[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Genetic variation at the transcription factor 7-like 2 locus has been linked to type 2 diabetes in predominantly European-derived populations. The biological basis of these associations remains to be determined.
The objective of this study was to evaluate previously associated variants for association with measures of glucose homeostasis in Hispanic-Americans and African-Americans and determine the biological mechanism(s) through which these variants exert their effect.
This study was the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Family Study (IRAS-FS).
The IRAS-FS is a community-based study of Hispanic-Americans (San Antonio, TX, and San Luis Valley, CO) and African-Americans (Los Angeles, CA).
A total of 1040 Hispanic-American and 500 African-American individuals from the IRAS-FS formed the basis of this study. MAIN OUTCOMES MEASURES(S): The primary glucose homeostasis phenotypes of interest in this study were derived from the frequently sampled iv glucose tolerance test and include insulin sensitivity, acute insulin response, and disposition index.
In Hispanic-Americans, significant evidence of association was observed between single-nucleotide polymorphisms rs7903146 and rs112255372 with reduced insulin secretion as measured by acute insulin response and adjusted for the degree of insulin sensitivity (P = 0.032 and 0.036, respectively). Other quantitative measures, e.g. insulin sensitivity or disposition index, were not associated with the single nucleotide polymorphisms examined. In African-Americans there was no evidence of association observed.
These results suggest that transcription factor 7-like 2 variants could play a role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes in the Hispanic-American population through a mechanism involving insulin secretion.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2008 · Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We previously detected an association between a region of the estrogen receptor-alpha (ESR1) gene and type 2 diabetes in an African-American case-control study; thus, we investigated this region for associations with the metabolic syndrome and its component traits in African-American families from the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Family Study.
A total of 17 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from a contiguous 41-kb intron 1-intron 2 region of the ESR1 gene were genotyped in 548 individuals from 42 African-American pedigrees. Generalized estimating equations were computed using a sandwich estimator of the variance and exchangeable correlation to account for familial correlation.
Significant associations were detected between ESR1 SNPs and the metabolic syndrome (P = 0.005 to P = 0.029), type 2 diabetes (P = 0.001), insulin sensitivity (P = 0.0005 to P = 0.023), fasting insulin (P = 0.022 to P = 0.033), triglycerides (P = 0.021), LDL (P = 0.016 to P = 0.034), cholesterol (P = 0.046), BMI (P = 0.016 to P = 0.035), waist circumference (P = 0.012 to P = 0.023), and subcutaneous adipose tissue area (P = 0.016).
It appears likely that ESR1 contributes to type 2 diabetes and CVD risk via pleiotropic effects, leading to insulin resistance, a poor lipid profile, and obesity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Glucose homeostasis, a defining characteristic of physiological glucose metabolism, is the result of complex feedback relationships with both genetic and environmental determinants that influence insulin sensitivity and beta-cell function. Relatively little is known about the genetic basis of glucose homeostasis phenotypes or their relationship to risk of diabetes. Our group previously published a genome scan for glucose homeostasis traits in 284 African-American subjects from 21 pedigrees in the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study Family Study (IRASFS) and presented evidence for linkage to disposition index (DI) on chromosome 11q with a logarithm of odds (LOD) of 3.21 at 81 cM flanked by markers D11S2371 and D11S2002 (support interval from 71 to 96 cM). In this study, genotyping and analysis of an additional 214 African-American subjects in 21 pedigrees from the IRASFS yielded independent evidence of linkage to DI. When these two datasets were combined, a DI linkage peak was observed with an LOD of 3.89 at 78 cM (support interval from 67 to 89 cM). Fine mapping with 15 additional microsatellite markers in this 11q region for the entire 42 pedigrees resulted in an LOD score of 4.80 at 80 cM near marker D11S937 (support interval from 76 to 84 cM). In these 42 pedigrees, there was also suggestive evidence for linkage to acute insulin response (AIR) at two separate locations flanking the DI peak (64 cM, LOD 2.77, flanked by markers D11S4076 and D11S981; and 85 cM, LOD 2.54, flanked by markers D11S4172 and D11S2002). No evidence of linkage to the insulin sensitivity index (S(i)) was observed. Nine positional candidate genes were evaluated for association to DI and AIR. Among these candidates, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in muscle glycogen phosphorylase showed evidence of association with DI (P < 0.011). In addition, SNPs in the pyruvate carboxylase gene showed evidence of association (P < 0.002) with AIR. Further analysis of these candidate genes, however, did not provide evidence that these SNPs accounted for the evidence of linkage to either DI or AIR. These detailed genetic analyses provide strong evidence of a DI locus on 11q in African-American pedigrees, with additional suggestive evidence of independent AIR loci in the same region.