Yoshihisa Nakano

Osaka Shoin Women's College, Ōsaka, Ōsaka, Japan

Are you Yoshihisa Nakano?

Claim your profile

Publications (212)398.3 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Euglena gracilis produces wax ester under hypoxic and anaerobic culture conditions with a net synthesis of ATP. In wax ester fermentation, fatty acids are synthesized by reversing beta-oxidation in mitochondria. A major species of wax ester produced by E. gracilis is myristyl myristate (14:0-14:0Alc). Because of its shorter carbon chain length with saturated compounds, biodiesel produced from E. gracilis wax ester may have good cold flow properties with high oxidative stability. We reasoned that a slight metabolic modification would enable E. gracilis to produce a biofuel of ideal composition. In order to produce wax ester with shorter acyl chain length, we focused on isozymes of the enzyme 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase (KAT), a condensing enzyme of the mitochondrial fatty acid synthesis pathway in E. gracilis. We performed a gene silencing study of KAT isozymes in E. gracilis. Six KAT isozymes were identified in the E. gracilis EST database, and silencing any three of them (EgKAT1-3) altered the wax ester amount and composition. In particular, silencing EgKAT1 induced a significant compositional shift to shorter carbon chain lengths in wax ester. A model fuel mixture inferred from the composition of wax ester in EgKAT1-silenced cells showed a significant decrease in melting point compared to that of the control cells.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · Lipids
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Androgen receptor (AR) signaling is the master regulator of prostate cell growth. Here, to better understand AR signaling, we searched for AR-interacting proteins by yeast two-hybrid screening and identified protein arginine methyltransferase 10 (PRMT10) as one of the interacting proteins. PRMT10 was highly expressed in reproductive tissues, such as prostate. Immunostaining showed that PRMT10 was expressed in the nucleus of both epithelia and stroma of rat prostate. In human prostate cancer LNCaP cells, PRMT10 co-immunoprecipitated with AR in both the presence and absence of dihydrotestosterone (DHT). Knockdown of PRMT10 by siRNA decreased DHT-dependent LNCaP cell growth and induction of prostate-specific antigen, an AR-target gene, without apparent loss of AR. DHT decreased PRMT10 at both the mRNA and protein levels. The decrease in PRMT10 was canceled by knockdown of AR or an AR antagonist. These results indicate that PRMT10 plays an important role in androgen-dependent proliferation of prostate cancer cells.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2015 · Bioscience Biotechnology and Biochemistry
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Androgen receptor (AR) is known to bind to the same cis-element that glucocorticoid receptor (GR) binds to. However, the effects of androgen signaling on glucocorticoid signaling have not yet been elucidated. Here, we investigated the effects of testosterone on dexamethasone (DEX, a synthetic glucocorticoid)-induced apoptosis of pancreatic â-cells, which might be involved in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus in males. We used INS-1 #6 cells, which were isolated from the INS-1 pancreatic â-cell line and which express high levels of AR. Testosterone and dihydrotestosterone inhibited apoptosis induced by DEX in INS-1 #6 cells. AR knockdown and the AR antagonist hydroxyflutamide each diminished the anti-apoptotic effects of testosterone. AR was localized in the nucleus of both INS-1 #6 cells and pancreatic â-cells of male rats. Induction of thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP) is known to cause pro-apoptotic effects in â-cells. Testosterone suppressed the DEX-induced increase of TXNIP at the transcriptional level. A Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays showed that both AR and GR competitively bound to the TXNIP promoter in ligand-dependent manners. Recombinant DNA-binding domain of AR bound to the same cis-element of the TXNIP promoter that GR binds to. Our results show that AR and GR competitively bind to the same cis-element of TXNIP promoter as a silencer and enhancer, respectively. These results indicate that androgen signaling functionally competes with glucocorticoid signaling in pancreatic â-cell apoptosis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
