[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Clopidogrel and prasugrel are antiplatelet therapies commonly used to treat patients with cardiovascular disease. They are both pro-drugs requiring biotransformation into active metabolites. It has been proposed that a genetic variant Q192R (rs662 A>G) in PON1 significantly alters the biotransformation of clopidogrel and affects clinical outcomes; however, this assertion has limited support. The relationship between this variant and clinical outcomes with prasugrel has not been studied. We genotyped PON1 Q192R in 275 healthy subjects treated with clopidogrel or prasugrel and 2922 patients with an ACS undergoing PCI randomized to treatment with clopidogrel or prasugrel in the TRITON-TIMI 38 trial. A meta-analysis was performed including 13 studies and 16,760 clopidogrel-treated patients. Among clopidogrel-treated subjects, there were no associations between Q192R and active drug metabolite levels (P = 0.62) or change in platelet aggregation (P = 0.51). Consistent with these results, in clopidogrel-treated patients in TRITON-TIMI 38, there was no association between Q192R and the rates of CV death, myocardial infarction, or stroke (RR 11.2 %, QR 8.6 %, and QQ 9.3 %; P = 0.66) or stent thrombosis (RR 2.4 %, QR 0.7 %, and QQ 1.6 %, P = 0.30), with patients with the putative at-risk Q variant having numerically lower event rates. Likewise, among prasugrel-treated subjects, there were no associations between Q192R and active drug metabolite levels (P = 0.88), change in platelet aggregation (P = 0.97), or clinical outcomes (P = 0.72). In a meta-analysis, the Q variant was not significantly associated with MACE (QQ vs. RR 1.22, 95 % CI 0.84-1.76) or stent thrombosis (QQ vs. RR OR 1.36, 95 % CI 0.77-2.38). Furthermore, when restricted to the validation studies, the OR (95 % CI) for MACE and stent thrombosis were 0.99 (0.77-1.27) and 1.23 (0.74-2.03), respectively. In the present study, the Q192R genetic variant in PON1 was not associated with the pharmacologic or clinical response to clopidogrel, nor was it associated with the response to prasugrel. The meta-analysis reinforced a lack of a significant association between Q192R and cardiovascular outcomes in clopidogrel-treated patients.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · Journal of Thrombosis and Thrombolysis
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: High on-treatment platelet reactivity (HPR) has been identified as an independent risk factor for ischaemic events. The randomised, double-blind, TRIPLET trial included a pre-defined comparison of HPR in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) following a placebo/600-mg clopidogrel loading dose (LD) immediately before a subsequent prasugrel 60-mg or 30-mg LD. Platelet reactivity was assessed using the VerifyNow® P2Y12 assay (P2Y12 Reaction Units, PRU) within 24 hours (h) following the placebo/clopidogrel LD (immediately prior to prasugrel LD), and at 2, 6, 24, 72 h following prasugrel LDs. The impact of CYP2C19 predicted metaboliser phenotype (extensive metabolizers [EM] and reduced metabolisers [RM]) on HPR status was also assessed. HPR (PRU ≥240) following the clopidogrel LD (prior to the prasugrel LD) was 58.5% in the combined clopidogrel LD groups. No significant difference was noted when stratified by time between the clopidogrel and prasugrel LDs (≤6 hs vs>6 h). At 6 h following the 2nd loading dose in the combined prasugrel LD groups, HPR was 7.1%, with 0% HPR by 72 h. There was no significant effect of CYP2C19 genotype on pharmacodynamic (PD) response following either prasugrel LD treatments at any time point, regardless of whether it was preceded by a clopidogrel 600-mg LD. In conclusion, in this study, patients with ACS intended for PCI showed a high prevalence of HPR after clopidogrel 600-mg LD regardless of metaboliser status. When prasugrel LD was added, HPR decreased substantially by 6 h, and was not seen by 72 h.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2014 · Thrombosis and Haemostasis