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Individuals with type 2 diabetes are at increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality and display increased levels of subclinical CVD. Genetic variation in PTPN1, a diabetes susceptibility gene, was investigated for a role in diabetic atherosclerosis. The PTPN1 gene encodes protein tyrosine phosphatase-1B, which is ubiquitously expressed and plays a role in the regulation of several signaling pathways. Subclinical atherosclerosis was assessed in 590 Caucasian participants with type 2 diabetes in the Diabetes Heart Study using B-mode ultrasound measurement of carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and computed tomography measurement of carotid calcified plaque (CarCP) and coronary calcified plaque (CorCP). Twenty-three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in PTPN1 were genotyped and assessed for association with IMT, CarCP, and CorCP. A total of 12 SNPs within a block of linkage disequilibrium encompassing the coding sequence of PTPN1 were significantly associated with CorCP (P values from <0.0001 to 0.043) and 3 SNPs also within the block approached significance (P values from 0.058 to 0.066). In addition, a nine-SNP haplotype (GACTTCAGO) was also associated with increased CorCP under a dominant model (P = 0.01). No association was detected with IMT or CarCP. The associated SNPs and haplotype are the same as those observed to be associated with type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance, and fasting glucose in previous studies. With the inclusion of the most likely haplo-genotype for each individual, the heritability estimate of CorCP increased from 0.53 +/- 0.1 to 0.57 +/- 0.1 (P = 8.1 x 10(-10)), suggesting a modest but detectable effect of this gene on the phenotype of CorCP in type 2 diabetic patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper explores the decay of linkage disequilibrium (LD) on the autosomes and chromosome X. The extent of marker-marker LD is important for both linkage and association studies. The analysis of the Caucasian sample from the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism study revealed the expected negative relationship between the magnitude of the marker-marker LD and distance (cM), with the male and female subgroups exhibiting similar patterns of LD. The observed extent of LD in females was less across the pseudoautosomal markers relative to the heterosomal region of chromosome X. Marked differences in LD patterns were also observed between chromosomes X and the 22 autosomes in both males and females.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adiponectin, coded for by the APM1 gene, is a novel adipocyte-derived hormone implicated in energy homeostasis and obesity. Several genetic studies have observed evidence of association between APM1 gene polymorphisms and features of the metabolic syndrome, such as insulin resistance and obesity. As part of a comprehensive genetic analysis of the APM1 gene, we have screened 96 unrelated individuals for polymorphisms in the promoter, coding regions, and 3'untranslated region (UTR). Three promoter single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), two rare coding SNPs (G113A and T1233C), and 13 SNPs in the 3'UTR were identified. Eighteen SNPs were genotyped in 811 Hispanic individuals from 45 families in the IRAS Family Study (IRASFS). SNPs were tested for association with six obesity quantitative traits (body mass index, waist, waist:hip ratio, subcutaneous adipose tissue, visceral adipose tissue, and visceral:subcutaneous ratio). Significant evidence of association to at least one of the obesity traits was identified in seven of the 18 SNPs (<0.001-0.05). The promoter SNP INS CA-11156 was the most consistently associated SNP and was associated significantly with all measures of obesity, except the visceral:subcutaneous ratio (P-values 0.009-0.03). Haplotype analysis supported this evidence of association, with haplotypes containing an insertion of one CA repeat at position -11156 consistently being associated with lower obesity values (P-value <0.001-0.05). The adiponectin polymorphisms, in particular those in the promoter region, thus show significant association with obesity measures in the Hispanic population. Additional studies are needed to confirm our findings and determine which polymorphism causes the functional effect.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP)-1B, encoded by the PTPN1 gene, catalyzes the dephosphorylation of proteins at tyrosyl residues. PTP-1B has been implicated in negatively regulating insulin signaling by dephosphorylating the phosphotyrosine residues of the insulin receptor. The genetic contribution of PTPN1 to measures of glucose homeostasis has been assessed in 811 Hispanic subjects from the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study Family Study (IRASFS). Thirty-five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) spanning 161 kb and containing the PTPN1 gene were genotyped and tested for association. All 20 SNPs with minor allele frequencies >0.1 in a single haplotype block covering the PTPN1 genomic sequence show significant association with the insulin sensitivity index (S(i)) (P = 0.044-0.003) and fasting glucose (P = 0.029 to <0.001). In contrast, there is no evidence for association of PTPN1 polymorphisms with acute insulin response (a measure of beta-cell function). Haplotype analysis of eight SNP haplotypes that have independently been shown to be associated with type 2 diabetes risk and protection in Caucasian type 2 diabetic subjects are associated with lower (P = 0.007) and higher (P = 0.0002) S(i) and higher (P = 0.00007) and lower (P = 0.001) fasting glucose, respectively, in the IRASFS. This comprehensive genetic analysis of PTPN1 reveals significant association with metabolic traits consistent with the proposed in vivo role for the PTP-1B protein.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previous linkage studies have suggested prostate cancer susceptibility genes located on chromosomes 1, 20, and X. Several putative prostate cancer candidate genes have also been identified including RNASEL, MSR1, and ELAC2. Presently, these linkage regions and candidate genes appear to explain only a small proportion of hereditary prostate cancer cases suggesting the need for additional whole genome analyses.
A genome-wide mode-of-inheritance-free linkage scan, using 405 genetic markers, was conducted on 175 pedigrees, the majority containing three or more affected individuals diagnosed with prostate cancer. Stratified linkage analyses were performed based on previously established criteria.
Results based on the entire set of 175 pedigrees showed strong suggestive evidence for linkage on chromosome 17q (LOD = 2.36), with strongest evidence coming from the subset of pedigrees with four or more affected individuals (LOD = 3.27). Race specific analyses revealed strong suggestive evidence for linkage in our African-American pedigrees on chromosome 22q (LOD = 2.35).
Genome-wide analysis of a large set of prostate cancer families indicates new areas of the genome that may harbor prostate cancer susceptibility genes. Specifically, our linkage results suggest that there is a prostate cancer susceptibility gene on chromosome 17 that is independent of ELAC2. Further research including combined analyses of independent genome-wide scan data may clarify the most important regions for future investigation.