    No preview · Article · Jan 2015 · Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Methylmalonyl-CoA mutase (MCM) requires 5'-deoxyadenosylcobalamin (AdoCbl) as a cofactor and is widely distributed in organisms from bacteria and animals. Although genes encoding putative MCMs are present in many archaea, they are separately encoded in large and small subunits. The large and small subunits of archaeal MCM are similar to the catalytic and AdoCbl-binding domains of human MCM, respectively. In Pyrococcus horikoshii OT3, putative genes PH1306 and PH0275 encode the large and small subunits, respectively. Because information on archaeal MCM is extremely restricted, we examined the functional and structural characteristics of P. horikoshii MCM. Reconstitution experiments using recombinant PH0275 and PH1306 showed that these proteins assemble in equimolar ratios and form of heterotetrameric complexes in the presence of AdoCbl. Subsequent immunoprecipitation experiments using anti-PH0275 and anti-PH1306 antibodies suggested that PH0275 and PH1306 form a complex in P. horikoshii cells in the presence of AdoCbl.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2014 · Bioscience Biotechnology and Biochemistry
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Androgen-dependent prostate cancer inevitably progresses to incurable castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) after androgen deprivation therapy. Because castration-induced hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α enhances the transcriptional activity of androgen receptor (AR) at low androgen levels mimicking the castration-resistant stage, HIF-1α is expected to be a promising target for suppression of growth of CRPC. We investigated the effect of resveratrol (3,4',5-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene) on the growth of human prostate cancer LNCaP xenografts in castrated male BALB/cSlc-nu/nu mice (5 wk old). The mice were administered a control diet or a resveratrol diet (4 g/kg diet) for 40 d. The resveratrol diet significantly suppressed tumor growth compared to the control diet. In LNCaP xenografts, dietary resveratrol decreased the protein level of HIF-1α, but not the AR coactivator β-catenin, and reduced the mRNA levels of androgen-responsive genes. In the control group, β-catenin was predominantly localized in the nucleus with HIF-1α in LNCaP xenografts, whereas dietary resveratrol inhibited the nuclear accumulation of β-catenin. In hypoxic LNCaP cells at a low androgen level mimicking the castration-resistant stage, hypoxia-induced nuclear accumulation of β-catenin was inhibited by resveratrol. Furthermore, resveratrol repressed the expression level of HIF-1α even in the presence of a proteasome inhibitor and suppressed hypoxia-enhanced AR transactivation. These results indicate that dietary resveratrol represses nuclear localization of β-catenin by decreasing the HIF-1α expression, perhaps in a proteasome-independent manner, and inhibits β-catenin-mediated AR signaling; this contributes to suppression of tumor growth of CRPC.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2014 · Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: S-Equol is enantioselectively produced from the isoflavone daidzein by gut microflora and is absorbed by the body. An increase of pancreatic β-cell death is directly associated with defects in insulin secretion and an increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. In the present study, we demonstrate that only the S-enantiomer has suppressive effects against alloxan-induced oxidative stress in INS-1 pancreatic β-cells. S-Equol reduced alloxan-induced cell death in a dose-dependent manner, whereas R-equol had no effects. In contrast, no significant differences were observed between the enantiomers in estrogenic activity. The cytoprotective effects of S-equol were stronger than those of its precursor daidzein and were blocked by the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide. The cytoprotection was diminished when cells were incubated with a protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor (H89), but not an estrogen receptor inhibitor. S-Equol increased intracellular cAMP levels in an enantioselective manner. S-Equol, but not R-equol, induced phosphorylation of cAMP-response element-binding protein at Ser 133, and induced cAMP-response element-mediated transcription, both of which were diminished in the presence of H89. Taken together, these results show that S-equol enantioselectively increases the survival of INS-1 cells presumably through activating PKA signaling. Thus, S-equol might have applications as an anti-type 2 diabetic agent.