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We compared results obtained with the Nanosphere Verigene® System, a novel point-of-care (POC) genetic test capable of analysing 11 CYP2C19 variants within 3 hours, to an established, validated genotyping method (Affymetrix™ DMET+; reference assay) for identifying extensive and reduced metabolisers of clopidogrel. Based on genotyping, patients (N=82) with stable coronary artery disease on clopidogrel 75 mg daily were defined as extensive metabolisers (*1/*1, *1/*17, *17/*17), reduced metabolisers (*1/*2, *1/*8, *2/*2, *2/*3), or of indeterminate metaboliser status (*2/*17). Pharmacokinetic exposure to clopidogrel's active metabolite and pharmacodynamic measures with protein reaction units (PRU) (VerifyNow® P2Y12 assay) and VASP PRI (PRI) were also assessed. There was a 99.9% overall concordance of marker-level data between the Nanosphere Verigene and DMET+ systems in identifying the CYP2C19 variants and 100% agreement in classifying the patients as extensive (n=59) or reduced metabolisers (n=15). Extensive metabolisers had significantly higher active metabolite exposure than reduced metabolisers (LS means 12.6 ng*h/ml vs 7.7 ng*h/ml; p<0.001). Extensive metabolisers also had lower PRU (LS means 158 vs 212; p=0.003) and VASP PRI (LS means 48% vs 63%, p=0.01) compared to reduced metabolisers. Rates of high on-treatment platelet reactivity were higher in reduced metabolisers compared to extensive metabolisers (VASP PRI ≥50%: 79% vs 47%; PRU ≥ 235: 33% vs 16%). The Nanosphere Verigene CBS system identified 11 CYP2C19 alleles in less than 3 hours with a high degree of accuracy when compared to a conventional method, and was further validated against pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic phenotypes.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2014 · Thrombosis and Haemostasis
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Clopidogrel response varies according to the presence of genetic polymorphisms. The CYP2C19*2 allele has been associated with impaired response; conflicting results have been reported for CYP2C19*17, ABCB1, and PON1 genotypes. We assessed the impact of CYP2C19, PON1, and ABCB1 polymorphisms on clopidogrel and prasugrel pharmacodynamic (PD) and pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters. Aspirin-treated patients (N=194) with coronary artery disease from two independent, prospective, randomised, multi-centre studies comparing clopidogrel (75 mg) and prasugrel (10 mg) were genotyped and classified by predicted CYP2C19 metaboliser phenotype (ultra metabolisers [UM] = *17 carriers; extensive metabolisers [EM] = *1/1 homozygotes; reduced metabolisers [RM] = *2 carriers). ABCB1 T/T and C/T polymorphisms and PON1 A/A, A/G and G/G polymorphisms were also genotyped. PD was assessed using VerifyNow® P2Y12 and vasodilator stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) expressed as platelet reactivity index (PRI) after 14 days of maintenance dosing. Clopidogrel and prasugrel active metabolite (AM) exposure was calculated in a cohort of 96 patients. For clopidogrel, genetic variants in CYP2C19, but not ABCB1 or PON1, affected PK and PD. For prasugrel, none of the measured genetic variants affected PK or PD. Compared with clopidogrel, platelet inhibition with prasugrel was greater even in CYP2C19 UM phenotype. Prasugrel generated more AM and achieved greater platelet inhibition than clopidogrel irrespective of CYP2C19, ABCB1, and PON1 polymorphisms. The lack of effect from genetic variants on prasugrel AM generation or antiplatelet activity is consistent with previous studies in healthy volunteers and is consistent with improved efficacy in acute coronary syndrome patients managed with percutaneous coronary intervention.
No preview · Article · Sep 2013 · Thrombosis and Haemostasis
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This open-label, two-period, randomized, crossover study was designed to determine the effect of CYP2C19 reduced function variants on exposure to active metabolites of, and platelet response to, prasugrel and clopidogrel.
Ninety healthy Chinese subjects, stratified by CYP2C19 phenotype, were randomly assigned to treatment with prasugrel 10 mg or clopidogrel 75 mg for 10 days followed by 14 day washout and 10 day treatment with the other drug. Eighty-three subjects completed both treatment periods. Blood samples were collected at specified time points for measurement of each drug's active metabolite (Pras-AM and Clop-AM) concentrations and determination of inhibition of platelet aggregation (IPA) by light transmittance aggregometry. CYP2C19 genotypes were classified into three predicted phenotype groups: rapid metabolizers [RMs (*1/*1)], heterozygous or intermediate metabolizers [IMs (*1/*2, *1/*3)] and poor metabolizers [PMs (*2/*2, *2/*3)].
Pras-AM exposure was similar in IMs and RMs (90% CI 0.85, 1.03) and slightly lower in PMs than IMs (90% CI 0.74, 0.99), whereas Clop-AM exposure was significantly lower in IMs compared with RMs (90% CI 0.62, 0.83), and in PMs compared with IMs (90% CI 0.53, 0.82). IPA was more consistent among RMs, IMs and PMs in prasugrel treated subjects (80.2%, 84.2% and 80.2%, respectively) than in clopidogrel treated subjects (59.7%, 56.2% and 36.8%, respectively; P < 0.001).
