Hideki Murayama

Hirosaki University, Khirosaki, Aomori, Japan

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Publications (3)9.96 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Even though there have been some investigations into cellular responses induced by ultrafine titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) in vitro, the relationship between cellular responses and secondary particle size is still not clear. In this study, a stable and uniform TiO(2)-cell culture-medium dispersion was prepared, and cellular responses prompted by "ultrafine secondary particles" were examined. The TiO(2)-DMEM-FBS dispersion included secondary particles in which the secondary particle size was 100 nm or less. In the present study, a "secondary particle" was defined as a complex aggregate of TiO(2) primary particles, proteins from FBS and other medium components. Secondary particle size did not influence the cell viability. The TiO(2)-DMEM-FBS dispersion introduced to the human keratinocyte HaCaT cells caused weak intracellular oxidative stress and apoptosis. The cellular influence of ultrafine TiO(2)in vitro is caused by the following mechanisms: (1) Secondary particles are formed. Ultrafine TiO(2) particles dispersed in medium immediately form secondary particles with proteins and salts. (2) "Ultrafine" secondary particles are taken up by the cells. The secondary particles reach the cells by diffusion and/or sedimentation and are taken up by the cells, through endocytosis. (3) Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level increases. Internalized secondary particles induce an increase in intracellular reactive oxygen species levels, although the secondary particles do not break up in the cell. In the case of ultrafine TiO(2), the increase of the intracellular ROS level was minimal. Moreover, the antioxidation system of cells such as glutathione was working. (4) Apoptotic cell death is induced. An accumulation of oxidative stress activates the apoptotic pathway (such as the caspase-3) and subsequently induces apoptotic cell death. After 24h of exposure to TiO(2), the percentage of apoptotic cells was only 6-7%. As a result, although the ultrafine TiO(2) particles induce some cellular responses, these cellular responses to ultrafine TiO(2) are weaker than those of other cytotoxic ultrafine metal oxide particles, such as nickel oxide.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2010 · Toxicology in Vitro
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    ABSTRACT: Nickel oxide (NiO) is one of the important industrial materials used in electronic substrates and for ceramic engineering. Advancements in industrial technology have enabled the manufacture of ultrafine NiO particles. On the other hand, it is well-known that nickel compounds exert toxic effects. The toxicity of nickel compounds is mainly caused by nickel ions (Ni(2+)). However, the ion release properties of ultrafine NiO particles are still unclear. In the present study, the influences of ultrafine NiO particles on cell viability were examined in vitro to obtain fundamental data for the biological effects of ultrafine green NiO and ultrafine black NiO. Ultrafine NiO particles showed higher cytotoxicities toward human keratinocyte HaCaT cells and human lung carcinoma A549 cells than fine NiO particles and also showed higher solubilities in culture medium (Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum) than fine NiO particles. In particular, the concentration of Ni(2+) released into the culture medium by ultrafine green NiO was 150-fold higher than that released by fine green NiO. The concentrations of Ni(2+) released by both types of NiO particles in an aqueous solution containing amino acids were remarkably higher than those released by NiO particles in water. Moreover, we prepared a uniform and stable dispersion of ultrafine black NiO in culture medium and examined its influence on cell viability in comparison with that of NiCl(2), a soluble nickel compound. A medium exchange after 6 h of exposure resulted in a loss of cytotoxicity in the cells exposed to NiCl(2), whereas cytotoxicity was retained in the cells exposed to NiO. Transmission electron microscope observations revealed uptake of both ultrafine and fine NiO particles into HaCaT cells. Taken together, the present results suggest that the intracellular Ni(2+) release could be an important factor that determines the cytotoxicity of NiO. Ultrafine NiO is more cytotoxic than fine NiO in vitro.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2009 · Chemical Research in Toxicology
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    ABSTRACT: Many investigations about the cellular response by metal oxide nanoparticles in vitro have been reported. However, the influence of the adsorption ability of metal oxide nanoparticles toward cells is unknown. The aim of this study is to understand the influence of adsorption by metal oxide nanoparticles on the cell viability in vitro. The adsorption abilities of six kinds of metal oxide nanoparticles, namely, NiO, ZnO, TiO2, CeO2, SiO2, and Fe2O3, to Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium supplemented with a 10% fetal bovine serum (DMEM-FBS) component such as serum proteins and Ca2) were estimated. All of the metal oxide nanoparticles adsorbed proteins and Ca2+ in the DMEM-FBS; in particular, TiO2, CeO2, and ZnO showed strong adsorption abilities. Furthermore, the influence of the depletion of medium components by adsorption to metal oxide nanoparticles on cell viability and proliferation was examined. The particles were removed from the dispersion by centrifugation, and the supernatant was applied to the cells. Both the cell viability and the proliferation of human keratinocyte HaCaT cells and human lung carcinoma A549 cells were affected by the supernatant. In particular, cell proliferation was strongly inhibited by the supernatant of TiO2 and CeO2 dispersions. The supernatant showed depletion of serum proteins and Ca2+ by adsorption to metal oxide nanoparticles. When the adsorption effect was blocked by the pretreatment of particles with FBS, the inhibitory effect was lost. However, in NiO and ZnO, which showed ion release, a decrease of inhibitory effect by pretreatment was not shown. Furthermore, the association of the primary particle size and adsorption ability was examined in TiO2. The adsorption ability of TiO2 depended on the primary particle size. The TiO2 nanoparticles were size dependently absorbed with proteins and Ca2+, thereby inducing cytotoxicity. In conclusion, the adsorption ability of metal oxide nanoparticles is an important factor for the estimation of cytotoxicity in vitro for low-toxicity materials.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2009 · Chemical Research in Toxicology