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2014 · Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In this study, the vitamin B12 contents were analyzed in the edible portions of various shellfish (bivalves and snails). High vitamin B12 contents (30.5–53.3 μg/100 g wet weight) were detected in mussels, surf clams, bloody clams, and freshwater clams. However, scallops and abalone had extremely low vitamin B12 contents (0.1–1.1 μg/100 g wet weight) which was attributed to only the muscle portions being edible. These results suggest that high levels of vitamin B12 are accumulated in the viscera of shellfish. Vitamin B12 levels were also significantly higher in bivalves than in snails. The corrinoid compounds purified from all bivalves were identified as “true” vitamin B12 using liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization/tandem mass spectrometry. In edible snails, abalone, and pond snails, however, both vitamin B12 and pseudovitamin B12 (an inactive corrinoid) were observed to be the major and minor corrinoid compounds, respectively. Based on these results, we conclude that the whole bodies of these edible bivalves are excellent sources of vitamin B12 for humans.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2014 · Fisheries Science
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Resveratrol (3,4',5-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene) is known to enhance the cytotoxicity of the anticancer drug doxorubicin. On the other hand, breast cancer MCF-7 cells acquire resistance to doxorubicin under hypoxic conditions. In this study, we investigated the effect of resveratrol on hypoxia-induced resistance to doxorubicin in MCF-7 cells. Resveratrol and its derivative 3,5-dihydroxy-4'-methoxy-trans-stilbene, but not 3,5-dimethoxy-4'-hydroxy-trans-stilbene, cancelled hypoxia-induced resistance to doxorubicin at a concentration of 10 μM. Carbonyl reductase 1 (CBR1) catalyzes the conversion of doxorubicin to its metabolite doxorubicinol, which is much less effective than doxorubicin. Hypoxia increased the expression of CBR1 at both mRNA and protein levels, and knockdown of CBR1 inhibited hypoxia-induced resistance to doxorubicin in MCF-7 cells. Knockdown of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α repressed the hypoxia-induced expression of CBR1. Resveratrol repressed the expression of HIF-1α protein, but not HIF-1α mRNA, and decreased hypoxia-activated HIF-1 activity. Resveratrol repressed the hypoxia-induced expression of CBR1 at both mRNA and protein levels. Likewise, 3,5-dihydroxy-4'-methoxy-trans-stilbene decreased the hypoxia-induced expression of CBR1 protein, but not 3,5-dimethoxy-4'-hydroxy-trans-stilbene. Furthermore, resveratrol decreased the expression of HIF-1α protein even in the presence of the proteasome inhibitor MG132 in hypoxia. Theses results indicate that in MCF-7 cells, HIF-1α-increased CBR1 expression plays an important role in hypoxia-induced resistance to doxorubicin and that resveratrol and 3,5-dihydroxy-4'-methoxy-trans-stilbene decrease CBR1 expression by decreasing HIF-1α protein expression, perhaps through a proteasome-independent pathway, and consequently repress hypoxia-induced resistance to doxorubicin.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2014 · Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Mitochondrial serine hydroxymethyltransferase, l-serine: tetrahydrofolate 5,10-hydroxymethyl-transferase (EC, (m-SHMT) was extracted and highly purified from Euglena gracilis z. The specific activity increased from the crude extract with 10% yield up to 580-fold through the following steps: ammonium sulfate fractionation, DEAE-cellulose column chromatography and rechromatography, and affinity chromatography with l-lysine-Sepharose 4B. The molecular weight of the purified m-SHMT was 88,000 by gel filtration through Sephadex G-200, and 44,000 by SDS-PAGE. One mol of the purified enzyme contained two mol of pyridoxal 5′-phosphate (PLP), indicating that the enzyme is a dimer. Characteristics of the enzyme were examined and compared with SHMTs of other origins. The m-SHMT of Euglena gracilis z had l-threonine aldolase activity as did s-SHMT of the same origin in addition to the usual SHMT activity.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2014 · Bioscience Biotechnology and Biochemistry
  • Source

    Preview · Article · Jan 2014 · Food and Nutrition Sciences