Prasugrel demonstrated higher active metabolite exposure and more consistent pharmacodynamic response across all three predicted phenotype groups compared with clopidogrel, confirming observations from previous research that CYP2C19 phenotype plays an important role in variability of response to clopidogrel, but has no impact on response to prasugrel.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2011 · British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this analysis was to develop a population pharmacokinetic model for CS-917, an oral hypoglycemic prodrug, and its 3 metabolites. The population pharmacokinetic model was used to predict exposure of the active moiety R-125338 and thus to identify potential CS-917 dosage reduction criteria. The dataset included 6 phase I and IIa studies in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The pharmacokinetic profile of CS-917 and its metabolites was described by a series of linked 1- and 2-compartmental models. Simulations showed that moderate renal impairment has a clinically significant impact on exposure to R-125338. A separate population pharmacokinetic analysis of R-125338 alone revealed similar results. In conclusion, a population pharmacokinetic model fit to the active moiety alone yielded similar predictions and substantially reduced the analysis time compared to the more complex model developed for CS-917 and its metabolites. Increased exposure to R-125338 in the presence of moderate renal impairment may be an important consideration for dose selection.
No preview · Article · Mar 2011 · The Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Clopidogrel and prasugrel are subject to efflux via P-glycoprotein (encoded by ABCB1, also known as MDR1). ABCB1 polymorphisms, particularly 3435C→T, may affect drug transport and efficacy. We aimed to assess the effect of this polymorphism by itself and alongside variants in CYP2C19 on cardiovascular outcomes in patients treated with clopidogrel or prasugrel in TRITON–TIMI 38. We also assessed the effect of genotype on the pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties of these drugs in healthy individuals.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) models were developed to correlate physicochemical properties of structurally unrelated drugs with extent of in vitro binding to colesevelam, and predicted values were compared with drug exposure changes in vivo following coadministration. The binding of 17 drugs to colesevelam was determined by an in vitro dissolution drug-binding assay. Data from several clinical studies in healthy volunteers to support administration of colesevelam in diabetic patients were also collected along with existing in vivo literature data and compared with in vitro results. Steric, electronic, and hydrophobic descriptors were calculated for test compounds, and univariate and partial least squares regression approaches were used to derive QSPR models to evaluate which of the molecular descriptors correlated best with in vitro binding. A quadrant analysis evaluated the correlation between predicted/actual in vitro binding results and the in vivo data. The in vitro binding assay exhibited high sensitivity, identifying those compounds with a low probability of producing relevant in vivo drug interactions. Drug lipophilicity was identified as the primary determinant of in vitro binding to colesevelam by the final univariate and partial least squares models (R(2) = 0.69 and 0.98; Q(2) = 0.48 and 0.59). The in vitro assay and in silico models represent predictive tools that may allow investigators to conduct only informative clinical drug interaction studies with colesevelam.
No preview · Article · Oct 2009 · The Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to assess effects of colesevelam on the pharmacokinetics of glyburide, levothyroxine, estrogen estradiol (EE), norethindrone (NET), pioglitazone, and repaglinide in healthy volunteers. Six drugs with a potential to interact with colesevelam were studied in open-label, randomized clinical studies. The presence of a drug interaction was concluded if the 90% confidence intervals for the geometric least squares mean ratios of AUC(0-t) (AUC(0-48) for levothyroxine) and C(max) fell outside the no-effect limits of (80.0%, 125.0%). Concomitant administration of colesevelam had no effect on the AUC(0-t) or C(max) of pioglitazone but significantly decreased the AUC(0-t) and C(max) of glyburide, levothyroxine, and EE and the C(max) of repaglinide and NET. AUC(0-t) and C(max) of glyburide and EE, but not repaglinide or NET, were significantly decreased when the drug was given 1 hour before colesevelam. When glyburide, EE, or levothyroxine was given 4 hours before colesevelam, no drug interaction was observed. Although colesevelam has a cleaner drug interaction profile than other bile acid sequestrants, it does interfere with absorption of some drugs. A 4-hour window appears sufficient to eliminate these interactions.
No preview · Article · Sep 2009 · The Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Both clopidogrel and prasugrel require biotransformation to active metabolites by cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes. Among persons treated with clopidogrel, carriers of reduced-function CYP2C19 alleles have significantly lower levels of active metabolite, diminished platelet inhibition, and higher rates of adverse cardiovascular events. The effect of CYP polymorphisms on the clinical outcomes in patients treated with prasugrel remains unknown.
