[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Trait abnormalities in bipolar disorder (BD) within the ventral prefrontal cortex (vPFC) and the amygdala suggest dysfunction in their connectivity. This study employed low frequency resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (LFRS-fMRI) to analyze functional connectivity between the vPFC and the amygdala in BD. LFRS-fMRI identified a negative correlation in vPFC-amygdala activity, and the magnitude of this correlation was greater in healthy participants than in subjects with BD. Additionally, whole-brain analysis revealed higher correlations between left and right vPFC in BD, as well as with ventral striatum.
Preview · Article · Jun 2010 · Psychiatry Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previous study supports the presence of reduced volume and elevated response to emotional stimuli in amygdala in adolescents with bipolar disorder (BD). In the present study, structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging scans were obtained during the same neuroimaging session to examine amygdala structure-function relations in adolescents with BD. We hypothesized that amygdala volume would be inversely associated with amygdala response to emotional stimuli, such that BD participants with the smallest amygdala volumes would exhibit the highest amygdala response.
Fifty-one adolescents (21 with BD I and 30 control adolescents, ages 10-18 years) underwent structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging scans. Amygdala volume (n = 49) and signal change (n = 44) during emotional face processing were compared between groups, and structure-function correlations were examined within the BD group (n = 16).
Adolescents with BD showed decreased amygdala volume (p =.009) and increased amygdala response to emotional faces (p =.043). There was no significant interaction between diagnosis and emotion type. A significant inverse association between amygdala volume and activation during emotional face processing was observed (r = -0.54, p =.029).
Decreased volume and increased response to emotional stimuli in the amygdala in adolescents with BD are consistent with previous reports. This study represents the first report, to our knowledge, of the two findings in the same adolescent BD sample and supports an amygdala structure-function relation characterized by an inverse association between volume and response to emotional stimuli. This preliminary finding requires replication and suggests a possible pathophysiological link between abnormalities in amygdala structure and response to emotional stimuli in BD.
Full-text · Article · Jul 2009 · Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bipolar disorder (BD) is associated with abnormalities of the ventral anterior cingulate cortex (vACC) and its connection sites, including the amygdala, which are key components of a corticolimbic neural system that subserves emotional regulation. Decreased functional connectivity from the vACC to the amygdala in healthy individuals is associated with the short 's' allele--as opposed to the long 'l' allele--of a well-known serotonin transporter promoter polymorphism (5-HTTLPR, locus SLC6A4), as are features of BD. This study tests the hypothesis that the s allele influences dysfunction in the vACC-amygdala neural system in BD. A total of 30 euthymic individuals with BD (20 s carriers, 10 ll) and 48 healthy comparison (HC) participants (34 s, 14 ll) participated in an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging scan while processing fearful, happy, or neutral faces. During fear and happy face processing, vACC activation was significantly lower in the BD compared to the HC group, and in s carriers compared to ll individuals within both the HC and BD groups, such that BD s carriers exhibited the greatest magnitude of vACC dysfunction. No significant differences were detected in amygdala activation. The findings suggest that the 5-HTTLPR s allele may contribute to a trait-related, genetically derived, neurobiological subgroup within BD characterized by prominent vACC dysfunction. Future treatment may be optimized for this BD subgroup by targeting the serotonergic system and the vACC.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2008 · Neuropsychopharmacology: official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Convergent evidence implicates white matter abnormalities in bipolar disorder. The cingulum is an important candidate structure for study in bipolar disorder as it provides substantial white matter connections within the corticolimbic neural system that subserves emotional regulation involved in the disorder.
To test the hypothesis that bipolar disorder is associated with abnormal white matter integrity in the cingulum.
Fractional anisotropy in the anterior and posterior cingulum was compared between 42 participants with bipolar disorder and 42 healthy participants using diffusion tensor imaging.
Fractional anisotropy was significantly decreased in the anterior cingulum in the bipolar disorder group compared with the healthy group (P=0.003); however, fractional anisotropy in the posterior cingulum did not differ significantly between groups.
Our findings demonstrate abnormalities in the structural integrity of the anterior cingulum in bipolar disorder. They extend evidence that supports involvement of the neural system comprising the anterior cingulate cortex and its corticolimbic gray matter connection sites in bipolar disorder to implicate abnormalities in the white matter connections within the system provided by the cingulum.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2008 · The British Journal of Psychiatry