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The mechanisms by which resveratrol (3,4',5-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene) elicits diverse health benefits remain unclear because the intracellular target molecules of resveratrol are poorly defined. We screened resveratrol-binding proteins from lysates of MCF-7 breast cancer cells using resveratrol-affinity resin, which was constructed by immobilizing 4'-amino-3,5-dihydroxy-trans-stilbene on activated CH-Sepharose. On SDS-PAGE, two bands were detected as proteins that specifically bound to the resveratrol-affinity resin. One of these, a 30-kDa protein, was identified as human carbonyl reductase 1 (CBR1) by hybrid linear ion trap/time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Similarly, recombinant CBR1 bound to the resveratrol-affinity resin in the absence of resveratrol, but not in the presence of resveratrol. Among its activities, CBR1 catalyzes a NADPH-dependent reduction of the anticancer drug doxorubicin to the cardiotoxin doxorubicinol. The effects of doxorubicin on viability of MCF-7 cells were enhanced by resveratrol, 3,5-dihydroxy-4'-methoxy-trans-stilbene, 3,4'-dihydroxy-5-methoxy-trans-stilbene, and 4'-amino-3,5-dihydroxy-trans-stilbene at concentrations of 1 and 10 μM. Resveratrol and these derivatives inhibited CBR1 activities to a similar degree at concentrations of 100 and 200 μM. However, 3,5-dimethoxy-4'-hydroxy-trans-stilbene and m-hydroquinone had no influence on doxorubicin cytotoxicity or CBR1 activity. Resveratrol inhibited CBR1 activity through an apparent mix of competitive (Ki=55.8 μM) and noncompetitive (αKi=164 μM; α=2.98) inhibition kinetics. These results indicate that (i) resveratrol enhances the cytotoxic effects of doxorubicin on MCF-7 cells; (ii) the moiety that contains the 3,5-dihydroxyl groups of resveratrol, but not the m-hydroquinone structure alone, is required to bind CBR1; and (iii) resveratrol acts as a mixed-type inhibitor of CBR1 activity on doxorubicin.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2013 · Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: Agarose is hydrolyzed easily to yield oligosaccharides, designated as agaro-oligosaccharides (AGOs). Recently, it has been demonstrated that AGOs induce heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression in macrophages and that they might lead to anti-inflammatory property. Nevertheless, the molecular mechanism of AGO-mediated HO-1 induction remains unknown, as does AGOs' ability to elicit anti-inflammatory activity in vivo. This study was undertaken to uncover the mechanism of AGO-mediated HO-1 induction and to investigate the therapeutic effect of AGOs on intestinal inflammation. Methods: Mice were treated with 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) to induce colitis. The respective degrees of mucosal injury of mice that had received AGO and control mice were compared. We investigated HO-1 expression using Western blotting, quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), and immunohistochemistry. The expression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) was measured using qRT-PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: AGO administration induced HO-1 expression in colonic mucosa. The induction was observed mainly in F4/80 positive macrophages. Increased colonic damage and myeloperoxidase activity after TNBS treatment were inhibited by AGO administration. TNBS treatment induced TNF-α expression, and AGO administration suppressed induction. However, HO inhibitor canceled AGO-mediated amelioration of colitis. In RAW264 cells, AGOs enhanced HO-1 expression time-dependently and concentration-dependently and suppressed lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF-α expression. Furthermore, agarotetraose-mediated HO-1 induction required NF-E2-related factor 2 function and phosphorylation of c-jun N-terminal kinase. Conclusions: We infer that AGO administration inhibits TNBS-induced colitis in mice through HO-1 induction in macrophages. Consequently, oral administration of AGOs might be an important therapeutic strategy for inflammatory bowel disease.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2012 · Journal of Gastroenterology
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Muscle atrophy increases the production of reactive oxygen species and the expression of atrophy-related genes, which are involved in the ubiquitin-proteasome system. In the present study, we investigated the effects of β-carotene on oxidative stress (100 μm-H2O2)-induced muscle atrophy in murine C2C12 myotubes. β-Carotene (10 μm) restored the H2O2-induced decreased levels of myosin heavy chain and tropomyosin (P < 0·05, n 3) and decreased the H2O2-induced increased levels of ubiquitin conjugates. β-Carotene reduced the H2O2-induced increased expression levels of E3 ubiquitin ligases (Atrogin-1 and MuRF1) and deubiquitinating enzymes (USP14 and USP19) (P < 0·05, n 3) and attenuated the H2O2-induced nuclear