycorrhiza of S. soldanelloides is an ericoid mycorrhiza.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mycorrhizal fungi in roots of the achlorophyllous Petrosavia sakuraii (Petrosaviaceae) were identified by molecular methods. Habitats examined were plantations of the Japanese cypress Chamaecyparis obtusa in Honshu, an evergreen broad-leaved forest in Amami Island in Japan and a mixed deciduous and evergreen forest in China. Aseptate hyphal coils were observed in root cortical cells of P. sakuraii, suggesting Paris-type arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM). Furthermore, hyphal coils that had degenerated to amorphous clumps were found in various layers of the root cortex. Despite extensive sampling of P. sakuraii from various sites in Japan and China, most of the obtained AM fungal sequences of the nuclear small subunit ribosomal RNA gene were nearly identical and phylogenetic analysis revealed that they formed a single clade in the Glomus group A lineage. This suggests that the symbiotic relationship is highly specific. AM fungi of P. sakuraii were phylogenetically different from those previously detected in the roots of some mycoheterotrophic plants. In a habitat in C. obtusa plantation, approximately half of the AM fungi detected in roots of C. obtusa surrounding P. sakuraii belonged to the same clade as that of P. sakuraii. This indicates that particular AM fungi are selected by P. sakuraii from diverse indigenous AM fungi. The same AM fungi can colonize both plant species, and photosynthates of C. obtusa may be supplied to P. sakuraii through a shared AM fungal mycelial network. Although C. obtusa plantations are widely distributed throughout Japan, P. petrosavia is a rare plant species, probably because of its high specificity towards particular AM fungi.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: During taxonomic revision of genus Octaviania in Japan we examined herbarium and fresh specimens of O. columellifera and O. asterosperma sensu S. Yoshimi & Y. Doi with morphological and molecular techniques. These two species were identical in both macro- and micromorphological characters and were clearly different from the generally known O. asterosperma. The identity of the two species and their distinctness from O. asterosperma was further supported by both nuclear large subunit and ITS rDNA phylogeny. The molecular analyses also revealed that O. columellifera shares its lineage with the boletoid mushroom-forming Xerocomus chrysenteron complex and that it does not form a monophyletic clade with other Octaviania species. Our morphological reevaluation, including transmission electron microscopic observation of basidiospores, clarified the taxonomic boundary between O. columellifera and other Japanese Octaviania species. Accordingly we propose a new genus, Heliogaster, for O. columellifera with designation of the lectotype. We discuss phylogenetic relationships with Octaviania sensu stricto species and the closely related boletoid (pileate-stipitate) fungi, generic characters of Heliogaster and intraspecific phylogeny.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The mycorrhizal fungi in the roots of achlorophyllous Sciaphila japonica and S. tosaensis (Triuridaceae) were identified by molecular methods. The habitats of S. japonica were in a tree plantation of Japanese cypress, Chamaecyparis obtusa, and bamboo forests, and those of S. tosaensis were in a camellia forest and a bamboo forest. In the root cortical cells of both plants, aseptate hyphal coils were observed,
which suggested the Paris-type arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM). A phylogenetic analysis based on a partial sequence of an AM fungal nuclear small subunit
ribosomal RNA gene showed that the fungal DNA sequences of S. japonica were separated into three closely related clades. Those of S. tosaensis were separated into two clades, which were also closely related to each other. The AM fungi of S. japonica and S. tosaensis were completely separated in the phylogenetic tree even among those found in the same habitat, which suggests the high specificities
in the plant-fungal partnerships. All the detected AM fungi in these plants belonged to Glomus-group A. Even though the habitats are in quite common environments, both plant species are known as endangered species in
Japan. Such a definite specificity in AM symbioses seems to restrict the distribution of the myco-heterotrophic plants.
Glomus-group A–Myco-heterotrophic plants–
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The community structure of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi in the roots of drought-resistant trees, Moringa spp., was examined in semiarid regions in Madagascar and Uganda. Root samples were collected from 8 individuals of M. hildebrandtii and 2 individuals of M. drouhardii in Madagascar and from 21 individuals of M. oleifera in Uganda. Total DNA was extracted from the root samples, and partial nSSU rDNA of AM fungi was amplified using a universal
eukaryotic primer NS31 and an AM fungalspecific primer AM1. The PCR products were cloned and divided by restriction fragment
length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis with HinfI and RsaI. Some representatives in each RFLP types were sequenced, and a neighbor-joining phylogenetic analysis was conducted for
the obtained sequences with analogous sequences of AM fungi. The RFLP and phylogenetic analyses showed that AM fungi closely
related to Glomus intraradices or G. sinuosum were detected in many samples. The AM fungal groups frequently detected in the Moringa spp. might be widely distributed species in semiarid environments.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Epipogium aphyllum is a Eurasian achlorophyllous, mycoheterotrophic forest orchid. Due to its rarity, it is often protected, and its biology is poorly known. The identity and pattern of colonization of fungal associates providing carbon to this orchid have not been studied previously.