The associations between functional variants in CYP genes, plasma concentrations of active drug metabolite, and platelet inhibition in response to prasugrel were tested in 238 healthy subjects. We then examined the association of these genetic variants with cardiovascular outcomes in a cohort of 1466 patients with acute coronary syndromes allocated to treatment with prasugrel in the Trial to Assess Improvement in Therapeutic Outcomes by Optimizing Platelet Inhibition With Prasugrel-Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction 38 trial. Among the healthy subjects, no significant attenuation of the pharmacokinetic or the pharmacodynamic response to prasugrel was observed in carriers versus noncarriers of at least 1 reduced-function allele for any of the CYP genes tested (CYP2C19, CYP2C9, CYP2B6, CYP3A5, and CYP1A2). Consistent with these findings, in subjects with acute coronary syndromes treated with prasugrel, no significant associations were found between any of the tested CYP genotypes and risk of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke.
Common functional CYP genetic variants do not affect active drug metabolite levels, inhibition of platelet aggregation, or clinical cardiovascular event rates in persons treated with prasugrel. These pharmacogenetic findings are in contrast to observations with clopidogrel, which may explain, in part, the different pharmacological and clinical responses to the 2 medications.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Clopidogrel requires transformation into an active metabolite by cytochrome P-450 (CYP) enzymes for its antiplatelet effect. The genes encoding CYP enzymes are polymorphic, with common alleles conferring reduced function.
We tested the association between functional genetic variants in CYP genes, plasma concentrations of active drug metabolite, and platelet inhibition in response to clopidogrel in 162 healthy subjects. We then examined the association between these genetic variants and cardiovascular outcomes in a separate cohort of 1477 subjects with acute coronary syndromes who were treated with clopidogrel in the Trial to Assess Improvement in Therapeutic Outcomes by Optimizing Platelet Inhibition with Prasugrel-Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TRITON-TIMI) 38.
In healthy subjects who were treated with clopidogrel, carriers of at least one CYP2C19 reduced-function allele (approximately 30% of the study population) had a relative reduction of 32.4% in plasma exposure to the active metabolite of clopidogrel, as compared with noncarriers (P<0.001). Carriers also had an absolute reduction in maximal platelet aggregation in response to clopidogrel that was 9 percentage points less than that seen in noncarriers (P<0.001). Among clopidogrel-treated subjects in TRITON-TIMI 38, carriers had a relative increase of 53% in the composite primary efficacy outcome of the risk of death from cardiovascular causes, myocardial infarction, or stroke, as compared with noncarriers (12.1% vs. 8.0%; hazard ratio for carriers, 1.53; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.07 to 2.19; P=0.01) and an increase by a factor of 3 in the risk of stent thrombosis (2.6% vs. 0.8%; hazard ratio, 3.09; 95% CI, 1.19 to 8.00; P=0.02).
Among persons treated with clopidogrel, carriers of a reduced-function CYP2C19 allele had significantly lower levels of the active metabolite of clopidogrel, diminished platelet inhibition, and a higher rate of major adverse cardiovascular events, including stent thrombosis, than did noncarriers.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2008 · New England Journal of Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The exposure-response properties of metformin were characterized in 12 subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The time course of drug concentration and effects on fasting plasma glucose and lactic acid concentrations were used from a study in which subjects received 500 mg of metformin twice daily for 5 days followed by 850 mg twice daily for 5 days. Pharmacokinetic sampling included morning trough concentrations obtained on days 7 to 9 and rich sampling (15 time points) on day 10. Fasting plasma glucose and lactic acid concentrations were measured on days 0 to 10 and served as biomarkers of therapeutic effect and tolerability, respectively. A population pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic analysis was conducted using nonlinear mixed effects modeling. Metformin pharmacokinetics were described using a 1-compartment model with first-order absorption. Population mean estimates (relative standard error [RSE]) of clearance (CL/F) and volume of distribution were 79.0 L.h(-1) (6.8%) and 648 L (13.8%), respectively. Covariate analyses revealed that creatinine clearance (CL(CR)) significantly influenced metformin CL/F [CL/F = 79.0.(CL(CR)/80)(0.822)]. An indirect response model was applied to describe the antihyperglycemic effect of metformin. Population mean estimates (RSE) of baseline fasting plasma glucose and the drug concentration producing half-maximal effect were 241 mg.dL(-1) (4.6%) and 4.23 mg.L(-1) (31.0%). An empirical linear model was used to describe a slight progressive increase in fasting lactic acid during metformin treatment with an estimated slope coefficient (RSE) of 0.0005 mM.mL.ng(-1) (38.1%). Model evaluation by predictive check and nonparametric bootstrap analysis suggested that the proposed model is robust, and parameter values were estimated with good precision. Simulations suggested that the clinical utility of metformin was maintained over the dose range evaluated with respect to fasting plasma glucose and lactic acid response.
No preview · Article · Jul 2008 · The Journal of Clinical Pharmacology