localisation of FOXO3a. Furthermore, we determined the effects of β-carotene on denervation-induced muscle atrophy. Male ddY mice (8 weeks old, n 30) were divided into two groups and orally pre-administered micelle with or without β-carotene (0·5 mg once daily) for 2 weeks, followed by denervation in the right hindlimb. β-Carotene was further administered once daily until the end of the experiment. At day 3 after denervation, the ratio of soleus muscle mass in the denervated leg to that in the sham leg was significantly higher in β-carotene-administered mice than in control vehicle-administered ones (P < 0·05, n 5). In the denervated soleus muscle, β-carotene administration significantly decreased the expression levels of Atrogin-1, MuRF1, USP14 and USP19 (P < 0·05, n 5) and the levels of ubiquitin conjugates. These results indicate that β-carotene attenuates soleus muscle loss, perhaps by repressing the expressions of Atrogin-1, MuRF1, USP14 and USP19, at the early stage of soleus muscle atrophy.
    Preview · Article · Oct 2012 · The British journal of nutrition
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The androgen receptor (AR) acts as a ligand-dependent transcriptional factor and plays a critical role in the development and progression of androgen-dependent and castration-resistant prostate cancer. Castration results in hypoxia in prostate cancer cells, and hypoxia enhances transcriptional activity of AR through hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α at low serum androgen levels mimicking the castration-resistant stage. However, HIF-1α is necessary but not sufficient for hypoxia-activated AR transactivation, and the molecular mechanism that regulates AR function in castration-resistant prostate cancer remains unclear. Here, we report that β-catenin is required for HIF-1α-mediated AR transactivation in hypoxic LNCaP prostate cancer cells under low androgen conditions. HIF-1α and β-catenin coordinately enhanced AR N-terminal and C-terminal interaction. β-Catenin accumulated in the nucleus in the HIF-1α protein-positive cells of LNCaP xenografts in castrated mice. In LNCaP cells, when HIF-1α was knocked down or was exogenously expressed in the cytoplasm, hypoxia-induced nuclear localization of β-catenin was inhibited. β-Catenin formed a complex with HIF-1α both in the nucleus and in the cytoplasm. Hypoxia increased the amount of a complex composed of AR and β-catenin, and knockdown of HIF-1α attenuated the recruitment of AR and β-catenin to the androgen response elements (AREs) of androgen-responsive genes. Furthermore, together with β-catenin, HIF-1α bound to the AREs in the presence of androgen. These results demonstrate that (i) HIF-1α and β-catenin coordinately enhance AR transactivation by accelerating N-terminal and C-terminal interaction; (ii) HIF-1α promotes nuclear translocation of β-catenin in hypoxia; and (iii) AR, HIF-1α, and β-catenin form a ternary complex on AREs.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2012 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
  • Source
    Naoki Harada · Kaoru Inoue · Ryoichi Yamaji · Yoshihisa Nakano · Hiroshi Inui
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The androgen receptor (AR) acts as a ligand-dependent transcription factor, whereas mutant AR lacking the C-terminal ligand-binding domain functions in a ligand-independent manner. In the present study we report that the C-terminal truncated AR, which we named AR-NH1 (the N-terminal fragment of AR cleaved in the neighborhood of helix 1 of the ligand-binding domain), is produced in LNCaP prostatic carcinoma cells. The AR-NH1 of ~90 kDa was observed in an androgen-independent LNCaP subline and was further accumulated by the proteasome inhibitor MG132. MG132 treatment caused the accumulation of AR-NH1 even in parent LNCaP cells. AR-NH1 was produced in the absence of ligand or in the presence of the AR antagonist bicalutamide, whereas AR agonists suppressed its production. AR-NH1 was detected with different AR antibodies recognizing amino acid residues 1-20 and 300-316 and was also generated from exogenous AR. Both siRNA-mediated AR knockdown and treatment with a serine protease inhibitor (4-(2-aminoethyl)-benzenesulfonyl fluoride) reduced AR-NH1 levels. According to the predicted cleavage site (between amino acid residues 660-685) and its nuclear localization, it is assumed that AR-NH1 functions as a constitutively active transcription factor. These data suggest that AR-NH1 is produced under hormone therapy and contributes to the development of castration-resistant prostate cancer due to its ligand-independent transcriptional activity.