Using samples from 34 individuals from 18 populations in Japan, Russia and France, the following were investigated: (a) colonization patterns of fungal associates of E. aphyllum by microscopy; (b) their identity by PCR amplification of nuclear ribosomal ITS carried out on rhizome fragments and hyphal pelotons.
Microscopic investigations revealed that thick rhizomes were densely colonized by fungi bearing clamp-connections and dolipores, i.e. basidiomycetes. Molecular analysis identified Inocybe species as exclusive symbionts of 75 % of the plants investigated and, more rarely, other basidiomycetes (Hebeloma, Xerocomus, Lactarius, Thelephora species). Additionally, ascomycetes, probably endophytes or parasites, were sometimes present. Although E. aphyllum associates with diverse species from Inocybe subgenera Mallocybe and Inocybe sensu stricto, no evidence for cryptic speciation in E. aphyllum was found. Since basidiomycetes colonizing the orchid are ectomycorrhizal, surrounding trees are probably the ultimate carbon source. Accordingly, in one population, ectomycorrhizae sampled around an individual orchid revealed the same fungus on 11.2 % of tree roots investigated. Conversely, long, thin stolons bearing bulbils indicated active asexual multiplication, but these propagules were not colonized by fungi. These findings are discussed in the framework of ecology and evolution of mycoheterotrophy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The mycorrhizal fungi of Stigmatodactylus sikokianus (Orchidaceae) were isolated and identified to be nearly related to Sebacina spp. in Sebacinaceae (Basidiomycota) by a neighbor-joining phylogenetic analysis based on the sequences of the ITS region
of nuclear rDNA. In spite of the geographically separated samplings, high sequence similarity was found among the obtained
DNA sequences, which suggested that S. sikokianus might be highly specialized to the group of fungi. It is known that Sebacina spp. are saprobes or ectomycorrhiza-forming fungi. The mycorrhizal fungi of S. sikokianus were regarded to be saprobic from the environment of their habitats.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have identified Crassocephalum crepidioides (Benth.) S. Moore (Compositae) as a cadmium (Cd)-accumulator plant in a heavy-metal polluted environment. In soil polluted with Cd, 5.7–17.5 mg kg−1 Cd, concentrations in the above-ground plant tissues were measured as 14.6–78.6 mg kg−1 with transfer factors in the above-ground plant tissues (concentration in above-ground tissues/soil concentration) of 1.5–6.0. No other toxic heavy metals or plant micronutrients were found to have accumulated into the above-ground plant tissues. In a hydroponic culture with 1 µmol L−1 Cd added to Hoagland's nutrient solution, Cd concentration in the above-ground plant tissues was 121.0 mg kg−1, with a transfer factor of more than 1000. In a pot culture carried out for 9 weeks in a greenhouse, the highest Cd concentration in the above-ground plant tissues, 121.2 mg kg−1, was found in a treatment with 5 mg kg−1 Cd, whereas the highest Cd content in an above-ground plant tissue, 106.1 µg, was found in a treatment with 2 mg kg−1 Cd. These results clearly showed that C. crepidioides is a Cd accumulator. In all samples, the Cd concentration in the above-ground plant tissues was higher than that in the roots. The results obtained in the present study show that this plant has a strong potential for use in phytoremediation in farm fields contaminated with Cd.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Community of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi in a coastal vegetation on Okinawa island in Japan was examined. A sampling plot was established in a colony of Ipomoea pes-caprae (Convolvulaceae) on the beach in Tamagusuku, Okinawa Pref, in which eight root samples of I. pes-caprae and three root samples each of Vigna marina (Leguminosae) and Paspalum distichum (Poaceae) were collected. Partial 18S rDNA of AM fungi was amplified from the root samples by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with primers NS31 and AM1. Restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis with HinfI and RsaI for cloned PCR products revealed that two types of Glomus sp., type A and type B, were dominant in the colony. Among them, the fungi of type A were especially dominant near the edge of the colony facing the sea. A phylogenetic analysis showed that the AM fungi of type B are closely related to Glomus intraradices and those of type A are nearly related to type B. From the sequence data, it was also found that type A was further divided into two types, type A1 and A2. One representative strain each of the three types, type A1, A2, and B, propagated from single spore each, was examined for the growth of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) at three different salinity levels, 0, 100, and 200 mM NaCl. At the non-salt-treated condition, the type B fungus was the most effective on shoot growth enhancement of the host plant, whereas at the salt-treated conditions, the type A2 fungus was the most effective. An efficient suppression of Na + translocation into the shoot by the examined AM fungi was found. These results suggested that the AM fungi dominant near the sea are adapted to salt-stressed environment to alleviate the salt stress of host plants.