    Preview · Article · Feb 2012 · Cancer Science
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Skeletal muscles express estrogen receptor (ER) α and ERβ. However, the roles of estrogens acting through the ERs in skeletal muscles remain unclear. The effects of 17β-estradiol (E2) on myogenesis were studied in C2C12 myoblasts. E2 and an ERα-selective agonist propylpyrazole-triol depressed myosin heavy chain (MHC), tropomyosin, and myogenin levels and repressed the fusion of myoblasts into myotubes. ER antagonist ICI 182,780 cancelled E2-repressed myogenesis. E2 induced ubiquitin-specific peptidase 19 (USP19) expression during myogenesis. E2 replacement increased USP19 expression in the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles of ovariectomized mice. Knockdown of USP19 inhibited E2-repressed myogenesis. Mutant forms of USP19 lacking deubiquitinating activity increased MHC and tropomyosin levels. E2 decreased ubiquitinated proteins during myogenesis, and the E2-decreased ubiquitinated proteins were increased by knockdown of USP19. Propylpyrazole-triol increased USP19 expression, and ICI 182,780 inhibited E2-increased USP19 expression. Overexpression of ERα or knockdown of ERβ enhanced the effects of E2 on the levels of USP19, MHC, and tropomyosin, whereas knockdown of ERα, overexpression of ERβ, or an ERβ-selective agonist diarylpropionitrile abolished their effects. A mutant form of ERα that is constitutively localized in the nucleus increased USP19 expression and decreased MHC and tropomyosin expression in the presence of E2. Furthermore, in skeletal muscle satellite cells, E2 inhibited myogenesis and increased USP19 expression, and diarylpropionitrile repressed E2-increased USP19 expression. These results demonstrate that (i) E2 induces USP19 expression through nuclear ERα, (ii) increased USP19-mediated deubiquitinating activity represses myogenesis, and (iii) ERβ inhibits ERα-activated USP19 expression.
    Preview · Article · Dec 2011 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Despite their structural similarity, hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α and HIF-2α have distinct functional properties and exhibit distinct spatiotemporal expression patterns, suggesting that the expressions of the two proteins are regulated by different mechanisms. To clarify the HIF-2α-specific regulatory mechanism, we screened HIF-2α-associated proteins in a yeast two-hybrid system and identified kelch-like 20 (KLHL20). HIF-2α, but not HIF-1α, interacted with KLHL20. siRNA-mediated knockdown of KLHL20 decreased HIF-2α protein, but not HIF-2α mRNA or HIF-1α protein. Depletion of KLHL20 decreased hypoxia-induced HIF activity, and consequently resulted in decreased expression levels of HIF-2α-responsive genes such as VEGF and CITED2. In contrast, overexpression of KLHL20 increased the expression levels and transcriptional activities of the O(2)-sensitive wild-type and O(2)-insensitive mutant forms of HIF-2α. KLHL20 siRNA also inhibited HIF-2 activity in von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor protein (pVHL)-deficient 786-O cells. These results indicate that KLHL20 is a novel player that regulates HIF-2α protein expression through mechanisms independent of hypoxia and pVHL.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2011 · Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Eucalyptus leaf extract (ELE) is rich in hydrolyzable tannins. We examined the effects of ELE and its constituents on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced liver injury in mice. Mice fed a diet supplemented with 1% ELE were intraperitoneally administered LPS. Six hours later, the serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities were significantly lower in the ELE-supplemented mice than in the controls; LPS-induced hepatic inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression was also suppressed. ELE lowered LPS-stimulated iNOS expression in cultured RAW 264.7 macrophages. Furthermore, the aglycones of hydrolyzable tannins, gallic acid (GA) and ellagic acid (EA), inhibited iNOS induction to a greater extent than did ELE (15-fold higher). When mice were fed a 1% GA or EA diet, the increase in the serum ALT and AST activities and hepatic iNOS expression in response to the LPS challenge were significantly attenuated. Thus, hydrolyzable tannins in ELE ameliorate LPS-induced liver injury.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2011 · Food Chemistry
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Hypoxia up-regulates the expression of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) in a cell type-specific manner. It is unknown whether this occurs in breast cancer. Here, we report that hypoxia up-regulates the GAPDH gene expression through breast cancer-specific molecular mechanisms in MCF-7 cells. Mutation analysis identified a novel hypoxia response element (HRE), in addition to the HRE found previously in prostate cancer LNCaP cells. Knockdown and overexpression of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α indicated that HIF-1 contributed to the up-regulation of GAPDH gene expression by hypoxia. Although chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and plasmid immunoprecipitation analyses revealed the presence of HIF-1α on the novel HRE in both hypoxic cell lines, a mutation in either the novel HRE or its 3'-flanking GC-box resulted in a reduction of hypoxia-increased GAPDH promoter activity only in MCF-7 cells. ChIP analysis showed that Sp1 bound to the GC-box in MCF-7 cells, but not in LNCaP cells, in normoxia and hypoxia. Knockdown of Sp1 reduced hypoxia-increased promoter activity and expression level of GAPDH in MCF-7 cells. These results indicate that in MCF-7 cells, the activation of HIF-1 on the novel HRE contributes to the breast cancer-specific hypoxic induction of GAPDH gene expression and absolutely depends on the presence of Sp1 on the GC-box.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2011 · Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The glyoxylate cycle is a modified form of the tricarboxylic acid cycle, which enables organisms to synthesize carbohydrates from C2 compounds. In the protozoan Euglena gracilis, the key enzyme activities of the glyoxylate cycle, isocitrate lyase (ICL) and malate synthase (MS), are conferred by a single bifunctional protein named glyoxylate cycle enzyme (Euglena gracilis glyoxylate cycle enzyme [EgGCE]). We analyzed the enzymatic properties of recombinant EgGCE to determine the functions of its different domains. The 62-kDa N-terminal domain of EgGCE was sufficient to provide the MS activity as expected from an analysis of the deduced amino acid sequence. In contrast, expression of the 67-kDa C-terminal domain of EgGCE failed to yield ICL activity even though this domain was structurally similar to ICL family enzymes. Analyses of truncation mutants suggested that the N-terminal residues of EgGCE are critical for both the ICL and MS activities. The ICL activity of EgGCE increased in the presence of micro-molar concentrations of acetyl-coenzyme A (CoA). Acetyl-CoA also increased the activity in a mutant type EgGCE with a mutation at the acetyl-CoA binding site in the MS domain of EgGCE. This suggests that acetyl-CoA regulates the ICL reaction by binding to a site other than the catalytic center of the MS reaction.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2011 · Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology

Publication Stats

3k Citations
398.30 Total Impact Points


  • 2009-2015
    • Osaka Shoin Women's College
      Ōsaka, Ōsaka, Japan
  • 1976-2015
    • Osaka Prefecture University
      • • Department of Applied Biological Chemistry
      • • Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences
      • • School of Applied Life Sciences
      Sakai, Ōsaka, Japan
  • 2007
    • Miyazaki University
      • Faculty of Agriculture
      Miyazaki-shi, Miyazaki-ken, Japan
  • 2002
    • Kobe Gakuin University
      • Faculty of Nutrition
      Kōbe, Hyōgo, Japan
  • 1997-2001
    • Kochi University
      • Research Institute of Molecular Genetics
      Kôti, Kōchi, Japan